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?7 



J 



PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA 



THE SOCIETY 



DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOLUME IV. 
BASSANTIN BLOEMAART. 




LONDON: 
CHARLES KNIGHT, 22, LUDGATE STREET 

MDCCCXXXV. 



Price Sewn Sfitlluif;a and SijjKnce, ftoimd in cloth. 



COMMITTEB. 



CA^rmm— Th« RifH Hon. LORD BROUGHAM. F.R.8.. Siember of the NiUobbI IpttfiuU of Fraaet. 

riM-CA«raM»->'nw RI^M Hod. LORD JOHN RUSSELL, M.P. 
TrrafMrcr— WILLIAM TOO KB, Xiq., M.P., FJL8. 



W. AIIm, Rm]., F.R. aad R.A.S. 

CapL F. Beftufort, R.N., F.K. and R.A.S., 

Hydrograplier to the Admiralty. 
Sir C. Bell. F.R.H.L. and E. 
O. Burrow*. M.I>. 
4. Boaham Carter. Esq . M.P. 
'file Rl. Rer. the Blahop of Cblcbeater, D.D. 
WlllUm CouUon, Eeq. 
R. U. Craig, Esq. 
J. Frederick Uaniell, Esq. F.R.S. 
J. F. Davit. Rnq., K.R.S. 
H. T. DelaBeche. Esq., F.R.S. 
Ru Hon. Lord Denman. 
T. Drummond, Eeq. R.E.. F.R.A.S. 
Rt Hon. Vi«c. Kbrlngton. M.P. 
air Henry Elll*. Prin. Lib. Brit. Mna. 
T. F. EIIU. Eet)., A.M., F.R.A.Sf. 
John EUlotaoo, M.D.. K.R.S. 



Thomas Falconer, Eiq. . 

I, L. Goldimld, Esq., F.R. and R.A.8. 

B. Gomperti, Eiq., F.R. and R.A.S. 

O. B. Greenough, Esq., F.R. and L.8. 

H. Rallam, Esq. F.R.S.. M.A. 

M. D. HUU Em|. 

Rowland HIU, Esq., F.R.A.8. 

Edwin Hill. Esq. 

Rt. Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhonte, Bart M.P. 

Darid Jardine, Esq., A.M. 

Henry B. Ker, Esq. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Kerry, M.P. 

Til. Hewitt Key, Esq., A.M. * 

George C. Lewis, Esq., A.M. 

James Loch, Esq., M.P., F.G.S. 

George Long, Esq., A.M. 

J. W. Lubbock, Esq., F.R., R.A. and L.8.S. 

H. Maiden, Esq. A.M. 



A. T. Malkin, Esq.,'A.M. 

James Manning, Esq. 

J. Herman Merlvale, £aq.i A.M., F.A.B.* 

James Mill, Esq. 

The Right Hon. Lord Nugea.^ 

W. H. Ord, Esq. M.P. 

The Right Hon. Sir H. Parnell, Bart, M.P 

Dr. Roget, Sec. U.S., F.R.A.S. 

Sir M. A. Shee. P.R.A., F.ltS. 

John Abel Smith, Esq., M.P. 

Right Hon. Earl Spencer. 

John Taylor. Esq. F.ll.S. 

Dr. A. T. Thomson, F.L.S. 

H. Waymouth, Esq. 

J. Whishsw, Esq., A.M., F.R.S. 

John Wood, Esq. 

John Wrottesley, Esq., A.M., F.R.A.8.' 



if /fea. 5f4^orAAJr»->R€T. J. P. JoDtt. 
4faf /eiea— Itev. E. Williams. 

Rer. W. Johnson. 

Mr. Miller. 
AthburioH^J, F. Kingston, Esq. 
BmnulapU.'-' — Baneran, Esq. 

William Gribbie. Esq. 
JM/oMt—Dt. Drummond. 
IN<sliMi->RcT. W. Leigh. 
Binn Ja^Aaas— J.Corrie, Esq.F. R.8. Chairman, 

Paul Moon James, Esq., Treamrer. 
Brf4|Mirf~Wm. Forster. Esq. 

Jamea Wlitlams, Esq. 
BHMol— J. N. Sanders, Esq., CktUrmmu 

J. Reynolds, Esq., TVeosarer. 

J. B. EstUn, Esq., F.L.S., Secre/afy. 
Co/eaifii— Lord Wm. Bontlack. 

Sir Edward Ryan. 

James Yonng. Esq. 
CmmMdfft^lUr. James Bowstead, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A., F.L.S. & O.S. 

Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.8. 

ReT. John Lodge, M.A. 

RcT. Geo. Peacock,M.A.,F.R.S.&G.S. 

R.W.Rothman.Esq.,M.A.,K.R.A.8.llt0.8. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick. M.A., K.R.8.& G.8. 

Professor Hmylh. M.A. 

Rev. C. Thirlwall, M.A. 
Caaferfrary— John Brent, Esq., Alderaan. 

William Blasters. Esq. 
Cttrdigiim—Rer. J. Black well, M.A. 
Car&4A?^Thomaa Barnes, M.D.. F.R.8.B. 
CarfMin*m»->U. A. Poole, Esq. 

William RobcrU, K»q. 
CAesler— Hayes Lyon, Esq. 

Henry Potts, K^q. 
iMeA€*ter-^John Forbes, M.D.. 

•• ce. iVn4y,^Ai*.:r/r 

Xe(r«^Johit Ora#fortC |!«(( 
• . ' Ml. Plata iVtrldaft •* • 
ToMit/rf— ^rtjiur U/cgory, Esq. 

• Vfnfi»wf»'~C'onth .M«Oo«ks, Ks<i. 

*:'rko^£i'|faiVv):sq. 

• D §Aj '4t^ph tHnitr, Esq. 

• .£d<irar(^,St(UlS*Rsc..M.P 



F.R.9. 



LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Dmnn^oft attd StoaeAoni*— John Cole, Esq. 

— Norman, Ksq. 

Lt.Col. 0. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S. 
iPlnrto— J oa. Wedgwood, Esq. 
EM9t9r—i. Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Miiford. Esq. {C9m9tr,) 
OtoBgoie — K. Finlay, £s(i. 

Professor Mylne. 

Aleisnder McGrl^or, Esq. 

Charles Tennant. ksq. 

James Cotrper, E«q. 
Otmmorffa»Mftir«'- Dr. Malkin, Cowbrldge. 

W. Wiiiisms, Esq., .\berpergwm. 
Gaenuey— F. C. Lukis, Esq. 
i/atf~J. C. Parker, Esq. 
Ktigklejft Yorkshire— Uer. T. Dury, M.A. 
Laumce$ton — Rev. J. Bartttt 
J.tamimgton ^pa— Dr. Loudon, M.D.. 
LeedM—J. Msrshall.JCsq. 
J.ewet—i, W. Woollgar, Esq. 
Xt»«ricik-~Wm. O'Brien, Esq. 
Lwerpool Loc. Au.—W. W. Gurrie, Esq. CA. 

J. Mulleneuz, Esq., Jrensarer. 

Rev. W. Shepherd. 

J. Ashton Yates, Esq. 
f.mdiow—T, A. Knight, Esq., P.H.S. 
Maidenhead— R. Gooiden, Esq., F.L.S. 
AfoUf/tfiie— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Case, Esq. 
AtalmeMAurp—B. Q. Thomaa, Eaq. 
Manchester Loe. Ae,—G. W. Wood. Esq., Ch, 

Benjamin Hey wood, Esq., 3Yeafiirer. 

T. W. Winstanley, Esq., //on. Sec, 

Sir G. Philips, Bart, M.P. 

BenJ. Gott, Ksq. 
JfosAam^Rev. George Waddingtoa, M.A. 
Merlhi/r TydvU—i. J. Guest, Esq. M.P. 
Minchinhamvton — John G. Ball, Esq. 
Mifnmouth—J, H. Moggrldge, Esq. 
A'en/A— Jolin Rowland, Esq. 
A'eiecru//e— Rev. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith, E«q. 
Newport. Isle of Wtght^kh, Clarke. Esq. 

T. Cooke, Jun., Esq. 

R. G. Kirkpairick, Esq. 
Veeepari PmgnJU—J, Millar, Esq. 



Newtown, Montgomerythire'-yf. Pugh, Esq. 
JVorwicA'-Richsrd Uacon, Esq. 
Oreett, Essex— Vr. Ciirbett, M.J>. 
O^ond— Dr. Daubeny.F.U.b. Prof, of Chem. 

Rev. Prof. Powell. 

Rev. John Jordan, B.A. 

E. W. Head, Esq., M.A. 

W. R. Browne. Esq., B.A. 
Peaaa^— Sir B. H. Malkin. 
P/ymottIA— H. Wooilcombe,Esq., F.A.S.,CA. 

Snow Harris, Esq., F.ll.S. 

£. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., j$ecrel<iry. 

G. Wlghtwlck, Ksq. 
Presfeiffm— Dr. A. W. Davies, M.D. 
Ripon— llev. H. P. HamiUvn, M.A., F.R<S. 
and G.S. ) 

Rev. P. Ewart, M.A. 
lt«MtfM— Rev. the Warden of. 

Humphreys Jones, Esq. 
Rpde, 7. qf /HgA/— SIrlld. Simeon, Bt. M.P 
Shefield--^. H. Abraham, Ksq. 
Shepton Mallet — O. F. Ilurroiighs, Esq. 
Kkrmmtkmrif—VL. A.Sisney, Ksq. 
SoalA Petherton—John Nicholetls, Esq. 
St. Aeaph — Rev. George Strong. 
Stockport— R. Marslaud, Esq., T^eMMrer. 

Henry Coppock, Esq., Seeretmrp. 
Tuoatoek—Rer. W.Evans. 

John Rundle, P;sq. 
Tnn — Richard Taunton, M. D. 

Henry SrweH Stokes, Esq. 
Tunbndge WeiU—Dr. Yeats, M.O. 
IForaMtfir — Dr. Conolly. 

The Rev. William Field, (/.ecaitnflea.) 
IFo/er/ord— Sir John Newport, Bt 
Woiverhomptwm—J. Pearaon, Esq. 
H^»ree«ftfr— 

Dr. Hastings, M.D 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
IFreirAam— Thomas Edgworlh, Esq. 

J. E. Bowman, Esq., F.L.S., rrs«««r«r. 

Major William Lloyd. 
Tarmoath—9. E. Rumbold, Esq. MP, 

Dawson Turner, Eaq. 
ForA— Rev. J. Kenrick, M.A. 

J. PbUfl|>a, Esq., F.R.8., F.0.8. 



THOMAS COATKS, Esq., Seeratary, No. »f, Lincoln*! Inn Fielda. 



THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA 



OF 



THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF 

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



I' . 



B A S 

BASSANTIN, or BASSINTOUN. JAMES, son 
of the * Laird of Basaintin in tho Mem,' (Merse ?) {Biog, 
Brit.) He was educated at Glasgow, and afterwards tra- 
velled, bat finally settled at Paris, where he taught mathe- 
matics and astronomy. Of his personal life we know no- 
thing, but that he was addicted to astrology, and gave Sir 
Robert Melville (see his memoirs or Bioe. Brit.) some pre- 
dictions a little aifter the time of Queen Mary's escape into 
England. He returned to Scotland in 1562 and died 1566. 
(See Astronomy, and place the date there given, 1557, in 
brackets ; it is the date of publication of a work.) He was 
of Murray's party, and a zealous Protestant. 

He wrote various works, as follows:—!. Paraphrase 9ur 
r Astrolabe, Lyons, 1555, reprinted at Paris, 1617. 2. Ma- 
thrmatica GeneihUaca, 3. De Mathesi in Oenere. 4. il/tt- 
sica secundum Platonem. 5. Arithmetica, To these works 
we cannot find dates. 6. A work on Astronomy, in French, 
< presently to be noticed,) translated into Latin by De 
Tourncs (Tornesius), under the title o{ Astronomia J, Bas- 
suntini Scoti, &c., reprinted 1613. 

There is also a Z>f>rot<r« ^f/ronoim^u^, published in 1557» 
at Lyons, and Lalande gives the title of a Latin version pub- 
lished at Geneva in 1599, and again in 1613, Delambre 
doubts whether this Discours Astronomique be any other 
than the original of No. 6 in the list above ; and we incline 
to think he is right, for, independently of the coincidence of 
c<liiors and dates, this Diecours Astronomique appears to 
be the work of Bassantin's which was best known. It was 
the only one in De Thou's library, and is the only one in that 
of the Faculty of Advocates, at Edinburgh. It is the only 
work mentioned by Weidler, while No. 6 is the only one 
mentioned by Vossius. Vossius observes that the original 
was written in very bad French, and that the author knew 
* neither Greek nor Latin, but only Scotch.* 

The trigonometry of Bassantin uses only sines. His 
]>lanetary system is that of Ptolemy, and he was much in- 
debted to Purbach. He adopted the trepidation of the 
equinoxes. (See Astronomy.) He used the sphere in 
actual computations ; and, in his treatise on the planisphere, 
appears to nave followed the plan, if not the work, of Apian. 
(See Biog. Brit. ; Delambre, Hist, de VAstron, Mod,, &c.) 

BASSEIN, a town and port in the province of Aurunga- 
bad, situated on the point of the continent of Hindustan 
opposite to the north end of the island of Salsette, in 19° 20^ 
N. lat., and 72"* 56' £. long. Bassein was once a city and 
fortress of importance, but, sharing the fate of many places in 
India, it has suffered from the wars and revolutions to which 
that country has been exposed, and is now fallen into decay. 

In the year 1531 Bassein was ceded to the Portuguese, 
under the provisions of a treaty concluded by them with 
the sultan of Cambay, and for more than two centuries it 
lemained in the undisturbed possession of that nation. In 
1 7-30 the town was taken by the Maharattas, from whom it 
was captured bv the British in December, 1 774 ; and in the 
fL>llowing March was formally yielded to its conquerors by a 
treaty made with the Maharatta chief, Ragoba. By the 



B A S 

treaty of Poonah, Bassein was, however, again relinquished 
to the Maharattas. In November, 1 780, the fortress was 
regularly besieged by the British army under General 
Goddard, and, after sustaining the attack for four weeks, 
surrendered at discretion. By the treaty concluded in May, 
1 762, with the Maharatta chiefs, Bassein was once more re- 
stored, together with Ahmedabad and our other conquests 
in Gtigerat, and the town long remained in possession of the 
Maharattas. In 1802 the Peishwa Bajee Rao fied to Bas- 
sein from his rival, Holkar, and sought the protection of the 
British government with whom he concluded a treaty on the 
last day of that year. It was hoped that this treaty would 
have broken up the federal union of the Maharatta chiefs, 
by separating mm it the Peishwa, who had been its nominal 
head ; but uiis chief having subseouently been induced to 
join bis former rivals and to organize with them a plan of 
hostility to the Enslish, the whole of his territories were de- 
clared forfeited* and were taken into possession by the Com- 
pany *8 government in June, 1 818, he becoming a stipendiary 
of tnat govemmcmt, and recognizing this appropriation of 
his territories. Bassein has since that time remained in 
the hands of the English, under whom the fortifications 
have been allowed to f^o to decay, and the town and port 
have become of little importance. At a recent date, the 
tovm contained a great number of houses in ruins. 

The state of cultivation exhibited in the surrounding 
country is, on the contrary, flourishing. To the north and 
north-^ast of Bassein are forests of teak-wood, firom which 
the ship-building establishments at Bombay are supplied. 
A considerable part of the agricultural population are pro- 
fessors of tho Roman Catholic religion, which it is probable 
was introduced among them by the early Eturopean settlers 
from Portuffal. 

(Rennelrs Memoir of a Map qf Hindustan ; Milb^s His- 
tory qf British India ; Treaties presented to Parliament by 
command of his Modesty, 1819; Report of Committee of the 
House of Commons on the Affairs of India^ 1832, political 
division,) 

BASSETERRE is the capital of the island of St Chris- 
topher's in the West Indies. The town is situated on the 
south side of the island, at the mouth of a small river. It 
contains about 800 houses, many of which are very good, a 
spacious square, and a small church, and is defended by 
three forts. It was founded in 1623. The district of Basse- 
terre contains 17 square miles, with a population of 6620 
souls. It is divided into two parishes, St. George's and St 
Peter's, and sends six members to the assembly — the for- 
mer four, the latter two. This name was given by the 
French to the district firom iU being the lower portion of the 
island. The vale of Basseterre is exceedingly beautiful and 
well cultivated. The anchorage is in an open bay, and a con- 
tinual heavy surf beaU on the shore, which is a sandy beach. 
As this prevents any wharf or quay being erected, the good* 
are shipped in a boat called a * moses,' manned by expert 
rowers, who, watching the luU of the surf, pull on shore, 
laying the lyoadaide of \,\s» boat to the beach so as to roll 



No. 205, 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPiBDIA.) 



Vwh 1V.-B 



B A 3 : 

out or admit the cargo. Tbow uticlea which are packed in 
wBtor-light cuka, ai niln, Sm., are generally floated oS or 
on ihow. The town liei in IS" 19^ N. lat., 62° 494' W. 
lonf;;. ^«e Chbistophkk'i. St.] 

BASSETERRE (Guadaloupe), the miMt considerable 
town of the western ialand, and the centre of its commerce, 
lies on the western tide, near the aouth end of the island. 
It consists of one principal long street, running along the 
i«B-shore, and is defended bjr Forts-Roj'al and Matilda. 
The anchoraipi is in an onea n>ad, quite nnahelterod, and 
vetT iDoommodioua, and there ia a constant swell. 

This waatera ii^ad is divided hmgitudinall* into two 
parts, of which the western division is called Basseterre, 
and the eastern Cabestefre. > 

The town lie* in IS" 39^ N. lat., 61" 47i' W. long. [See 

GlTADALOnPlJ 

BASSETERRE, a imall town on the south-west point of 
the island of Marie Galant*. It ia defended by a imall fort, 
which liei in 1S° S3' N. lat, 61° 23' W. long. [See Makib 
Galahtk.] 

(Jefferies'i fFttI Tndit$ ; Bryan Edwards'i Wettlndin; 
ColorMan Naei gator.) 

BASSET-HORN, a musical instnimenl, which, notwith- 
Btanding its name, is a clarinet [see Clarinbt] of enki^d 
dimensions and extended scale, latd to have been invented 
in Gennany in 1?70, but known to have been produced in 
an improved state twalve years later by M. Loti of Pres- 
burg ; and subaequently, in its pt«ient perfect condition, by 
the brothers, Anthony and John StadW, of the imperial 
Austrian chapel. The basaat-hom is longer than the deri- 
net, and the bell end is wider. On account of its length, the 
tube, which eoikaiata of five ptecea. is bent inwards, fanning 
aveiTobtusa an^n. The soala of this instninient embrace* 
nearly tour octaves, — fhm c the second spaoa in the base, to 
Q in altitsimo, indudiog every semitone ; but its real potes, in 
relation to it* use in the orcheilr«i are (h>m | belgr the hue 

! -x : ■ ■■ — ~ ^ 

staff, iJ» I - tD Ct the aeoond leger I* | ~ 
J ~ line abova the treble^ ^ 

The ban«t-hom takes en intermediata plua between the 
clarinet and besaooa, and, on aemunt of its vast compass, 
mny perform the fanctions of both. Its capabilities and 
beauty ara strikinglv displayed in Hoiart'a Beqwm; and 
;_ .1 i^ f/^ ^^ HfloTt, in hi* CUmmza <ti Tito ; 



le great composer, who wall 



well as in other work* of the 
understood its valna. 

The Italian name for this itutrument, and that by which 
it is generally desigiialad in scores, ia cOmo te*nlio, or 
ralher low /torn, the terminatioa ttio being a diminutive. 
I'he unfitness of this term must st onee bs obvious : but, 
unhnppily. the musical nomenclatura abounds in ebicurily, 
absurditiea, and contnuUctions. 

BASSBVELDE. a commune and market-town in the 
province of East Flanders, four league* north of Ghent 
The market occurs weekly, and a fair is held every year in 
tlie month of September. The tanning of hides and oil- 
crushing ore carried on here, and lace-making gives em- 
pli^-ment to the fomaiet of the place. The soil oonaista, for 
the most part, of day and sand. Towards the south-east of 
the commune, the land ia marshy, and a eonaideraUe num- 
ber of cattle are kept The population in 1BS1 amounted to 
3750. lyieiatet'a Victionnmre OeograpAtque de la ftamlrt 
Orienttdr. 1834.) 

BA'SSIA, a genua of tropieal plants, belonging to the 
natural older Sapolttg, containing several interesting ape- 
ciea. It has a calvx of four or Sve leaves, a monopetaloas 
fleshy oorJIb, with iU bolder generally eight-parted, and a 
great number of stamena. The ovary terminates in a long 
Uper style, and contains fmn six to eight ORe.«Bwled cells. 
The fruit has a pulpv rind, with not more than three ot four 
eell^ the remaiiider being abortive. 

Th* species an fennd in the But IndiM and in Africa, 
where tbey ara oTgrwt •oonomioal importanee on account 
of the abnndaaoa of • aweet buttery aubaUnce which is 
yielded b^ their seeds when boiled. WeaballoMation brielly 
all ofwhidi anything usafbl is bwwn. 

Sa»ta MyroMB, the Indian butter-tiwe, afan the /Ukso, 
or Wu/waro-frw. ia faoud wild on the Almora hills in 
India, when it grows to a coBstdemble tise, ha trunk some- 
timta UMMziiig 1^ feat in hnskt, ud tTff w •« Oat in 



B A S 

circumference. It has broad, oval, long-stalked leaves, 
from six to twelve inches long, smooth on their upper sui' 
face, hairy on their under. The flowers, which are largo 
and pale yellow, hang down, near the tip* of the branches, 
from the axils of the leaves, and generally grow three to- 
gether. They are succeeded by smooth, pulpy fruits, about 
as large as a pigeon's egg, usually containing two or threo 
roundish light-brown seeds. From these is produced a 
fat-hke substance, which is a kind of ve^table butter, 
eoDcernin* which we find the following mformation in 
the Atiatte Retearehat, by Dr. Roxburgh r — ' On opening 
the shell of the seed or uut, which i* of a Bn« chestnut 
colour, smooth and brittle, the kernel appears of the size 
and shape of a blanched almond. The kernels are bruised 
on a smooth stone, to the consistency of cream, or of a fine 
pulpy matter, which is then put into a cloth bag, with a 
moaerate weight laid on, and left to stand till the oil ot/at 
is expressed, which becomes immediately of the consistency 
of hog's-lard, and is of a delicate white colour. Its uses are 
in m^ioine, being highly esteemed in rheumatism and con- 
tractions of the limbs. It is also much valued, and used 
by natives of rank, as an unction, for which purpose it is 
generully mixed with an utr (aromatic oil) of some kind. 
Except the fruit, which is not much esteemed, no other part 
of tiic tree is used. After the oil bos been expressed, the 
dregs are employed by the poor as food. This phulwara 
butter will keep many months in India without acquiring 
any bad Dolour, taile, or imelli and might no doubt be sub- 
stituted advantageously for animal butler. The timber is 
of no value, being nearly u light aa that of the Semiii, ot 
oottoa-trce tfiomtoc /uptaphf/mm). 



CBu^ bnljiKH.] 

Bmma longifolia, the Indian oil-tree, is a large tree, a 
gimd deal like the last, but its leaves are narrower, and its 
ttowers much more tleshy. It is a native of the peninsula of 
India, and is found in ^ntationa along the southern ooeat 
of Coromandel. where it ia called the lUupU-trtt. Its IVuit 
is yellowish, and yidds by pressure a valuable oil, which ia 
used by the poorer natives of India for thmr lamps, for soap, 
and, instead of iMtler oil, for cookery. Hm flowert also are 
roested and eaten by the Indian peaaanla, er braised and 
boiled to s jelly, and made into smell balls, which are sold 
or exchanged for Bsh, rice, and various sorts of small grain. 
The wooil is as bard and durable as teak, so that thia is one 



Bania Ittli/clia, the Hahtta, UadAaoa, or MuttooAa 



B A 8 



B A S 






1 






flfjO^ 



«)>• 



ir§9, has oUong toa^M^ aad a aovoUa with a vary pioittb*- 
rant tube. It u a native of the momitainoiia parti of the 
Ciroara and of Bengal* where it forma a middling-aUed tree. 
Its wood IB hard and atrong, and proper for the navea of 
wheeU ; its flowers are eaten mw by the nativee and by 
jackals, and they yield by distillation a strong intoKieating 
spirit From their seeds a oonsiderahle quantity of greenish 
yellow oil is obtained, which is found useful for the supply 
of lamps ; it is, howeveri inferior to that of the last speaee. 
It is curious that this oil stains linen or woollen oloth as 
animal oil does, while the fatty substance of the B, buty- 
fMcea possesses no such proper^, but when rubbed on eldui 
leaves no trace behind. 

A fourth spedes is believed to be the Shea-tree, or African 
butter-plant, which is so very important an article of African 
internal commerce ; and which it would apparently be ex- 
tremely desirable to introduce into the West Indies and 
Bengal, as a new source of internal wealth. This id the 
plant which is frequently spoken of by Park, particularly at 
pages 208 and 203 of his Traveh in Africa : — 

'The people weie everywhere employed in coUectiBg tne 
fruit of the shea*trees, from which they prepare a vegetable 
butter, mentioned in the former part of this work. These 
trees grow in great abundance all over this part of Bambarra. 
They are not. planted by the natives* but are found growing 
naturally in the woods ; and in clearing wood-land rof eulti- 
vation every tree is cut down but the shea. The tree itsrif 
very much resembles the Ameriean oak, and the ftuit* from 
the kernel of which, first dried in tha sun, the butter is pre- 
pared, by boiling the kernel in water, has somewhat the ap- 
pearance of a Spanish olive. The kernel is enveloped in a 
sweet pulp, under a thin green rind \ and the butter pro- 
duced from it, besides the advantage of its keeping the 
whole year without salt, is whiter, firmer, and, to my 
palate, of a richer flavour than tha best butter I ever tasted 
made of cow's milk. The growth and preparation of this 
commodity seem to be amongst the first objects of Afiioan 
industry in this and the neighbouring states, and it eonstx- 
tutes a main article of their inland commerce.' 

B ASSIGN Y, in France, a district pai^y included in the 
former province of Champagne, and partly in Le Barrois, 
now forming part of the department of Haute Mame. It 
was bounded on the north bv the district of VaH«^ in 
Champagne, on the east by Le Barrois and La Franche 
Comt6, on the south by Bouxgogne, or Burgundy* and on the 
west by Champagne. It was, according to ExpUly {Dic- 
tionnatre des Uaules, 1762), 16 leagues, or 44 miles long, 
and 13 leagues, or 35 miles broad ; but he does not state in 
what direction these dimensions were taken. The superficial, 
contents he gives at 155 square leagues^, or 1184 square 
miles. In the Dictiannaire Univenel de la France, the 
greatest length is given at 20 leagues, or 55 miles, ftom 
north to souUi, and the greatest breadth at 16 leagues, or 
44 miles ; and these dimensions are independent of a small 
portion of the district separated from the rest by a part of 
the province of Burgundy. Several important streams, as 
the Mouse and the Aube, take their rise m this district. ThS 
surface' is varied with hills and plains. The air is temperate 
and healthy, and the soil produces com, wine, and fruit. 
There is a considerable extent of wood, and good pasture 
land. Game* poultry, and fish are abundant. 

There are the vestiges of several Roman roads in this 
country. In the time of the Romans, Bassigny was inha- 
bited by the tribe of the lingones, fix>m whom the city of 
Langres derives its name. Langres (population in 1832, 
5960 for die town, or 7460 for the commune) was considered 
as the capital* but Chaumont (population in 1832, 6104 for 
the town, or 6318 for the whole commune) disputed this 
title with it. The most important places after these are 
Hontigny le Roi and Nogent le Roi ({lopulation in 18S2, 
2314 for the town, or 2401 for the whole commune), Le Val 
des Ecoliers* and Bourbon les Bains. The last-mentioned 
town contains about 35 dO inhabitants, and is celebrated for 
its mineral waters, and its vast military hospital for more 
than 500 men. [See Lanorbs, CHAtiiioNT, and Bourbon 
LBS Bains.] (Dietionnaire Umvereel de fa France; Ex- 
pilly, Dictifmnmre dee Gauiee, ^.) 

BASSO-RILIBVO. The Italian term basso-rilievo, or 
the French bas-relief, is commonly applied to any work of 
sculpture connected more or less witn a plane surface or back- 
ground, and in this general sense is opposed to insulated 

• The li9ue amrnvnt, or common league of the French, b the twcnty-fiAh 
putofadegiefb 



detached fignrss, or soulptare in the nmiid. In its mora par. 
tieular meaning haaso>rilievo, low or flat lelief, is usually 
appropriated to figures which have a very slight projeetion 
firom the ground. Alto-rilievo, on the other hand, is not 
only rounded to the fiill bulk* but has generally some portions 
of the figures quite detached; and meszo-rilievo (a style 
between the two)* although sometimes rounded to a eon- 
sideraUe bulk, has no part entirely unconnected with the 
plane suHkce or ground. A more aoeuiate definition of the 
styles to which these designations refer will result from the 
explanations that follow. The tenns used by tfie Greeks 
and Romans to distinguish these kinds of relief cannot per- 
haps be determined with complete accuracy ; and it may be 
here remarked, that those writers are mistaken who sup- 
pose the word Toreittike (roptvnKtf) to have been applied 
by the Greeks exclusively to alto-riUevo* since Heyne, and 
indeed other writers before him, have proved that tiie term 
was appropriated to carving, and chiefly chasing in metal* 
in anv kind of relief. The Latin word corresponding with it 
is e€Biatura, The Greeks seem to have employed the term 
anaglypta to denote works in relief in general ; and the 
ectypa scalptara of Pliny (xxxvii. 10) also means work in 
relief. The term glypla (from yXv^, to cut into, to hollow 
out), with other worcu formed from the same verb, appears 
to denote sculpture in the concave sense, intaglio. He- 
rodotus, in a passage of his second book (cap. 1 38), where 
we have little doubt that he is speaking of the sunk 
Egyptian relie& (which will be mentioned in another part 
of this article), couples a word formed firom the verb yXv^ 
with the word typus (rviroc) : typus itself (perhaps) always 
means a work in relief properly so called. (See Herod, iii. 
88. Cicero ad Atttcum, i. 10.) Italian writers of the time 
of Vasari* it iqppears, used the term meszo-rilievo for the 
highest relief* basso-rilievo for the less prominent, and 
ettacdato for the flattest or least raised. Whatever the 
origin of this kind of sculpture may have been, and there 
is no doubt of its being very antient, an idea will be best 
formed of its style, as practised by the Greeks, by supposing 
it to be derived from the partial insertion of a statue in a 
perpendicular plane. Alto-rQievo is ofiten literally nothing 
more than this. Applied, however, to a fiat surface* the 
disposition of the limbs, and the actions of the figure become 
necessarily more or less parallel with that surface, in order 
sufficiently to adhere to it. The attitude is thus* in a cer- 
tain degree, adapted or selected. In inserting or embedding 
a figure in a flat ground, it is obvious* that although it may 
be buried lese than half its thickness* as in alto-rilievo, it 
cannot be buried more, nor indeed (the structure of the 
figure strictly considered) quite so much, without ceasing to 
present the real boundary or profile of the form. In the less 
prominent kinds of rilievo it is therefore still required that the 
outline should present the real form, and this principle in its 
further appUcation excludes, in a great measure, the unreal 
forms of perspective and foreshortening, which would sup- 
pose that the objects are no longer parsdlel with the surface 
on which they are displayed. Attempts at foreshortening 
must in most cases fail to satisfy the eye. The work can 
only be seen in front, and the appearance it presents is 
therefore required to be at once intelligible, for no uncer- 
tainty caa be removed by an inspection fixim another point 
of view, as in walking round a statue. The bulk* or tfiick- 
ness, need not, however, be real, provided it sppear-sa The 
compression of the bulk, which constitutes the various de- 
gne» of meszo and basso rilievo, thus follows the compres- 
sion or flattening of the action, the charaoteristic of alto- 
rilieva Lastly, the modifications of which this branch of 
sculpture was susceptible, were adopted, as we shall see* 
according to the varieties of light, situation, dimensions* 
and use. 

The Greeks, as a general principle, considered the ground 
of figures in relief to be the real wall, or whatever the solid 
plane might be, and not to represent air as if it was a picture. 
The art with tiiem was thus rather the union of sculpture 
with architecture than a union of sculpture wiUi the con- 
ditions of painting. That this was founded on the most ra« 
tional principles will be evident from a fow simple considera- 
tions. The shadows thrown by figures on the surfoce from 
which they project at once betray the solidity of that surfoce. 
In the attempt to represent, together with actual projection, 
the apparent depth of a picture, or to imitate space, figures 
which are supposed to be remote are reduced in size ; but 
although thus diminished in form, they cannot have the 
strength of their light and shade diminished* and if deprived 

B2 



B A S 4 

of ibadow by ineonnderabla leliaf, they «aue tu b« amrent 
at r11 when the vork is teen Tram iti proper point of view, 
tint n, kt » nufficient distuice ; bavins no dutinctneu 
wbalaver in the absence of ootour, but by cdcbd* of light and 
■hsde. In ihort, the ut, thu* praeiued, hai no longer an 
independent •tyle. end oa\y betnyi iti inferiority by pre- 
MdUng deftcta whieh another mode of iraitation on inpply. 
A puMK« in Vitraviu* prorea that the anttenU wne not 
unacquainted with penpective ; and the same author (tares 
that perapeetive aeenio deeoratiDnB were Arst empbyed by 
Agawarciu at Athena, in the time of j£»:hylui. How- 
ever fH'eatly the leienae may have been advanced by the 
moderna. thii may be lufficient to prove that the absence of 
penpective in Greek bai»i-rilievi was not rrom an absolute 
■Knorauce of ita principles, but from a conviction that they 
would be tnisapplied in sculpture. 

In carefully keeping within the limits, however narrow, 
which defined the style of rillevo, the great artists of anti- 
quity failed not to cimdenie into that style the Utmost per- 
fectton compatible with it, while the vartoui applications of 



B A S 

ttu works auueatod abundant vuiety in their treatment and 
execution. The British Museum contains unquestionably 
the finest existing apecimeai of this branch of aculpture in 
the rilievi which decorated the Parthenon, or Templo of 
Minerva, at Athens. We have here to consider the judi- 
cious adapUtion of their styles for the situations they occu- 
pied ; but in regard to their general excellenoe as works 
of imitation, it may also be well to remember that thee« 
Bculptures were the admiration of the antienta Uiemielvea. 
Seven hundred yean after they were produced Plutarch 
spoke of them as ' inimitable worka.' 

The fif[uree which adorned the i>ediment are separata 
statues, although in their original situation, casting their 
shadows on the tympanum, they must have had the effect 
of bold alti-riUevi ; tlic circumstance of their bein^ thus 
completely detached must hnve given the greatest distinct- 
nesa to their forms, ami as Ihey occupied the highest part 
of the building, their gigantic kieo anil complete relief made 
them fully effective at a considerable distance. The sculp- 
tures which adorned the metopes, or spaces between the 



trigtyplu, an in alto-rilievo. Those in the British HuMnm, 
leprasiPting oombata with Cmtanra, wen taken liom the 
aoutb aide of the building : the subject* were varied on tho 
olbar sidea, but they moatly nlatod to the warlike esploits 
ofiheAtbeoiana. It haa been well obaerved thai the tnbjecti 
of eembat*. BBuaDycfaaMn br the metopes in Derio temples, 
■IMad opportnnitias of cotnpaeiiig the figure* so aa to pro- 
duce diagonal lino*, which effectually distinguished the 
gmipa ftam the aiehitecture, and at the same time had the 
effcct of raconciling the vertical (brmi of the thglypha with 
the borinntal Unes ot the enistylium and oomice. The 
cMBpoaiiioft* in question all fully occupy the space destined 
tat tbM, and are eafcolated, from their treatment and relief, 
lo piwiltie* the nlmost poaaible effect. Then works which 
received tlie open light were thus boldly relieved from their 
graonl tft ioMira tlie maaaai of shadow which make them 
eoaapteaova: the priticipla, ap^able to external architec- 
inra, that prcjaction eaminiind* shade, was thu* extended to 
external deeoniioas ; atid can seems to have been taken 
to keep the light on the flguKS aa unbroken as possible, 
••peeially as the whole setiei of metopes occupying the 
•xtaniml frieie wa* men or Ie«a craaaed by the sludow 
of the eomiee. This precaution oecescarily Irmits the atti- 
tttdas, ■» many Mtioti* equally natuntl with Ihoia adopted 



would have projected ahadows on the fleure itself, thus 
tending to confuse the forms. A statue which can be seen 
firom various points, and sometime* in various lights, might 
thus be unfit as to it* composition for that intelligible 
display in one view and under a constant light whirb 
rilievo requires. On the principle that high relief i* fittest 
for the open light, the rilievi of the temple of Pbig^eia, 
which Are also preserved io the British Moseum, are bold 
in their pn^tions. These works adorned the interior of 
■he cello, but aa tlie temple was hypeethraJ, or lighted fhim 
the open sky. the principles of external decoration were 
applicable. Had the temple been imperfectly lighted, a 
Halter kind of relief would have been preferable, and this 
leads us to consider the style of bosio-rilievo, properly so 
called, the most perfect existing specimen of which is also 
in the British Museum. It adorned the external wall of the 
cella of the Parthenon, within the peristyle or colonnade, 
and was coniequeiitiy always in ahoda : the strongest light 
it could ever receive would probably be the reflection from 
the pavement below when the sun was highest ; but as re- 
flected lighta are uncertain, and may proceed from various 
points, the sculpture* in question were calculated to be 
equally distinct in whatever direction the light was ihrotm, 
Tliair greet elevation, and the peculiar ongte at which they 



B A S 



B A S 



wore seen, owing to the narrowness of the space between 
the exterior columns and the cella, may also be mentioned 
in considering the reasons which rendered projection unad- 
visable. Tliat this confined view was not, however, the sole 
reason, may appear from the bold relief of the Phigaleian 
marbles, which, in the interior of the narrow cella of the 
temple they adorned, must have been seen, on the side 
Malls, at a very inconsiderable distance compared with their 
height. The Phigaleian temple was built, according to 
Pausanias, by Ictinus, the chief architect of the Parthenon ; 
and altliough the sculptures are inferior, as works of ar^ 
to the generality of Greek specimens, their style of relief 
is precisely the point where the architect may be supposed 
to have inttuenced their execution. 

As projection commands shade, so flatness commands 
light, and the flattest relief is hence fittest for an invari- 
ably dark situation. The same principle is observable in 
architecture in the treatment of mouldings in interiors, 
the form and projection of which differ materially from the 
corresponding members in the open light, and which are 
intended to be seen at a distance. The flatness which in- 
sures light would, however, be altogether indistinct and 
formless unless the outlines were clear and conspicuous 
at the first glance. The contrivance by which this is effected 
is by abruptly sinking the edges of the forms to the 
plane on which they are raised, instead of gradually round- 
in (^ and losing them. The mass of the relieved figure 
being sometimes very little raised in its general surface, 
its section would thus almost present a rectangular pro- 
jection. In many instances the side of this projection 
is even less than rectangular; it is undercut, like some 
mouldings in architecture which require to be particularly 
distinct, and thus presents a deeper line of snade. But 
if the figure can thus command distinctness of outline, not- 
withstanding the inconsiderable light it may receive, it 
is obvious that its lowness or flatness of relief will in such 
a lit^ht greatly aid its distinctness: above all, this contri- 
vance gives the work thus seen in an obscure situation tlie 
effect of rotundity. Indeed, it is a great mistake to suppose 
that the flat style of relief was intended to appear flat, and 
it is a great mistake to apply it in situations, as in the open 
air, where it must appear so, and be indistinct besides. The 
conventions of the arts are remedies, adopted in certain 
situations and under particular circumstances, and are sup- 
posed to be concealed in their results : their ultimate resem- 
blance to nature, and their successful effect in ^ose circum- 
stances, are the test of their propriety and necessity. The 
absence of all convention in alto-rilievo (as opposed to the 
flat style), thus fits it for near situations, if not too near to 
expose it to accidents. The excellent sculptures which de- 
corate the pronaos and posticum of the Temple of Theseus, 
although under the portico, are in bold relief. They were 
not onlv nearer the eye, and seen at a more convenient 
an^le than the flat rilievi of the cella of the Parthenon, 
but the reflected light which displayed them would neces- 
sarily be much stronger. 



Lateral portico of the 
Parthenon. 



End portico of (he Tenplis 
of Theaeua. 




It is also to be remembered that only the end porticoes, 
\% here the sculpture could be more conveniently seen and was 
better lighted, were decorated with rilievi ; the side walls of the 
c( lla were unomamented, and undoubtedly bold relief would 
have been less adapted for them. The Temple of Theseus 
was built about thirty years before the Parthenon; and it 
is not impossible that the satisfactory effect of the flat rilievi 
on the cella of the latter might have suggested a similar 
treatment, or some modification of it, in the Temple of 
1 he^eus, had it been erected later. It may be observed in 
p^-neral, that alto-rilievo can seldom be fit for interiors, not 
only from its liability to accident, but from the difficulty of 
displaying it by the full light which it requires. A super- 



ficial light, especially if in a lateral directian, necessarily 
throws the shadows of one figure on another. Instances of 
this occur in some of the palaces in Rome where works of 
sculpture have been injudiciously placed. A room, for ex- 
ample; lighted in the ordinary way will have its walls (at 
right angles with that occupied by the windows) adorned 
with a fHeze in considerable relief; the figures nearest the 
light consequently project their shadows so as to half oonceal 
the next in order. 

The conditions of proximity and distance, as well as the 
Quantity and direction of light, were carefully attended to by 
the Greek sculptors, and suggested new varieties of relief. 
The end of the art, as far as relates to execution, is accom* 
plished when the work is distinct and intelligible at the 
distance whence it is intended to be viewed. Hence the 
conventions which are intended to correct the defects of 
distance, of material, want of light, &c., are evidently un- 
necessary where the work admits of close inspection. The 
style of mezzo-rilievo, which in its boldest examples pre- 
sents about half the thickness of the figure, is, on many 
accounts, least fit for a distant effect: the figure is nowhere 
detached from its ground ; at a very little distance its sha- 
dowed side is lost in its cast shade, and its light side in the 
light of its ground ; the outline, in short, soon becomes in- 
distinct; but the semi-roundness of the forms is directly 
imitative, and thus again the absence of all conventional 
treatment fits the work for near situations. The style was 
preferred to alto-rilievo in such cases, as the latter would 
have been more liable to accidents, and would besides in 
some measure deform the outline or profile of any object 
which is circular in its plan. The figures which adorn 
sculptured vases are thus in mezzo* rilievo : these works pro- 
bably ornamented interiors where any indistinctness in tneir 
distant effect or in an unfavourable light might be obviated 
by closer inspection. Two specimens may be seen in the 
second isoom of tlie Gallery of Antiquities in the British Mu- 
seum. The celebrated Medicean and Borghesan vases, the 
finest known examples, are in like manner ornamented with 
mezzo-rilievo. The same consideration applies to all works, 
however unfit for a distant effect, which can, or in their ori- 
ginal situation could, only be seen near. Even the mixed 
style of relief in the sculptures which occupy the internal 
sides of the Arch of Titus at Rome, would hardly be objected 
to, since the objects representea are distinctly seen, and can 
only be seen, at the distance of a few feet The style of 
semi-relief (much purer than that of the Arch of Titus) 
adopted by Flaxman in front of Covent Garden Theatre may 
be defended on the same principle, since the utmost width of 
tho street is hardly a more distant point than a spectator 
wotdd naturally retire to in order to see them conveniently. 
The still flatter style which has been introduced on the ex- 
terior of several buildings in London cannot, however, be de- 
fended on any grounds ; and tliere can be no doubt, from the 
reasons adduced, that bold relief is generally fittest for the 
open light The mezzi rilievi on the miniature choragic 
monument of Lysicrates (casts from them are in the British 
Museum) may be admitted to have been fitly calculated for 
their situation because they must have been seen near; but 
there was in this case an additional consideration to be 
attended to; the building is circular, and alto-rilievo was 
avoided in order to preserve the architectural profile : on the 
other hand, the frieze of the small temple of V ictorv, which 
was rectangular, was adorned with alti-rilievi ; and in this 
case it appears that they did not even extend to the angles. 
The objections to sculpture on monumental columns will be 
obvious from these considerations; it has been observed, 
that in attempting to preserve the architectural profile, as in 
the Trajan colunm, and its modern rival in the Place Ven- 
ddme at Paris, the sculpture thus slightly relieved soon 
becomes indistinct, nor indeed would this indistinctness be 
obviated at a considerable height even by alto-rilievo, the 
figures being necessarily small, while the evil is only in- 
creased by substituting the dark material of bronze for 
marble. 

We proceed to consider the varieties of style in this art as 
affecting composition. In rilievo, and in sculpture generally 
(a colourless material, or a material of only one colour being 
always supposed), it is evident that shadow is the essential 
and only source of meaning and effect. In works placed in 
the open air, and visible in one point only, as in the case of 
alto-rilievo, a certain open display of the figure is generally 
adopted ; the shadows, or rather the forms which project 
them, are so disposed as to present at the first glance an 



B A S 



B A S 



intrilifribto and etsily neogniifld appetfaaee, and the im- 
pouibtiity of changitif^ the point of view, or ehan|i^in|^ the 
%ht, as befbra ob«erved, limits the attitudes mora than in a 
8tatu(9» and, as will also appear, more than in a basso-riliero. 
For in the latter, howe>*er distinct the outtine is in which 
the chief impression and moaning of the figura reside, 
the shadows within the extreme oatlinet are in a great 
measure suppressed ; it is, in fact, b? their being ao sup- 
pressed that the general form becomes so distinct. This is 
also the case when one form is relieved on another; it will 
be seen that the nearest object is very much reduced and 
flattened in order that its shadow may not interfere with the 
more important shadows.of the outlinea on the ground, and 
hence it may often happen that the nearest projecticm is 
least relieved. It wiU thus be evident that, owing to this 




power of suppressing the accidental shades and preventhig 
them from rivalling or being confounded with the essentia 
ones, the choice of attitudes becomes less limited, and many 
a composition which in full relief would present a mass 
of confusion from its scattered and eaualiy dark shades, 
may be quite admissible and agreeaole in basso-rilievo. 
Accordingly the attitudes of statues, which ere generally 
unfit for alto-rilievo, freouently occur in the nat style. 
Visoonti even supposes that certain figures in the bafti- 
rilievi of the Partnenon suggested the attitudes of cele- 
brated statues afterwards executed; as, for instance, the 
Jason, or Cinctnnatua, and the Ludovisi Mars. As a re- 
markable proof how much the attitudes were limited in alto- 
rilievo compared with the flat style, it may be observed, that 
the contrasted action of the upper and lower limbs, winch 
gives so much energy and motion to the figure, is perhaps 
never to be met with in the fine examples of alto-rilievo, 
whereas in^he flat style it is adopted whenever ^e subject 
demands it In the annexed sketch of an early Greek 
basso-rilievo, representing Castor managing a horse (from 
the third room of the gallery of the British Museum), the 
action of the upper and bwer limbs is contrasted, as is the 
case in all statues which are remarkable for energy and 
elasticity of movement : the statue called the Fighting Gla- 
diator mav be quoted as a prominent example. This dis- 
posiUon of the lower limbs, or the alternate action in which 
one of the arms would cross the body, never occurs in alto- 
rilievo, because the shadow of the arm on the body or of one 
of tlie lower limbs on the other could then no longer be 
suppressed, as it is in this case, but would rival the shadows 
of the whole figure on the ground. Among tiie metopes 
of the Parthenon, the Phi^eian marbles, and the alti- 
rilievi of the Temple of Theseus, there is not a single in- 
sUnce of the contrasted action alluded to ; while in the two 
latter examples, the contrary position, or open display of the 
figure, reoeatedly recursi even to aameness, Itmust however 




be admitted, that this open display of the figure, although not 
presenting the most energetic action, is as beautiful as it is 
intelligible, and hence the finest exhibitions of form were 
quite compatible with the limited attitudes to which the 
sculptors thus wisely confined themselves. The olijections 
which compelled this limitation being however entiridy ob- 
viated in basso-rilievo, by the power of suppressing at plea- 
sure the shadows within the contour, we find the fulle&t ad- 
vantage taken of the latitude which was thus legitimately 
gained. 

A better example cannot be referred to than the flat 
rilievi already mentioned from the cella of the Parthenon. 
(See the next illustration.) The subject represents the 
Panathenaic procession, and although no perspective dimi- 
nution is admitted, several equestrian figures are some- 
times partly relieved one upon the other. The confusion 
which results from the number of similar forms in the repe- 
tition of the horses* limbs, as well as in the actions of the 
horsemen, must be admitted ; but perhaps the subject is 
thus better expressed than by a simpler arrangement, and 
this treatment contrasts finely with the single figures. In 
a procession of horsemen moving two or three abreast, we 
are at once aware Ihat the figures are similar, and the eye 
is satisfied, as it would be in nature, not in seareliing out 
each individual figure as if it had a separate principle of 
action, but in comprehending the movement and the mass, 
for one indicates the whole. Where the figures thus cross 
each other they are treated as a mass ; the outline of the 
whole group is distinct and bold, being more or less abruptly 
sunk to the ground, but the outlines which come within 
the extreme outline are very slightly relieved. In short, 
the principle here applied is precisely the same as that 
obsen'able in a single figure in the same style of relief : the 
outline of the whole form is distinct, or rather mo6t distinct 
where it is most important, and the internal markings are 
seldom suffered to rival it, but are made subservient to this 
general clTcct. The relative importance of the objects is, 
indeed, the only consideration which is suffered to interfere 
with this principle: thus loose drapery is sometimes slightly 
relieved on the ground, while a significant form is now and 
then strongly relieved even on another figure. In com- 
paring the slight varieties of treatment in these rilievi, it is 
to be remembered that the end porticoes were a little wider 
than the lateral colonnades. It is undoubtedly to this cir- 
cumstance that the difference of treatment alluded to is to 
be referred ; the figures in the end friezes are more sepa- 
rated from one another, and consequently somewhat more 
relieved than the compact processions on the side walls. 

The fact that these bassi-rilievi, as well as most of the 
sculpture of the antients, were partially painted, has been pur- 
posely left out of the account, because the very contrivances 
resorted to are calculated to supply the absence of colour. 
The custom in the best age of Grecian art of painting archi- 
tecture and sculpture may be defended or excus^ else- 
where ; it may be, however, here remarked, that while the 
antient sculptors added colour after having emplo>*ed ever}* 
expedient which could supply its want, the modems, in 
altogether rejecting it, often fail to make use of those very 
conventions which its absence demands. 

It appears that the principle of suppressing the relief 
within the extreme contour which, with the strong marking 
of the outline itself, mainly constitutes the style of baaso^ 
rilievo, was employed by the antients in works of consi- 
derable relief, in interiors, in particular lights, and probabW 



B A S 



B A S 




at some distance or elevation. The real projection which 
works thus strictly belonging to the class of bassi-rilievi 
may sometimes present, points out the essential difierence 
between basso and mezzo rilievo : a work, even if in very 
slight general relief, which has the parts that are nearest 
the most relieved, belongs to mezzo- rilievo ; while a work 
which has the nearest parts least relieved, constitutes basso- 
rilievo, whatever its general projection may be. In the 
former, the outline is thus less apparent than the forms 
^vithin it; in the latter, the outline is more apparent than 
the forms within it. The early Greek and Etruscan rilievi, 
which, however flat, have the nearest parts the fullest, while 
tlic outline is scarcely, if at all, rectangular in its section, 
biive thus the principle of mezzo-rilievo. They are even 
fitted for near inspection, and cannot be said to present any 
unsatisfactory convention; for the bulk, however really thin, 
is proportionate in its relief, and is so far directly imitative ; 
inasmuch as the eye consents to a diminished scale of bulk 
as easily as to a diminished scale of height, while the indis- 
tinctness of the outline has the efifect of rounding the form. 
Such works are besides fitted for near examination, be^ 
cause they can scarcely command any shadow. Various 
s])ccimen8 may be seen in the British Museum. 

The antique vases of Arezzo were ornamented with 
fi<;ures in this kind of relief. Certain silver vases mentioned 
by Pliiiy were of the same description. Tlie Egyptian in- 
ta<;Uo, ior so it may be called, rather than rilievo, belongs to 
the same style. The Egyptian artists, instead of cutting away 
the background from tne figure, sunk the outline, and 
sli<^litly rounded the figure, on the principle of mezzo-rilievo, 
within. Thus no part of ths work projected beyond the ge- 
neral surface, and the architectural profile was preserved. 
Tiiere are, however, many very antient examples at Thebes 
of (igures slightly relieved from the ground, somewhat on the 
])nnciple of basso-riiievo as practised by the Greeks, — that 
is, with the nearest parts least relieved, and with outlines 
rectangular in the section. Many of them, probably, in 
tlioir original situations, and when tne buildings were entire, 
ornamented interiors. Some Persian rilievi, in the British 
Museum, approach the same style. The Egyptian rilievi 
were painted in brilliant colours, and would have been in- 
etroctive in the open light without such an addition. 

The distinctions of the three styles of relief, according to 
Uie Greek examples, may now be tiius recapitulated. In the 
highest relief, oowever decided the shadows may and most 



<^ neeessity be, on the plane to which the figure is attached, 
the light on the figure itself is kept as unbroken as possible, 
and this can only be effected by a selection of open atti- 
tudes ; that is, such an arrangement of the limbs as shall 
not cast shadows on the figure itself. In basso-rilievo the 
same general effect of the figure is given, but by very dif- 
ferent means : the attitude is not selected to avoid shiuiows 
on the figure, because, while the extreme outline is strongly 
marked, the shadows within it may be in a great measure 
suppressed, so that the choice of attitudes is f leater. Mezzo- 
rilievo differs finMn both : it has neither the lunited attitudes 
of the first, nor the distinct outline and suppressed internal 
markings of the second : on the contrary, the outline is 
often lest distinct than the forms within it, and hence it re- 

auires, and is fitted for, near inspection. Its imitation may 
itts be more absolute, and its execution more finished, than 
those of either of the other styles. 

Most of the coins of antiquity are executed on the prin- 
ciple of mezzo-rilievo ; and though often far bolder in this 
relief than modem works of the kind, are treated in a mode 
corresponding with their minute dimensions, which require 
close examination. The outline thus gradually rounds into 
the ground, and is never abruptly sunk, while the nearest 
parts are most relieved. Thus, conventional methods are 
always wanting in works that admit of close inspection, 
where the eye can be satisfied without such expedients. 
The comparatively strong relief of the heads on the antient 
medals is again a contrivance for their preservation, and 
presents a new variety in the style of rilievo. Coins are 
exposed to friction, and the forms they bear are thus hable 
to be soon effaced. The earliest means adopted to prevent 
this was by sinking the representation in a concavity, in 
which it was thus protected. This plan was soon aban- 
doned, for obvious reasons; and the method ultimately 
adopted was that of raising the least important parts most. 
Accordingly, the parts that are rubbed away in many fine 
antique coins are precisely those which can best be spared ; 
the hair has generally a considerable projection, so that the 
faoe and profile are often perfectly preserved after 2000 
years : a better specimen cannot be adduced than the cele- 
brated Syracttsan coin representing the head of Arethusa 
or Proserpine, In addition to the propriety of its style, 
this head is remarkable for its beauty; and is dasaed by 
Winkelmaan among the eianiples of the higbest eharaeter 
itfferau 



B A S 



8 



6 A S 



The ordinary stvie of tnezzo-rilievo was also used for gems, 
and indeed for all works in this branch of sculpture which 
required close inspection, and needed no conventional con- 
trivance. A flat 8t}ie of relief, which is sometimes observ- 
able in cameos, was adopted only for the sake of displaying a 
subject on a different coloured ground ; the layers of colour 
in tne stone employed, generally the saidonvx, being very 
thin. The difference of colour in the ground has, however, 
the effect of giving roundness to the figures relieved on it, 
as if, their whole effect becoming apparent, the internal 
markings disappeared. The figures on the Portland Vase 
are treated on this principle ; and as it was intended to 
imitate a precious stone (for which indeed it was at first 
taken), the thinness of the outer layer of colour is also 
imitated. Such works, however, reduced to one colour in 
a cast or copv, are totally wanting in effect and style. The 
impressions urom intagli, or engraved gems, which were used 
for seals, are never in the flat style of relief ; but however 
slightly raised, are on the principle of mezzo-rilievo as above 
deflnea. The ^ems of Dioscorides, the finest of antiquity, 
are in mezzo-rilievo, and often of the fullest kind ; as for 
instance, the heads of Demosthenes and lo, and the figures 
of Mercurv and Perseus. The same may be observed of 
other celeorated gems, such as the Medusa of Solon, the 
Hercules of Cneius, &c. It is supposed that the same 
artists who engraved on gems, and who frequently inscribed 
their names, also executed the dies for coins. The latter 
are among the finest antique works of art ; but of the many 
thousand existing specimens there is but one which bears 
the name of the artist, viz., the coin of Cydonia in Crete, the 
inscription on which proves it to be the' work of Nevantus. 
It was observed, that in the antique coins the least important 
parts are the most raised, and the reasons which dictated 
this practice limited the view of the head to the profile ; 
but as the same reasons were no longer applicable in en- 
graved gems, the impressions from which could be renewed 
at pleasure, the front, or nearly front view of the head was 
occasionally attempted, and seems to have been preferred by 
Dioscorides and his school. The head of lo before men- 
tioned, considered with reference to this specific propriety 
of its style, as well as with regard to its general merits, is 
placed by Visoonti in the first class of antique engraved 
gems. Thus the most skilful artists of antiquity seemed 
to consider the style of any one of the arts to consist chieflv 
in those points which were unattainable by its rivals. It 
may be here observed too, that they generally limited their 
representation to the most worthv object, viz., the human 
figure, when the dimensions on which they were employed 
were necessarily confined. Indeed the principles of imita- 
tion itself were, as it were, condensed, and true character 
often exaggerated as the materials appeared less promising ; 
so that the genius of antient art is as conspicuous in minute 
engraved gems as in colossal sculpture. 

Mezzo-rilievo of the fhllest kind was also fitly employed 
(as well as alto-rilicvo, when in situations not exposed to 
accidents) to ornament tombs and sarcophagi. These 
wwks, placed in the open air, decorated the approaches to 
cities, as the sepulchres were always without the walls. 
The Appian Way was the most magnificent of these streets 
of tombs in the neighbourhood of Rome, and must have 
exhibited, literally, thousands of sepulchral monuments. 
Though generally the work of Greek artists, and often 
interesting firom being copies of better works now lost, the 
baste and inattention with which such prodigious numbers 
were executed, tended to degrade the style of their sculp- 
ture. In these rilievi, oven in the better specimens, build- 
ings and other objects are occasionally introduced behind 
the figures, thus approaching the spurious style of relief 
in which the effects of perspective are attempted to be 
expressed : a great variety, of various degrees of excellence, 
are to be seen in the British Museum. The greater part 
of what are called Roman bassi-rilievi are of this kmd, 
and raa^ be considered a middle style between the pure 
Greek rtlievo and the modem Italian. It was from antique 
sarcophagi, fine in execution, but with these defects in style, 
that Ninoola da Pisa, in the ISth century, first caught 
the spirit of antient art. Many of the works from which 
be is believed lo have studied are still preserved in Pisa. 
D'Aginooort gives a representation of one of the best 
In imitating the simplicity of arrangement, and, in a remote 
degree, the purity of forms which these works exhibited, 
the artist was not likely to correct the defects alluded to 
which had been already practised in Italy and elsewhere. 



Various degrees of relief, background figures and objects, 
and occasional attempts at perspective, are to be found 
in the works of the Pisani and their scholars ; yet their 
works, which are to be regarded as the inlancv of Italian 
art, and which undoubtedly are rude enough in work- 
manship and imitation, are purer in style than those of 
the succeeding Florentine masters, who attained so much 
general perfection in sculpture. The rilievi of Donatello 
are mostly in the style called by the Italians ttiacdato^ 
the flattest kind of mezzo-rilievo, according to the definition 
before given, which he probably adopted, as he worked in 
bronze, from the facility of casting; yet in such a style, 
commanding little distinctness from its inconsiderable pro- 
jection, he introduced buildings, landscape, and the usual 
accessories of a picture. But this misapplication of inge- 
nuity was carried still farther by Lorenzo Ghiberti, in the 
celebrated bronze doors of the baptistery, or church of San 
Giovanni, at Florence, which exhibited such skilful com- 
positions, in which the stories are so well told, and in which 
the single figures are so full of appropriate action. In these 
works the figures gradually emerge from the stiacfiato 
style to alto-rilievo. They are among the best specimens of 
that mixed style, or union of basso-rilievo witn the prin- 
ciples of painting, which the sculptors of the fifteenth cen- 
tury and their imitators imagined to be an improvement on 
the well-considered simplicity of the antients. In these and 
similar specimens the unreal forms of perspective buildings, 
and diminished or foreshortened figures, which in pictures 
create illusion when aided by appropriate light ana shade, 
and variety of hue, are unintelligible or distorted in a real 
material, where it is immediately evident that the objects 
are all on the same solid plane. Even Vasari, who wrote 
when this mixed style of rilievo was generally practised, 
remarks the absurdity of representing the plane on which 
the figures stand ascending towards tue horizon, according 
to the laws of perspective ; in consequence of which * we 
often see,' he says, ' the point of the foot of a figure, 
standing with its back to the spectator, touching the middle 
of the leg,* owing to the rapia ascent or foreshortening of 
the ground. Such errors, he adds, are to be seen * even 
in the doors of San Giovanni/ Lorenzo Ghiberti, like other 
Florentine sculptors, first learnt the practice of his art from 
a goldsmith, and the designs of the artists who competed 
with him for the honour of executing the doors of San Gio- 
vanni were submitted to the judgment of goldsmiths and 
painters as well as sculptors. 

The taste of the Florentines in basso-rilievo was thus greatly 
influenced by the prevalence of a style most appUcable to 
the precious metals, in which a general sparkling efllect is 
best insured by avoiding uniformly violent relief, which 
projects considerable sh&ows, and especially by avoiding 
unbroken flatness. The background is thus filled with 
slightly relieved distant objects, so as to produce everywhere 
a more or less roughened or undulating surface. The same 
end seems to have been attained in the antique silver vases, 
by the introduction of foliage. The style continued to be 
practised with occasionally greater absurdities than those 
before alluded to, and perhaps less redeeming excellence, till 
the close of the last century. The sculptor Falconet says 
of the antique bassi-rilievi, that 'howcN'er noble their compo- 
sition may oe, it does not in any way tend to the illusion of 
a picture, and a basso-rilievo ought always to aim at this illu- 
sion.* He leaves no doubt as to the literal meaning he intends 
by citing the Italian writers who applied the term quadro 
indiscriminately to picture and basso-rilievo. Sculpture in 
this country was indebted principally to Flaxman for the 
revival of a puier taste in the application of basso-rilievo 
to architecture. In works of decoration, intended to be 
executed in the precious metals, in which, as before ob- 
served, moderately embossed and general richness of aurface 
is so desirable, in order to display the material as well a& 
the work, he, however, united his own purity of taste and 
composition with an approach to the mixed style of relief 
practised by the Florentine masters, who, in this branch of 
sculpture, perhaps never equalled his shield of Achilles. 

BASSOMPIERRK, FRANCOIS DE, Marshal of 
France, and Captain-General of 'the Swiss Guards, wa^ 
bom in Lorraine, on the 12th of February, 1579. The 
family name was originally Betstein, or, as Mr.Croker con- 
jectures, Bassenstein— gallicised into Bassompierre. Hi^ 
education was, all things considered, excellent for the Ume» 
in which he lived : it reminds us, in many particulars, of 
Bfontaigne*s education, which that amusing writer ha^ 



fi A S 



B A S 



described in his Euayi^ being, like it, domestic, oonducted 
in a feudal castle in a remote district, and embracin;^ a 
much greater range of subjects than is comprehended in 
our modern ' courses of study.* Bassompierre tells us, for 
example, in his memoirs, among other particulars of his 
studies, that in his seventeenth year he devoted one hour a 
day singly to the study ' of law, of casuistrv, of Hippocrates, 
the ethics and politics of Aristotle.* and that, like our own 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury, whom he resembled in his ad- 
miration of the usages of chivalry, he prided himself on his 
early proficiency in martial exercises, particularly ' riding 
the <rreat horse.* 

In 1598 Bassompierre arrived, in the course of his 
travels, at Paris, having first visited Italy and Grermany. 
His reception at the court of France was flattering beyond 
example. His family was of the highest order of nobility : 
his father Had commanded a regiment of cavalry, called 
reiters (riders), under the French king, Henry IV., and, 
like his master, had been wounded at the battle of Ivry; 
and Bassompierre's person and address were those of a 
knicrht of romance. Bassompierre was first introduced to 
the French king's notice in a ballet, which some young 
courtiers had got up to amuse Henry on his recovering from 
an illness, in which the illness, and still more the mode of 
cure, were held up to laughter. Bassompierre took a part 
in the ballet, and quickly caught the attention of Henry. 
The result was a warm friendship on both sides ; and Bas- 
sompicrre became for life a devoted Frenchman. 

The incidents of Bassompierre's career are only interest- 
ing to the general reader so far as they illustrate the man- 
nors of the times. Bassompierre was young, ardent, and 
accomplished, and distinguished for his personal beauty and 
courage ; and the court of France was at that time one 
scene of gaiety, intrigue, and licentiousness. His career 
may accordingly be brietly described as that of a 'chartered 
libertine,' who united the wily arts of the courtier with the 
intrepidity of a soldier. In many respects the court of Henry 
resembled that of Charles II. of England. It is but justice, 
however, to the French king to state, that unbridled as he 
was himself in the indulgence of his amorous propensities, 
and baneful as was the effect of such an example upon the 
morals of his court, the general features of its profligacy 
were less sordid and disgusting than those which disgrace 
the history of 'the English court during the times which fol- 
lowed the Restoration. 

In 1609 Bassompierre was on the point of being married 
to the most beautiful woman in France, the daughter of the 
Constable de Montmorency. He was preferred among a 
host of suitors bv Mademoiselle de Montmorency herself, 
and had obtained the consent of her father and the king, 
who had not then seen the lady. In a few days afterwards 
Henry saw her, and, though then fifty-seven years of age, 
became * madly and desperately ' in love with her him- 
self. After a sleepless night the king sent for Bassom- 
pierre to attend him in his cabinet. ' I was thinking, 
bassompierre,* said he, 'that the best thing you can do is to 
marry the Duchess of Aumale and revive the dukedom in 
your Wn person.' • What, sire, would your Majesty have 
me marry two wives ?' was the answer. 'The truth is, my 
friend,' said Henry, * I am myself desperatelv, madly in love 
with Mademoiselle de Montmorency, and should hate you 
if you obtained her heart, while you would be sure to hate 
me if she fixed her affections on me. Now, I have too great 
a rci?ard for you to risk our friendship by your union with 
her, and therefore I tliink it better to give her in marriage 
to my nephew the Prince of Conde, who is young and a 
hundred times fonder of the chace than of the ladies. This 
union will be the solace of the old age upon which I am 
just entering, and I shall seek no thanks from her but her 
affection. I assure you I seek no more.' (Memoires, torn. i. 
p. 224.) Bassompierre knew that it was useless to refuse 
nis consent to this proposition, and he was too prudent a 
courtier to incur the loss of the king's friendship. 

Bassompierre served in all the civil wars, mostly of a re- 
lij^ious character, in which France was engaged in his time, 
and rose through successive steps to the highest military 
honours, having been appointed by Henry captain-general of 
the Swiss Guards, a high court appointment, and promoted 
to the rank of marshal in the next reign. He does not seem 
t) have possessed much military talent, and was distin- 
guished in the camp chiefly by his playful humour and 
cuurai^e. He assisted at the siege of Rochelle, under the 
eye of Cardinal Richelieu, and is reported to have said on 



that occasion, ' We shall be fools enough to take the pl«M 
for the cardinal,* meaning that the capture of that last 
fortress of the Huguenots would so strengthen the hands of 
Richelieu as to place the party of the queen-mother and the 
Guises at his mercy ; and the result proved that Bassom-- 
pierre was right. 

Bassompierre stood so high in the favour of the indolent 
monarch, Louis XIIL, as to convert the favourite Luynes 
into a fierce enemy. After some coqueting and countermin- 
ing on both sides, Luynes succeeded in inducing Louis to 
give Bassompierre a cold reception at court. Bassompierre^ 
sought an explanation with the favourite. Luynes told him 
frankly that ho was jealous of his influence with the king; 
that he (Bassompierre) must see, from the reception he had 
met with, that he had now a superior in influence, and there- 
fore he must make up his mind to take a military appoint-* 
ment at a distance, an embassy, or be forbidden from the 
presence. Bassompierre accepted the offer of an embassy, 
and Luynes declared himself his devoted friend. He was 
accordingly sent ambassador extraordinary to Spain, and 
afterwards to the Swiss, in the years 1624 and 1625. The 
particulars of these embassies are detailed in his Ambassade9 
and his Memmres, but do not possess general interest. In 
1626 he was sent to England, at the instance of the Car- 
dinal Richelieu, in order to enforce the observance of the 
treaty of marriage between Henrietta Maria and Charles I., 
so far as it applied to the toleration of the Roman Catholic 
worship. The circumstances which gave rise to this embassy 
are explained by the following letter: — 

• Steenie [Buckingham], — ^I have receaved your letter by 
Die Greame, this is my answer. I command you to send all 
the French away tomorrow out of the toune if you can by 
faire meanes (but stike not long in disputing), otherwise 
force them away, dryving them away lyke so manie wylde 
beastes untill ye have shipped them, and so to the Devill go 
with them. Let me heare no answer hot of the performance 
of my command. So I rest, 

* Your faithfuU, constant, loving ftiend, 

• August 7th. 1 626.' • Charlbs Rbx. 
(Ellis's Original Lett&rs, first series, vol. iii. p. 244.) 
This violent dismissal of the queen's household was re- 
sented as an affront by the king of France, her brother, and 
Bassompierre was despatched as ambassador extraordinary to 
seek an explanation. Charles refused to give him an audience 
till he had dismissed Father Sancy (concerning whom see 
Disraeli's Commentaries on the Reign of Charles /,, vol. i.>, 
who had come over in his train. Bassompierre firmly re- 
fused, and stood upon his privileges as an ambassador. The 
king was placed in an awkward dilemma, dreading, in par- 
ticular, * a scene with his wife,* should he admit Bassom- 
pierre to a public audience. Buckingham explained to 
Bassompierre the difficulties of his master's situation, and 
threw himself upon the Frenchman's good nature to extri- 
cate him from them. Bassompierre accordingly suggested 
that the king, * after allowing me to make my bow, and 
having received with the king s letter my first compliments, 
when I should commence to open to him the occasion of my 
coming, the king may interrupt me and say, *' Sir you are 
come from London (to Hampton) ; you have to return thither; 
it is late, and this matter requires a longer time than I can 
now give you. I shall send for you at an earlier hour,*' &o., 
&c., and after some civil expressions about the king, my 
brother-in-law, and the queen, my mother-in-law, the king 
will add, " I can no longer delay the impatience of the queen, 
my wife, to hear of them from yourself," &c.* Charles had 
the meanness to go through this humiliating ceremonial to 
the letter. A few days afterwards he admitted Bassompierre 
to a private audience, in which he gave vent to his angry 
feelings. Bassompierre replied with equal warmth, and 
taunted Charles with a breach of the treaty of marriage* 
Charles, whose pride refused to plead the real cause, the 
necessity of yielding to the religious prejudices of his par- 
liament, contended that the treaty was ' one of state and not 
of religion.* Angry threats and recriminations followed, 
which induced Charles to exclaim, • Why then do you not 
declare war at once?* With great firmness and dignity 
Bassompierre replied, ' I am not a herald to declare wvt, 
but a marshal of France, to make it when declared.' 

The remainder of Bassompierre's career is soon told. Ho 
attached himself warmly to the interests of the house of 
Guise, and the queen-mother Mary de Medicis, who was 
the great obstacle to RicheUeu's attaining absolute power, 
and he paid the penalty of his adhesion. Tho imme- 



No. 206. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPiEDIA.] 



Vol. IV. 



BA» 



10 



B AS 



( 



4iftte oftUM of bit inooning the oirdival*s ditpUasuw 
wu, as he tells us in his Mimoires, his neglecting to keep 
an appointment to dinner. On the day preceding the 
memorable Day of the Dupes (la Joumee des Dupes), the 
30th of November, 1630, Bassompierre met the cardinal 
in one of the passages of the Louvre. He accosted him, 
and RicbeUeu seignM to receive the courtesy as a favour to 
a * poor disgraced minisler.* Basiiompierre, in the fulness 
of his benevolence, condescended to invite himself to dine 
with the cardinal, and the offer was accepted. It happened, 
however, unfortunately that two noblemen, enemies of the 
cardinal, met Bassompierre in the course of the day, and 
' debauched * him to dine with them, and the * poor disgraced 
ninister* was forgotten. 

On the 23rd of February, 1631, Bassompierre was ar- 
rested, by Richclieu*8 ortlers, and sent to the Bastille, 
where he was confined for twelve years; that is, till the 
death of the cardinal. He tells us, that the day before he 
was arrested he burned upwards of 6000 love-letters which 
ke had received at different times from his female admirers 
—a prettv decisive proof of the reputation which induced 
Madame ue Montpenaier, when recalling the brilliant visions 
of her youth, to designate him as * cet illustre Bassompierre.* 
(See the Preface to the translation of Ausompierres Eng- 
lish Emboisy, ascribed on personal knowledge by Mr. D'ls- 
raeli to the Right Hon. J. W. Croker.) 

He employed his time during his imprisonment in writing 
his Mhnoiiee and revising h\& Ambcmadee ; but both are so 
very dull and jejune, that we cannot help regarding him as 
one of those men whose fame has been mainly owine to the 
•dvanUges of a good person and address. There is not a 
single passage in all his writings which would lead us to 
conclude that he was * the wittiest man of his time i and 
even those anecdotes and bone mote which are attributed to 
him in the French Ana, are not calculated to impress us 
with a high notion of his mental accomplishments. 

Bassompierre died of apoplexy on the 1 2th of April, 1646, 
three years after his liberation from prison. It is alleged 
that he was offered the guardianship of the young monarch 
Louis XIV., but age, or, as Mr. Croker ooi^ectures, the 
wholesome discipline of the BastilW had cured him of all 
ambition as a courtier, and he declined the perilous honour. 

{Memoiree de Mareechal de Baeeompierre, 4 tomes, Am- 
sterdam, edition 1723; Bassompierre's Bmbaeey to Eng- 
land, translated, with notes, London, 1819; Memoire qf 
Henry the Great of France, 2 vols. London, 1820; and the 
Works referred to in the text.) 

BASS(X)N, a musical instrument ef the pneumatic kind, 
blown through a reed. It consists of four pieces, or tubes 
of wood, bound together and pierced for venUges, of a brass 
craned neck, in which the reed is inserted, and of several 
keys. The whole length of the tubes is 6^ feet, but by 
doubling uo, this is reduced to four. It may be considered 
as a base oboe [see Obob] ; and ita compass is from b flat 



below the base staff. 



m 



b 



to B flat in the 

-- i— treble staff. 




This instrument is used in every kind of music, fi>r the 
richness of iu tone and extent of its scale render it invalu- 
able to the cumposer. Handel seems to have been the first 
who gave imporUnce to it, and in the air Thou didet blow^ 
in the oratorio of lerael in Egypt, exhibited its qualities in 
10 advantageous a manner, that it immediately afterwards 
began to assume a rank in the orchestra which has ever 
aince been increasing. 

The Ussoon was invented as early as the year 1539, three 
years after Luscinius had published his Mueurgia, who con- 
sequently does not menUon the instrument Meraenne 
describes it and all its varieties ; but a long time elapsed 
before it came into use. The word is derived from the 
Italian baeeone, which is now rarely used. The common 
Jj*^f»term u/axotto, a fagot, or bundle of sticks, because 
ine tubas of which the instrument is composed are hound 
together. The Italian vtord/agotlo is always emploved ia 
musical scores. ^ r / 

BASSOON, W)UBLE, a bassoon ef increased dimen- 
•ions» the scale of which is an octove bebw that of the ordi- 
nary bassoon. The double-bassoon was introduced at the 
commemoration of Handel in 1 784, but not found to answer 
tna mteadaa puipoM, and hu now iallen into utter diause, 



the Serpent [see Sjwpbmt] well supplying tba place which 

it was meant to fill. 

BASSORAH. [See Basra.] 

BASSUSi in entomology, a genus of the order Hymen- 
optera, and family Braconida. These are four-winged 
flfes, with long and narrow bodies. They frequent the 
flowers of umbelliferous plants. 

BAST, FUEDERICK JAMES, a scholar of consider- 
able eminence, was bom in the state of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
about the year 1772. He received his earliest instructiuu 
from his father at Bouxviller, but afterwards studied in the 
University of Jena, under Professors Criesbaeh and Schutz. 

His first literary essay was a commentary upon Plato's 
Sympoeion, which was followed in 1 796 by a specimen of an 
intended new edition of the Letters of Aristsenetus. He 
lived at this time at Vienna, where he was in the suite of 
M. de Jan, the resident from Hesse-Darmstadt ; and where, 
in the Imperial Library, he had found a manuscript of 
Arist9netus, which atfbrded most important readings for 
improving the text of that author. 

The landgrave of Hesse- Darmstadt afterwards made him 
secreti^ry of legation at the congress of Radstadt; and 
finally placed him in the same capacity with the Baron de 
Pappenheim, his minister at Paris. To mark his approba- 
tion of Bast*s Uterary studies, the landgrave also bestowed 
upon him the reversion of the keepership of the Library of 
Darmstadt, a post which he preferred to more brilliant 
honours that he might have claimed, but which were less 
suited to his literary taste. 

Bast, unitina the labours of philology with those of diplo- 
macy, profitea very much during his stay in Paris by the 
collation and copying of a considerable number of Greek 
manuscripts. It was a most advantageous residence for 
him, as the best classical treasures of the Vatican had at 
that time been recently transported to France. 

Of the importance of his critical researches someestimste 
may be formed from his Leitr4 Critioue d M. J. F. Boisto- 
nade eur Antoninus Liberalise Parihenius, et Aristenete, 
8vo. Paris, 1 805. This work, of rather more than 250 pages, 
was originally intended for insertion in Millings Magasin 
Eneyclopidiquey and was on that account written in French, 
but growing upon the author*8 hands, it became a book, 
and stands in the first rank of treatises on verbal criticism. 
It was in a volume of the Vatican, Na 398 of the Greek 
manuscripts, which had once belonged Co the electoral library 
at Heidelberff, that he found the manuscripts of Antoninus 
Liberalis ana ParUienius ; and the same volume contained 
seventeen other manuscripts, some of them inedited, of 
each of which, in the Letter to M, Soissonade, Bast has 
given a notice. 

Schsfer's edition of Gregorius of Corinth, and some other 
grammarians, published at Leipzig, 2 vols. 8vo. 1811. con- 
tains Bast's Notes on that author, with a Palfi90graphlcal 
Dissertation (accompanied by seven Plates of fao-similes 
from Greek manuscripts), whiph is considered to be a mas- 
ter-piece of erudition. The remarks of Bast relative to the 
various kinds of connections and contractions which he met 
with in the numerous MSS. which he consulted, have been 
extracted from the body of his works by John Hodgkin, the 
editor of the CaUi^dphia et Paecilographia Grceca, and 
will shortly be published for the use of those who are en- 
gaged in the labour of reading or collating Greek MSS. 

Bast died of apoplexy at Pans, Nov. 15. 181 1. His Notes 
upon AristsDnetus were publistied in a variorum edition of 
that author by his friend M. Jo. Fr. Boissonade, 8vo. Lute- 
tian, 1822. (See the Biographie Universeile, Supvlem, 
tom. Ivii. 8vo. Paris, 1834, andthe works above quoted.) 

BASTAN. [SeeBAZTAN.] 

BASTARD. The conjectures of etymologists on the 
origin of tliis word are various and unsatisfactory. Its root 
has been sought in several languages :— the Greek, Saxon, 
German, Welsh, Icelandic, and Persian. For the grounds 
on which the pretensbns of all these languages are 
tively supported, we refer the eurious to the glo 
Ducange and Spelman, the more recent one oi 
and to the notes on the title Bastard in Dodd anaj 
edition of Bacon's Abridgment, voL i. p. 746« 

Among English writers it is applied to 
m lawful wedlock; and as such he is te 
guished from a mulier {filius mulierahtf)^ 
Umate oflspring oi a mulier or married 

Our ancestors very early adopted ( 
Sttlgeet of legitimacy ; and vbea tte 



.1^ 



B A S 



n 



B A g 



eentuiy were desirotis of estftblUhing in ibis oonotry the 
rule of the canon law, by which spurious children are legi- 
timated upon the subsequent intermarriage of their parents, 
the barons assembled at Merlon (aj>. 1235) replied by the 
celebrated declaration, ' that they would not consent to 
chauge the laws of England hitherto used and approved.* 

It has been observed that this sturdy repugnance to in- 
novation was the more disinterested, inasmuch as the Jax 
morality of those days must probably have made the pro- 
position not altogether unpalatable to many to whom it was 
addressed. The opposition, therefore, seems to have been 
prompted by a jealousy of ecclesiastical influence which was 
at that time ever watchful to extend the auUiority of the 
church by engralting .on our jurisjprudence the princ^les of 
the Canon Law. 

On another point our ancestors were less reasonable ; for 
it was very early received for law not onl^ that the fact of 
birth after marrifi^e was essential to legitimacy, but that it 
was conclusive of it Hence it was loii^ a maxim that no- 
thing but physical or natural impossibility, such as the con- 
tinued absence of the husband beyond seas, &c., could pre- 
vent the child so bora from being held legitimate or justify 
an inquiry into the real paternity. 

Their liberality in the case of posthumous cliildren was 
also remarkable : for in the case of the Countess of Glou- 
cester, in the reign of Edward J I., .a child bom one year and 
seven months after the death of the duke, was pronounced 
legitimate ; a degree .of indulgence only exceeded by the 
complaisance of Mr. Seijeant Rolfe. in the reign of Henry 
VI., who was of opinion that a widow might give birth to 
a child at the distance of seven years after her husband's 
decease, without wrong to her reputation. (See Coke upon 
Littleton, 123, b. note bv Mr. Hargrave ; Rollers Ahndg- 
ment. Bastard ; and Le Marchant s Preface to the case qf 
the Banbury Peerage.) 

The law now stands x>n a more reasonable footing, and 
the fact of birth during marriage, or within a competent 
time after the husband s death, is now held to be only a 
strong presumption of legitimacy, capable of being repelled 
by satisfactory evidence to the contrary. 

Another curious position of doubtful authority is also 
found in our old text writers; namelv, that where a 
widow marries again so soon after her husband's decease 
that a child bom afterwards mav reasonably be supposed to 
be the child of either husband, then the child, l^K>n attaining 
to years of discretion, shall be at liberty to choose which of 
the two ahaU be accounted his father. It was to obviate 
this embarrassing state of things that the civil law prescribed 
an * annum luctus,' or year ef grief, during which the widow 
was prohibited from contracting a second marriage; and 
our own law provided the 90w obsolete proceediug on a writ 
de ventre inspidendo. 

The legal incapacities under which an illegitimate child 
labours bv the law of England are few, oAd are chiefly con- 
fined to tne cases of inheritance and sucoession. He is re- 
garded for most purposes as the son .of nobody, and is therefore 
heir-at-law to none of his reputed ancestors. He is entitled 
to no distributive share of the personal pronerty of his parents, 
if they die intestate ; and even under a wul he can only take 1 
where be is distinctly pointed out in it as an object of the 
testator's bounty, and not under the general deiKsription of 
' son,' ' daughter/ or * child,' by which legitimate diildcen 
alone are presumed to be designated. He may, however, 
acquire property himself, and wus become the founder of a 
fresh inheritance, tibough none of his lineal descendants can 
daim through him the property of his reputed relations. If he 
dies without wife, issue, or wiU, his lands and goods escheat 
to the crown, or lord of the fee. In the former event it is 
usual for the crown to resign its claim to the greater part of 
the property on the petition of some of his nearest qtuui 
kindred. 

Strictly speaking, a bastard has no aorname until he 
has acquired one by reputation, and in the meantime he is 
prm)erly cwdled by that of his mother. 

The first English statute which provides for the mainten- 
ance of illegitimate children, is the 18th of Elizabeth, cap. 3, 
which confers on justices of the peaoe the power of punishing 
the parents, and of requiring from one or both of them a 
weekly or other payment for uieir suj^ii. Under this and 
later acts of parliament, the usual practice has been for the 
mother to apply for relief to the parish offioen, by whom 
she is carried before certain magistrates to be interrogated 
respecung the paternity of the child. An order of fiiiaUon 



is then made, in tditch the male offender is adjudged to be 
the reputed father, and is ordered to contribute a weekly 
payment, or is bound to indemnify the parish against the 
future expenses of maintenance. 

In this state of things, the commissioners lately appointed 
by his Majesty to inquire into the administration of dIm 
poor-laws, recommended the total abolition of punishment^ 
and the exemptbn of the reputed father from all liability 
to the support of the child. The proposal was supported 
by arguments not devoid of plausibility, and is said to he 
sanctioned by the favourable experience of other countries { 
it was however strenuouslv opposed in both Houses of Par* 
liament, and was eventually so modified as to leave the law 
nearly as it stood before the passing of die late aet (See 
the Report of the Commissioners^ p. 165, 843, Svo. ed., an^ 
Stat 4 and 5 Will. IV., chap. 76.) 

According to late official tables, the proportion of tUegifti 
mate to legitimate births was in the year 1896 as one t 
twenty in England ; the proportion in France is as one te 
thirteen, and m Paris alone as one to three. The proportion 
in Wales was as one to thirteen in the year 1836 ; but in 
no city or town in the British islands is the proportion com- 
parable with that of Paris. In Denmark the illegitimate 
are one in ninety-six ; in Norway one in fourteen ; and 
in Hamburgh one in five. {Reports qf Poor^Law Com 
missioners.) 

The civilians and canonists distinguish illegitimate child* 
ren into four or five classes not recognised in the English law ; 
it may however be worth while to remark, that the familiar 
term natural, applied by us to all children bom out of wed- 
lock, is in that classification confined to those only who are 
the offspring of unmarried parents, living in concubinage, 
and who lalxiur under no legal impediment to intermarriage. 
Children of the last-mentioned class are oy tne civil and 
canon law, capable of legitimation bv the subsequent union 
of the parents, or by other acts which it is needless here to 
particularize. (See Heineccius, Syntag, vol. i., p. 159 ; Rid- 
ley's View, &c., p. 350, ed. 1675 ; Godolphin's Repertorium 
Canonicum, chap. 35.) 

Bv the Athenian law (passed in the archonship of Eu- 
cleides, B.C. 403), as quoted by Demosthenes (Againsi 
Macartatus, cap. 12), illegitimate children were cut out from 
all inheritance and succession ; nor could a man^ who had 
legitimate male offspring, leave his property to other per- 
sons, and consequently not to his illegitimate children. A 
previous law of Pericles (see his £«/« by Plutarch, cap. 37^ 
declared that those only were legitimate and Atheniaqi 
citizens who were born of two Athenian parents. This 
law, which was repealed or violated in favour of a son of 
Pericles, was re-enacted in the archonship of Eucleides. 
(Athcniou^ xiii. 577. Demosthenes Against EubuUdes, 
cap. 10.) 

The repute in which spurious children have been held 
has varied in different ages and countries. In some they 
have been subjected to a degree of opprobrium which was 
inconsistent witli justice ; in others the distinction between 
base and legitimate birth appears to have been but faintly 
recognised, and the child oi unlicensed love has avowed hia 
origin with an indifferenoe which argued neither a sense of 
shame nor a feeling of infericHitv. When the Conqueror 
commenced his missive to the Earl of Bretagne bv the words^ 
' I, William, surnamed the Bastard,' he can nave felt np 
deaire to conceal the obliquity of his descent, and little fear 
that his title would be defeated by it. Accordingly, history 
presents us with many instances in which the sucoession 
not only to property, but to kiu'^doms, has been successfully 
claimed by the spurious issue of the ancestor. It is, how- 
ever, very improbable that in any state of society where the 
institCition of marriage has prevailed, children bom in con- 
cubinage and in lawful wedlock should ever have been re- 
garded by the law with exactly equal favour, (See Ducangc^ 
Glossary^ tit. Bastardus,) 

Those who may be curious to leam what fancifid writera 
have urged in proof of the superior mental and physical 
endowments of iUesitimate issue, may xefer to Burton's 
Anatomy of MekaiOioly^ vol. ii., p. 16 (ed. 1B21) ; Pasquier 
Recherches, chap. * De quelques memorables bitards;' and 
Pontus Heuterus de Libera kominis Nativitate, See alse 
Shakspeare's JLeor, aet 1, scene 2 ; and the observations of 
Dr. Elliotson in his edition of Blumenbachs Physiology, in 
notes to chap. 40. 

BASTARDY. The Scottish hiw of Bastardy differs con- 
siderably from the English, chiefly in consequence of its 

C2 



B A S 



12 



B A S 



litving adapted nracb of the Roman and pontiieal doctrines 
of marriage and legitimacy. 

Thus, in England, in the case of a divorce in the spiritual 
court. ' d vinculo matrimoniU* the issue horn during the 
ooTerture are bastards. But agreeably to the judgment of 
the canons, Deeret. Greg,, lib. iv., tit. 1 7, c. 14, the Scottish 
imters, prooeedin^ on the bona Jldes of the parties, incline 
to a different opinion, in/avorem prolii; ana it will be re- 
collected that when Secretary Lethington proposed to Mary 
Queen of Soots a divorce from Darnley, James Earl of 
BothweU, to quiet her fears for her son, 'allegit the 
exampill of himself, that he ceissit not to suooeid to his 
father's heritage, without any difficultie, albeit thair was 
divorce betwixt him and his mother.' The point has not, 
however, received a judicial determination, ana cannot there- 
fore be regarded as settled, though of the tendency of the 
law there can be little doubt. Even in the case of a mar- 
riage between a party divorced for adultery and the adul- 
terer, which by stat 1600, c 20, following the civil law, is 
declared ' null and unlawful in itself, and the succession to 
oe gotten of sik unlawful conjunctions unliable to succeid 
as heires to their said parents ;* the issue are not accounted 
bastards* ' though,* as Stair adds, b. iii., tit. 3, sect 42, 
* they may be debarred from succession.* Of course, the 
issue of every legal marriage are lawful, and therefore the 
children not only of marriages regularly solemnized, but 
also of every union acknowMged by the law as a marriage, 
are alike legitimate. The same may be said of children 
legitimated by the subseauent intermarriage of their pa- 
rents; but the situation of these is, as we shall immediately 
see, somewhat anomalous. 

The Scottish law has adopted two species of ledtimation, 
which, in the language of the civil law, they call legitima- 
tion p^ iubiequefu tnatrimonium, and legitimation per re- 
scnvitim principU. 

The former of these was introduced into the Roman 
jurisprudence by a constitution of the Emperor Constan- 
tino the Great, but did not become a permanent method of 
legitimation till the time of Justinian. It was afterwards 
taken up by the Roman pontiffs and disseminated by the 
ecclesiastics throughout Europe. At the parliament of 
Merton. however, the doctrine met with a repulse from the 
barons of England. 

Though the English law was preserved inviolate, yet the 
ecclesiastics did not cense to press the point among the people, 
and to this day we may rennark traces of the custom in some 
of 'tiie remoter districts of the island. The doctrine was cer- 
tainly no part of the antient common law of Scotland any more 
than of England ; but it is now settled law there, and its 
rise and establishment are at once accounted for, when we 
consider the former strong or rather paramount influence of 
the canon and civil laws in that country. The principle on 
which the doctrine rests is the fiction of law that the parents 
were married at their child's birth. If therefore the parents 
eould not have then legally married, or if a mid impediment 
has intervened between the birth and the intermarriage, 
the fiction is excluded, and previous issue will not be legi- 
timated by marriage. Further, it is held that if the child 
was born, or if the intermarriage took place, in a country 
which does not acknowledge the doctrine of legitimation by 
subsequent marriage, the child will remain a baHtard; the 
character of bastardy being in the one case indelible, and 
the marriage in the other ineffectual to create legitimacy. 
On the other hand, a child legitimated per sutuequent ma- 
trimomtun is entitled to all the rights and privileges of 
lawful issue, and will, as respects inheritance and the like, 
take preoedence of subsequent issue bom in actual wedlock : 
yet in England the judges have held, that a child bom in 
Scotland before marriage and legitimated in Scotland by 
subsequent marriage, though in point of fact the first-bora 
son, and in status and condition, by comity, legitimate 
in England, will not surxseed to land in England. (See 
Doe dem. Birtwhistle v. Vardill, 5 Bam. and Cress. 438 ; 
and opiniona of the judges in dom. proc. lOlh June, 
1830.) 

Legitimation |wr r^jrr^ltfm principii proceeds on a less 
abstract and more generally-acknowledged principle than 
the preceding. Though therefore it is said to have been 
invented by Justinian, and copied by one of the. popes of 
Rome, yet concessions in the nature of'Letters of legitimation 
are not peculiar to the Roman law. The form of these letters 
seems to have been borrowed by the Scots immediately out 
of the old French jurisprudence : their clauaes are usually 



verj ample, capacitatmg the grantee for all honours and 
offices wnatsoever, and to do all acts in judgment or outwith, 
and, in short, imparting to him all the public rights of lawful 
children and natural bom subjects, together with a cession of 
the crown's rights by reason of bastardy ; but as the crown 
cannot affect the rights of third persons without their consent, 
letters of legitimation do not carry a right of inheritance to 
the prejudice of lawful issue. 

As, in the Mosaic law, a bastard was debarred from the 
congregation, so, according to the canons, he is, in strictness, 
incapable of holy orders ; and, indeed, it has been the policy 
of most nations to incapaci^te bastards in divers ways, that 
if men will not be deterred from immorality by a sense of 
the injury accruing to themselves, they may by a consi- 
deration of the evils resulting to their offspring, cut what- 
ever may be the operation of those incapacities, they aro 
felt by all to be wrongs inflicted on the innocent, and as 
Justinian properly observed when he made legitimation per 
mhsequent matrimonium a perpetual ordinance, ' indigni 
non sunt qui alieno vitio laborant.* Accordingly the doc- 
trine is now obsolete in England and nearlv so in Scot- 
land. The only remaining incapacity in Scotland seems to 
be want of power to make a testament in the particular caso 
of the bastard having no lawful issue. Letters of legitima- 
tion were formerly necessary in all cases ; but it is now held 
that as the crown's right of succession is excluded by the 
existence of issue, a bastard who has lawful issue may clis- 
nose of his goods by testament in any way he thhiks fit. 
with the above exception only, then, there is no distinction 
between a bastard and another man ; and so he may dispose 
of his heritage in liege pouatie, and of his moveables inter 
vivos, and (if he has lawful issue) by testament, and he 
may succeed to any estate, real or personal, by special des- 
tination. To his lawful children also he may appoint tes- 
tamentary guardians ; and his widow has her provisions 
like other relicts. It is to be noted, however, that in the 
eye of law a bastard is nullius filius ; and being thus of kin 
to nobody, he cannot be heir-at-law to any one, neither can 
he have such heirs save his own lawful issue. Where a 
bastard dies, leaving no heir, the crown, as fMmus hecret^ 
takes up his property, which, if it be land holden in capite. is 
at once consolidated with the superiority ; but if it be holdea 
of a subject, the crown appoints a donatary, who. 1o com- 
plete his title, must obtain decree ot declarator of bastard%j^ 
a process in the nature of the English writ of escheat, and 
thereupon he is presented by the king to the superior as 
his vassal. 

But though bastards are legally ntdlius fllii, yet the law 
takes notice of their natural relationship to several purposes, 
and particularly to enforce the natural duties of their 
parents. These duties are comprised under the term 
aliment, which here, as in the civil law, comprehends both 
maintenance and education ; including under tnis latter term. 
as Lord Stair says (b. 1, tit. 5, sec. 6), * the breeding of them 
for some calling and employment according to their capacity 
and condition.* These were at least the principles on which 
the courts proceeded in awarding aliment to children. In 
determining who is the father of a bastard, the ^cots 
courts again proceed on the principles of the civil law. In 
Scotland there must first be semi -plenary evidence qf the 
paternity, and then, when such circumstantial or other 
proof of that fact is adduced as will amount to semipiena 
probatio, the mother is admitted to her oath in supplement. 
The whole aliment is not due from one parent but from 
both parents. This is the principle ; and therefore in de- 
termining what shall be payable by the father, the ability 
of the mother to contribute is also considered. The al»o- 
lute amount of aliment, however, is in the discretion of the 
court, as is likewise its duration. Where the parties are 
paupers, the bastard's settlement is not the father's but the 
motner's parish, and if that is unknown, the parish of 
its birth. 

The mother of a bastard is entitled to its custody during 
its infancy ; and it would seem that afterwards tlie father 
may take the rearing of the child into his own hand, and 
also, perhaps, nominate to it tuton and curators. This last 
power has been denied - if it does not exist it ought to be 
now bestowed by act of parliament, and by the same means 
the last remnant of a bastard's civil incapacity remove<l bv 
his being permitted to make a testament, though he have 
no lawful issue. 

BASTENNES, a village in France, in the department 
of Landes and in the canton of Amou, which is a small 



B AS 

to«m n««r the nrathem boandtr; of the deputmeot, on Aa 
Luy de Beam. 

Thu village is remulcftble for a kind ofairth nhiCb tau 
the property of bitumen when u««I with wood, (nd which 
forms an excellent cement for (tone. It is easily worked, 
as warm bitumen is work&l, without attaching itself to the 
fingers ; and as it is impervious to water, it is used far 
sealing bottles of liquor ; but it is chieUy as a cement Cir 
stone that it is Taluable. It acquires, when exposed foi 
some time to tho air, such hardness, that the stones joined 
by it cannot be parted, but must be broken when it is re- 
quired to demolish the Btructur« in which they have been 

This bituminous earth is found on the elope of two hills, 
whi«h extend in a direction N.E. and S.W. It is covered 
witb common earth, which is easily removed ; for the slope 
of the hills being pretty steep, the eirih, when disturbed, 
rolls down by its own weight, leaving the surface of the 
bituminous substance bare. This bitumen hiu the appear- 
ance of a hard black iione, and considerable labour is re- 
quisite to detach pieces of it from the mass. iEnei/eiopidie 
Mithndii[ue, G£og. Physique ; Expilly, Dietionnaire del 
Oaula el de la France.} 

B ASTl'A is the principal town in tho island of Corsica, 
and was formerly the residence of the governor, but of late 
years the preFect of the department of Corsica has redded 
Bt Ajaccio. Bastin is situated on tho eastern coast of the 
island, in 42" 43' N. lat., and 9° 26' E. long. Its port is not 
very safe, nor adapted for vessels of large burden : a singular 
rock at its entrance has very much the appearance of a lion 
in repose. The natives eall it ' II Leone ;' it is of very con~ 



13 



S A S 



[H«k nlled the LIdd at 



«ii^] 



■idarahla dimensions, and lies oompletely isolated in the sea. 
Its shoulders and neck ore covered with creeping plants, 
which invest them with the appearance of a buahy mane ; 
the fore-legs are thrown forward, the neck is raised, and 
the head has an air of fierceness about it. This singulur 
object has every appearance of being the work of nature ; 
indeed there is no evidence at all to show that art was in 
any way concerned in giving the tock this singular form. 
Tbe composition of the rock is a calcareous stone, of the 
Knme character as the rock on which the citadel of Baslia 
is built ; and there can be little doubt that they are pari* 
of the same mass, though the sea appear* to cut off the 
connexion. This lion is of much use as a breakwater when 
the north winds drive the waters before them. The town is 
fortiflcd with walls and bastions, but it has large suburbs 
outside the fort ideations. High hills rise behind the town, 
above which the higher range which runs throu^ the 
island from north to south is seen. Tlie view from Baitia 
over the Tuscan Sea is very fine. It embraces the islands 
of Elba, Capraia, and Monte Cristo, and the distant coast 
of Tuscany. The streets of Bastia are narrow, and the 
houses lofty, and built after the Italian fashion. The popu- 
lation of Bnstia is about I O.ono. The Cour Royale. or court 
of jusLice, civil and criminal, for tbe whole department, aits 
nt Baslia. There is also a society of instruction which has 
bcun for some years actively employed in spreading informa- 
tion, especially among the coiinlry-people. Bostia has also 
a college, or superior Echool. The catiicdral of Bastia con- 
tains nothing remarkable, but there is a new small chuioh 
called Cappella di Sanra Croce, the construction of which is 
remarkably elegant. The people of Bnstia speak Italian, 
but mo^it of Ibem arc also ncquiiinlcd nith French. Bostia 
rarties on a tilili! Imdc. cbietly with Leghorn. It exports 
wine, tim)>er, and entile. Tot^cco and English manufac- 



tures an imuggkd into Coraica from I^ghom. A road 
leads from Bastia to Ajaccio across the island, and another 
leads along the easlarn coast to Bonifacio, at the southern 
extremity of Corsica. Bastia is 33 miles W. by S. from the 
nearest point of the island of Elba, and 56 from Piomhino 
on the coast of Tuscany. (Benson's Skelchet q/' Corticti.) 

BASTIDB, LA, the name of a number of places in 
France, all of tbem in the southern departments, Tha 
DictionnaiTe Vnwertel de la France enumerates sixty- 
one villages and three towns, of greater or less importance, 
bearing this designation ; and in the Dietionnaire det 
Gatdet, &c of Expilly fifly-six are enumerated. Thu word 
Ctastide is derived from the verb bStir, to build (which was 
formerly written batlir), and is applied to a gentleman's 
country seat. The most considerable places bearing tbit 
name are as follows: — 

La Bastidk db Clarkncb, or CLAiftiNcs, a town in 
the department of Basses Pyrenees (Lower Pyrenees), alittle 
way S.E. of Bayonne : 43* 25' N. lat, l" 15' W. long. It 
is on the right bank of the little river Joyeuse, that Hows 
into the Adour. It was built by Louis JL. (HutinJ before 
he ascended the throne of France, while he was yet only 
King of Navarre. The district belonging to the town con- 
tains two mines, one of copper, the other of iron. This last 
yields gpathose ironstone (Jer spathiqae — see Aikin's Did. 
of Mineralogy and Chemutry.'t Tho population, as given 
in the Dietionnaire Univertel de la Franee, 1 SD4, our latest 
authority, was 2U71. 

La Bastide de Seron is in ttie department of Arri^go, 
between St. Girons and Foix, a short distance W.N.W. of 
thelauertown. It had, in 1832, a population of I65S. The 
whole commune contained 2911 inhabitants. Several of 
the small streams in the neighbourhood bring down par- 
ticles of gold. A grey argillaceous earth is found near this 
place, which, from the goodness of the colour, is used in 
colouring the houses. It is also used to make crucibles fot 
glass-works: 43° l' N, lat., 1° 2S' E.long. 

La Bastidi, St. Ahans, or St. Auand, in the depart- 
ment of Tarn, S.B. of Castres, near the hank of the Taur£, 
had n population in IBIM of 2140; 43° 29* N. lat, r 2^ 
E. long, 

BASTILE, or BASTILLE, tbe name used in Franca 
to denote a fortress or stale-prison. There have been three 
of that name at Paris, the Baalile du Temple, the Bostite 
of St Denia, and that of the Ruit Si. Anioine. We shall 
only treat of tbe last, which has obtained historical cele- 
brity, and is uiually denominated Tbe Bastile. Tbii for- 
tress stood at tbe cant end of Pans, on tbe north side of the 
Seine. 1[ was originally intended for the protection of the 
city, but afterwards was used as a state-prison. Uugues 
d'Aubriot. Prevostdes Marchands in the reign of Charles V,, 
laid the first stone on the 22nd of April, 1369, by the onler 
of that king. There hud previously been a fortiHed en- 
trance to Paris on the same spot, on a small scale, which was 
built by Etienne Marcel, the predecessor in office of Hugues 
d'Aubriot. The Bostile consisted at firfit of two round 
towers, with an entrance between tbem ; afleiwatds, to 
render it stronger, two additional towers, parallel to the two 
fir^C, were built, and the whole connected by walls. Tho 
building, however, was not completed till 1383, in the reigD 
of Charles VI., when four more towers were added, of the 
same dimensions, and at equal distances from tbe first four, 
and tha whole eight were united by masonry of great thick- 
ness, in which were constructed a great number of apart- 
ments and offices. Tbe entrance to the city by the original 



[VIn •( lbs ButO*, ftoBS PilAl fa lb* Bildab XaMsm^ I 



B A S 



14 



BAB 



^ftte was dosed, tnA toe road eaniod wf tbout the Vofldinff. 
In 1 634 a fosse, 120 feet wide and 2S feet deep, was dug all 
round ; and beyond that a stone wall, 36 feet higfa, was 
ittilt all round. Thus the Bastile became, from a fortified 
gate, one of the strongest fortresses of the kind in Europe. 
The towers contained several oeta^nal rooms one above the 
other, each having one window pierced in the walln, which 
were rather more than six feet thick. This window was 
without any glazing, was wide internally, but narrow like a 
ioop-hole on the outside : in the centre was a perpendicular 
bar of iron, and two crou-barred gratings between that and 
the internal part. The entrance to each of these rooms was 
secured by oouble doors eight inches thick, strapped with 
iron, and placed at the distance of the thickness oi the walls 
from each other. There were no fire-places or chimneys in 
these rooms. The only article of ftimiture, if it may be so 
called, was an iron grating, raised about six inches from 
the floor, to receive the prisoner's mattress, and prevent its 
decay from the damp (^ the stone floor. To each tower 
there was a way by a narrow winding staircase. The apart- 
ments constructed in the walls, connecting the towers, were 
larger and more commodious than the others, and were pro- 
vided with fire-places and chimneys, but with similar pre- 
cautions for preventing the escape of prisoners. They were 
usually assigned to persons of some importance, or to those 
who were treated with indulgence, llie rest of the Bas- 
tile consisted of two open courts : the larger, 1 02 feet by 
72, called the Great Court ; the smaller, 72 by 42 feet, Frencn 
measure, called the Court of the Well, was separated from 
the first by a range of buildings and offices, having a passage 
through them. The height of the building within Was 73 feet, 
but greater on the outside next the fosse. (See the plan 
in tjie British Museum.) 

lu modem times the establishment of the Bastile consisted 
of a governor, a deputy-^ vemor or lieutenant du roi, a major, 
an aide-major, a physician and surgeons, a certain number of 
invalid soldiers and Swiss in the pay of France to perform the 
military duty of the fort re s^^, with turnkeys to watch over 
the prisoners, and cooks and other domestics. The office of 
governor was very lucrative, and the pay and perquisites 
supposed to amount to 60,000 francs per annum. The other 
officers were but indifferently remunerated. No officer or 
suldier could dine out without permission of the governor, or 
sleep out without an order from the prime minister. The 
invalids were usually about J 00 men, with two captains and 
a lieutenant, who were well paid. The men had ten sols 
per diem, widi wood, candles, washing, and other allowances, 
xbe average expense of the Bastile is said to have been 
60,000 franca per month. The governor and deputy-governor 
superintended the general management of the fortress, the 
major and his deputy kept all the accounts, including a par- 
ticular list of all the prisoners, in seven columns, containing, 
1. Name and ouality of the prisoner ; 2. When he entered ; 
3. By whom the order for his detention signed; 4. When 
discharged ; 5. By whom the order of discharge signed ; 
6. Cause of detention ; 7. Observations or remarks. The 
last is said to have been filled up only under the direc- 
tion of the minister or of the lieutenant of police. Pri- 
soners were almost always taken to the Bastile by an exempt 
of police and two or three armed men in a hackney coach, 
to avoid observation, and were conducted direct to the go- 
vernor at his house, to whom the exempt delivered the 
let t re de cachet and took a receipt for it. The prisoner was 
then led into the body of the fortress, a sign being first 
made to all the soldiers on duty to cover their faces with 
their hats during his passage. This was invariably done 
whenever a pri&oner entered or left the Bastile. On his 
arrival at hU room the prisoner was requested to empty his 
pockets. A list was made of the contents by the m^jor, end 
si«;ncd by the prisoner. His watch, rings, and every other 
article wore taken from him. Ue was then left for some 
days without the means of writing; alter which he under- 
went an examination before the lieutenant of police, or some 
other ofiicer. The interro^tors usually began by inform- 
ing the prisoner that his life was in great danger, and that 
to save it depended on himself; that if he would freely con- 
fers, they were authorised to promise bis discharge, other- 
wue he would be gi^ en o\*er to «n extraordinary commis- 
sion; that they tmd written and oral testimony against 
him ; that his accomplices, his friends, his relatives, had 
owned everv thing ; that the king was indulgent ; and that 
they advisefi him, as his friends, not to concead the least par- 
ticular. If by these means they s neceaded in extnrating the 



eridenoe they wished, they then infonned him that tiiey bad 
not yet a precise authority for his discharge, but that they 
hoped shortlv to obtain it, would even solicit it, and that he 
should shortly hear more about it. According to circum- 
stances these examinations were repeated, and no means 
which cunning could suggest were omitted to entrap and 
intimidate the prisoner, to draw from him his secret if he 
had one, or to make him commit himself, or his fkmily, or 
friends, by dangeroas admissions or indiscreet replies. The 
treatment of the prisoners depended entirely on the will of 
the governor, who was interested in their being detained, as 
he contracted with the go^mment for their maintenance, 
and derived a profit from it ; and he being the only channel 
by which the prisoners could communicate with their friends 
or with the government, he could suppress their applications 
if he thought fit We have the concurrent testimony of 
almost all the prisoners who have written their memoirs, 
that the food was bad and scantily supplied, and that all 
other necessaries were of the worst description. The dura- 
tion of a prisoner's detention was arbitrary. No term was 
ever specified. The longest we have been able to discover, 
from the registers published ttfter the taking of the Bastile, 
is that of Isaac Armet de la Motte, who was removed to 
Charenton (a lunatic asylum and prison), after a confine- 
ment in the Bastile of fifty-four years and five months. In 
this registiy there are several others of thirty years and 
upwards. The first historical mention of any imprisonment 
in this fortress is that of Hugues d*Aubriot himself, who 
having eiven offence to the clergy, and being accused by 
them or blasphemy and impiety, was sentenced to be im- 
prisoned for life, but being transferred to another prison, he 
regained his liberty in the insurrection of a faction called 
the Mailliotins. The only prisoners who ever effected their 
escape fh)m the Bastile were two persons of the name of De 
la Tude and D'ALigre. Tfaey were confined together in one 
of the apartments constructed in the walls of the Bastile. 
By unravelUng their linen, stockings, and other parts of 
their clothes, and by saving from time to time the billets of 
wood ttllow«d fox their firing, they .contrived to make two 
ladder^ one a rope-ladder, near IdO feet long, with rovnds 
of woea covered with flanael to prevent any rattling noise 
against the widls ; the other a wooden ladder, about 30 feet 
long, consisting ik a cen<tre jpiece, in joints, to be fastened 
by tenons and naortioes, ana through whicii passed wooden 
pegs to bold it together. The first was to enable them to 
descend from the platform, or Che top of the Bastile, into 
the fosse ; the second to ascend the rampart into the garden 
of the governor. The ladders, as veil as the tools they had 
formed for making theni« were concealed, when the turnkeys 
%isited them, under tlie fioor of their apartment. They 
cut through the iron gratings in the chimney^ which they 
ascended, and taking advantage of a dark night, got 
upon the platform. Having first lowered their wooden 
ladder, they fastened that of rope to one of the cannons of 
the fortress and descended into the fosse. Finding a patrole 
with a light in the governor's garden, they altered their 
plan, and with a handspike formea of one of the iron bars of 
the chimney grating, made a hole in the wall next tiie Rue 
St Antoine, through which they effected their escape on 
the 26th of Februarv, 1756. After the revolution of 1789 
La Tude claimed and received these ladders, and they were 
publicly exhibited at Paris in the autumn of that year. Of 
all the prisoners in the Bastile none have excited curiosity 
so strongly as the person usually called the Man with the 
Iron Mask. The extraordiniH'y secrecy observed with re- 
spect to this person, and the attention said to have been 
shown him, have given rise to a variety of conjectures con- 
cerning him, more especially as no person of importance 
was at that time missing in Europe. He has been supposed 
to have been a twin-brother of Louis XIV., the celebrau»d 
Due de Beaufort, the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth, the 
Intendant Fououet, and Eroolo Matthioli, prime minister to 
the Duke of Alantua. Our space does not permit us to 
investigate these opinions, or to enter into details respecting 
them, further than to obsen^e that the last mentioned seems 
to rest on the best foundation. 

The Bastile was besieged and taken three times : in 1418, 
by the Bourgignons ; in 1594, by Henry IV. ; and on the 
14th July, 1789, by the Parisians, from which day the 
French Revolution may be dated. Its demolition was de- 
creed by the Permanent Committee of Paris on the IGth, 
and carried into immediate effect. The materials were cm- 
ployed in the construction of a new bridge, called the Brid^ 



B A S 



16 



B A S 



tlie top of, or projecting towers at certain intervals along, i 
the walls of fortresses, that from thence the besieged might 
get a view of and be able to annoy the enemy, when at 
the latest and most critical period of the siege the latter 
should have gained the otherwise undefended ground. The 
walls of Messene, built by Epaminondas (raus. iv. 31), 
which were all of stone, and furnished witii battlements 
and towers, were reckoned by Pausanias among the best 
specimens of Grecian fortification. 

From the accounts given by antient writers of their forti- 
fied places, and particularly fVom the precepts of Vitruvius 
{Aremtectura, lib. i. cap. 5), we learn that the projecting 
towers were sometimes square or polygonal, but generally 
circular, and that their dutance from each other along the 
walls was regulated by the range of the weapons employed 
in the defence. In the fortifications of cities this distance 
seems to have varied from 80 to 1 00 paces, according to local 
circumstances, and the power of annoying the enemy by 
the arrows and javelins discharged from the towers ; but, 
from the greater distance at which modern arms will take 
effect, the bastions, measuring firom the vertices of their pro- 
jecting angles, are now generally, and agreeably to the rules 
of Vauban, placed at 360 yards from each other. It was a 
maxim with the antient engineers that the projecting 

Jiuoins of walls were detrimental to the defence, firom the 
acility with which they might be destroyed by the battering- 
ram ; and it is on this account that Vitruvius recommends 
the towers to be circular, or to have faces forming with each 
other obtuse angles. These towers were placed indifferently 
at the angles, or at any part on the line of the inclosing ram- 
part : in the latter case, when they were of a square form, 
one side was parallel to the length of the rampart, and in 
the former, one face was almost always perpendicular to a 
line bisecting the angle between two aqjacent sides of the 
polygon surroundinf^ the town ; that is, to what would be 
now called the capital of the bastion. It must have fre- 
quently happened, therefore, that this face was nearly un- 
seen tram any other part of the rampart, and that the enemy 
made his assault against it in order to avoid, as much as 
possible, being exposed to annoyance from the defenders of 
the neighbouring works. It is true that the smallness of 
the towers rendered it impossible for the enemy to be wholly 
concealed at their front ; but the desire of entirely depriving 
the enemy of the benefit arising from the undefended nature 
of that ground probably induced engineers to dispose the 
faces of their towers like those of a modem bastion, so that 
two of them might form a projecting angle, whose vertex 
was on the capital. 

There is no reason to believe that any material change 
took place in the manner of constructing the towers of for- 
tresses during all the long period in which the antient arms 
were employcNi ; but it is easy to conceive that the invention 
of fire-arms would render it neoessary to enlar^ the tower 
for the purpose of receiving the guns, and to mcrease the 
thickness of the rampart, that it might be able as well to 
resist the concussion produced by the discharge of the ord- 
nance placed upon it, as the shock of the enemy's artillery 
when fired against it. On this account, also» the ramparts 
were constructed of earth, and their exterior surface was 
formed at such an inclination to the ground as would enable 
It to stand unsupported, except where it became necessary to 
nrevent an escalade ; in which case a facing of stone, brick, 
or timber was made sufllciently high and steep to create 
a serious impediment to any attempt of that nature. An 
opinion that the bastions are the weakest parts of a fortress 
remained in force, however, long after the modem artillery 
was introduced in sieges. On this account they were at first 
made very small, when compared with the extent of the 
wall between them ; and the line of each face, when pro- 
duced towards the town, was made to intersect that wall, in 
order that the fire from the part intercepted between this 
produced line and the flank of the next bastion might co- 
operate with that made from the latter in defending the 
ditch in front of the former bastion. But when the ramparts 
of a town were found to disappear almost instantly under 
the weight of shot dischargea from large ordnance, it be- 
came neceisarv to employ o^nsnce of corresponding size on 
the walls ; ana the dimensions of the bastions were finally 
augmented to those at present assigned. The lengths of 
the faces vary from 100 to 120 yards, and the flanks are 
usually about ftO yards long ; but the magnitude of the pro- 
jecting angle in front, esAXed the salient ox flanked angle, to 
distinguisn it firom the angles formed by the faces and 



flanks which are denominated shoulder angles, evidently 
depends upon the kind of polygon on which the enceinte is 
constructed. Each face of a bastion, if produced towards 
the town, now falls at the interior extremity of the flank of 
the collateral bastion, so that the defence of a bastion de- 
pends wholly upon the fires from those on its right and 
left. 

It is to Italy that we must look for the inventk>n of the 
modem bastion : the wars which raged in that country from 
the commencement of the twelfth century, and which were 
more systematically conducted there than in any other part 
of Europe, gave rise to this, as well as to many other inven- 
tions for military purposes. The precise date of its first 
formation is quite unknown ; but if we omit the improbable 
story related by Folard, that the Turkish commanier, Ach- 
met Pacha, caused bastions to be constructed about Otranto, 
when he took that place in 1480, we may observe that it is 
spoken of under the name of BalvardOf as an improvement 
of great importance in the military art, by Tartaslia, in his 
QwBsiti ed inventi diversi, which was published in 1546 ; 
and in the same work is given a plan of the fortifications of 
Turin, which exhibits a bastion at each of the four angles of 
the rampart. Both Vasari, in his Lives of the Architects^ 
and Maffei, in his Verona Jllustrata, asoibe the invention 
to San Michnli of Verona: one of Uie bastions of this city 
has on it the date 1527, and its constmction is still ascribed 
to that engineer, who, in fact, was about that time employed 
in the erection or repair of several of the fortresses in Italy. 
From the word Balvardo, denoting a stronghold, the earliest 
French engineers gave to this work the appellation of Boul^ 
vard; and such is its designation in the treatise of Errard, 
which was published in 1594.. The term Bastion appears 
to have been taken from the Italian writers, for Maggi, ia 
his treatise Delia Fortifications delle Citta, applies the term 
Bastioni to redoubts constructed of earth ; and, according 
to Pere Daniel, the French subsequently gave to such 
works the name of Bastilles, or Bastides* Froissart also 
uses these terms in speaking of the forts executed during* 
the siege of Ventadour by the Due de Berri, under Charles 
VI. It should be remarked, however, that Errard applies 
the name of Bastion indifferently to works in the situatioa 
of those now so called, and to those to which the name of 
Ravelin is generally given ; and doubtless it denoted origi- 
nally any work of earth constmcted on the exterior of one 
more antient 

It appears that it had been the practice from the earliest 
times to form a rampart, or bank of earth, in front of the 
walls of fortresses, in order to secure the latter from the 
destractive effects of the ram ; and it is easy to conceive 
that, by forming such a bank in front of the old towers of a 
place, so as to connect those previously existing in front of 
the adjacent curtains, the work would assume a figure like 
that of a modern ba&tiun ; and indeed would very much 
resemble one of the detached bastions in what is called the 
second system of Vauban ; the original tower of the fortress 
occupying the place of the interior bastion of that system, 
and constituting a sort of retrenchment to the new work« 
The constmction was proposed in 1584 by Castriotto, seem- 
ingly as if it had been his own idea ; but probably he meant 
only to recommend the adoption of a kind of work which 
must have been then a novelty. 

The Italian engineers, imme4iately after the invention of 
the bastion system of fortification, became celebrated for 
their skill in military architecture, and they seem to have 
been extensively employed in the constmction or repair of 
fortresses beyond the Alps : one of the first of their labours 
in the north of Europe was the fortification of Landreci, 
with bastions, for Francis I. ; and the like works were exe- 
cuted about New Hesdin, on the frontiers of Artois. for 
Charles V. In 1568, the Duke of Alva employed Pacciotto 
in the constmction of the citadel of Antwerp, a regular for- 
tress, whose bastions still exist within those subsequently 
erected at that place; and, during the reign of Elizabeth, 
Genebella was brought from Flanders to this country in 
order to superintend the formation of a bastioned enceinte 
about the antient castle of Carisbrook, in the Isle of Wight. 

Albert Durer, the celebrated engraver, proposed, in 1527. 
to fortify places with circular towers only, like those of the 
antiento, but of larger dimensions ; and in most of the plans 
published during the sixteenth century by Italian engineers, 
there appears to be a union of the old and new methods : 
for the angles of the polygons are furnished with round 
toweis, and these are protected exteriorly by bastions. 



B A S 17 

The guns mounted on the fluilu of • bastion, by firing 
aloriK the diteh in fh>nt of the curtiin and of the neigh- 
b'lurlnf; bastionR. created a serious impediment to the pas- 
ii.ijie Dl' the encmv across the ditch in attemplinK an assault, 
and it berime nraesssry for bim to lilence that Are hj tt bat- 
tery placed for the parmM in the direction of the dilch ; but 
the establishment of this battery necessarily compelled the 
defenders to augment the number of guns in their bosliODs. 
To get room for these ^ns, enfcineers were induced to form 
their bastions with a double .aDd even a triplo Hank on each 
side, tfao flanks receding fVom each other, from below up- 
wards, in the manner of terraoes, towards the inlonor of the 
bastion ; and, to prevent the enemy from dismounting the 
Runs in the lower Qanks by other batteries raised in the 
prolon^tkins of those flanks, it became necessary to mask 
them by extending the rampart of the face beyond them, 
and giving it a return towards the curtain ; this return was 
freqitentk rectilinear, but generally in the form of an arc of 
a circle, lilie a portion of a round tower, and the projection 
with ita return received the name of orecckione or oriUon. 
Beside* masking the lower flanks from the effect of any en- 
liladine, or lateral Are, it concealed one or more guns on the 
upper flank fhim the Are of an enemy's batteiy directly op- 
posed to that flank, while it permitted those guns to defend 
the main ditch and the breach made by the enemy in face 
of the collateral bastion. 

The desire of avoiding the exposure of the flanks of the 
bastions gave rise to the practice of making them form a right, 
anileVGnanacute.an^le with the curtain; but abetter judg- 
ment subsequently rejected this disposition, as the musketry 
Are from the defenders of the flank vas thereby liable to in- 
jure the men stationed on the curtain. The lower flanks, 
alMt.were eventually suppressed, because they contracted too 
much the interior of the bastion to which they belonged; and 
because the enemy's Are, soon destroying the parapets of 
those above, masses of brickwork felt among the defenders 
below, and obliged them to quit their guns at the very time 
that their ter^ee was most required. The oriVfont, moreover, 
« consideKd useless, as they con tmct the length of the 



B A S 



In what are called the second and third systems of Vau- 
han, the principal bastions are detached from the enceinte 
by a ditch in their rear, and consequently the capture of 
those works would not immediately compel the surrender of 
the fortress. In these systems, a small bastion of brickwork, 
closed by a parapet wall at its gorge, is constructed at each 
of the angles farmed by the polygonal wall surrounding the 
place. The Are from the pnrapets of these tower bastions, as 
tliey are called, would have a powerful eS'ect in preventing 
the enemy, after he has breached and stormed the great 
bastiuns, from erecting batteries in them to destroy the in- 
terior walls; and, in order to pTeserve the artillery of their 
flanks unii^ured till the end of the siege, engineers placed 



it in casemates [see Casruatb], fhim whence the guns 
might pour a destructive fire upon the assailants when 
crossing the ditch of the eiKeintt. In one of the systems 
of Coehom, each principal bastion is attached to the en- 
ceinie, and contains an interior one for the purpose of pro- 
longing its defence. At the shoulders of the former are 
constructed towers of masonry, serving as oriliant and con- 
tain iug galleries whose tVont walls are pierced with loop- 
holes, to allow a fire to be directed along the interval 
betireen the parallel faces oT the two bastions. 

Bastions are now made either solid or hollow: that is, 
either the interior ii filled with earth up to the level of the 
platfwms of the guns, or it is left coincident with that of the 
natural ground. Of the two methods, the fbrmer is generally 
preferred, because it affords some facilities for the formation 
and defenceofinterior parapets or retrenchments. In almost 
every system of fortification the ramparts of the faces and 
flanks of bastions have been made rectilinear on the plan ; 
a few cases, however, occur in which the flanks have been 
curved, with their convexity towards the interior of the srork. 
This seems to have been devised to allow room for a few 
more men to Are over their parapets than a straight wall 
could afibrd, and to prevent the distant batteries of the 
enemy from easily dismounting their artillery by Aring along 
the interior side of the parapet. On some occasions these 
advantages may be worth obtaining, but as the soldier placed 
behind a parapet always fires nearly in a direction perpen- 
dicular to its length, it is evident that the curved flank may 
causa the lines of Are to tend towards the right or left of 
the main dilch, and thus endanger the safety of the de- 
fenders stationed in the neighbouring works. 

The desire of lessening the efiect of what is called the 
enfilading fire, or that which an enemy may direct along 
the interior side of any parapet, has led Bousmard to give a 
small curvature to the faces of his bastions, the concave part 
being towards the interior ; but it is evident that, by this 
construction, the lines of fire directed from the collateral 
flank for the defence of the &ce, instead of giBiing the Utter 
in its whole length, can only be tangents to the curve, each 
line of Are meeting it in hot one point It is thereCire pro- 
bable that the iajaxy inflicted on the enemy would be found 
much less than that arising tram the usual construction, 
to neutralise entirely the advantage of the diminished 
enAlade Are of the enemy. 

This last mode of firing would be most etTectually pre- 
vented by the formation of semi-circular bastions, detached 
from the enceinte, in the manner lately proposed by Mr. 
Bordwine ; but the ingenious author of that system is, in 
consequence, compelled to abandon, in a great measure, the 
advantage of having the exterior of his walls well defended 
fh>m those which are in collateral situations. The batteries 
however which he proposes to raise in the interior of his 
bastions cannot fail to produce a powerfiil defence towards 
ear, for the rampart of his enreinle, 



No. 207. 



[THE PENNY CVCLOPJiDIA.] 



BAT 1 

Fig, I. Tha tine A B repieteott one tide of the polygon 
luppoud to incloH the town fortified. The semicircuUr 
work M A it half a round tower ; and A C li part of the 
ourtain, or conneotiag wall between two tuch towen, ec- 
owdinf to tha antient manner of fortifying places ; a c re- 
pTMent* a tort al fatuu broj/e, or elevation of earth nro- 
tecLng the anlient walla of a place. D repretenta half a 
button conatfucted at the angle, A, of the polygon, accotil- 
iiig to the method orthe fint Italian and French engineert, 
with an «illon and triple flank. The pentagonal figure 
about B ii tha plan of a modam baition, of wbusli the part 



! BAT 

on the teft of the capital, B % repreaentE what is ctHod a 
hollow, and that on the right a solid bastion. An ima^nai; 
line from / lo g i» the gorge, and tha rempart. «/, u the 
curtain Joining the right Hank of one bastion to the left of 
the next. The space, F G E, is the main ditch ; and H 
and K are respectively the positions of a counter and enfl- 
lading battery which might be constraeted bylhe enemy to 
silenre the Brea from the triple Hank of D. The outworks, 

P, G, (J, R, S, rrENAILLH, CAPOiraiERl. RaTILIK, Co- 

vhhid-way, and Gt*cia] wiU be described under those 



Fig. i repT«»enlt a leMlon rappowd ts be made from 
D to 1^ perptndieularlf aeroaa the runnatt on the left ho» 
of B, and the main ditoh in iu front H and N are aeetiaM 
through the Tetattnmta, or wait* vhieh support the earth 
on the tidat of the diuh. 




\nftg. 3, V represents the plan of a detached button ; T 
u a tuwei bution at on angle of the polygon which sur- 
rounda the plac& 

(Vilnrvius, D« ArehilgclurS ; Maggi, DeUa PMifica- 
tiotu delU CiKa, Venetia, 1584; Emrd. La Fijrli/icalioa 
rfdiaU en art. Par. 1600 ; De Villo, Llnginieur Par/ait, 
Par. 1672; Vauban, CEufrei 3fi7tiiu'rM. par Foimac, Par. 
1793; Belidor, La Sdmca de V In^inuur, Par. 1729; Fri- 
tach, L' Architecture Mililaire, Par. 1668; Connontaigne, 
(Euvret Potthumet, Par. 1B09; Montalembert, La fbrH- 
Jiralion Parpendieulairi, Pur. 1776-9B; Bousmard, Ettai 
General de Porti/lcalion, Par. IBM; St. Paul. Tfaite Com- 
plct de ForUfication, Par. IB06 ; Savort, Court HUmmtaire 
dif PbrliJIcalion, Par. 1830; lAKidaT, De tAtrhiteelurednt 
Forlereeiet, Par. IBOl ; Dulbur, De la Fortijreatiim Per- 
mamnte, Geneve, 1823; Camot, De la Difenee de* Piaoe* 
Fortn. Par. 1812 ; Col. Paslay, Couree qf Elementan/ Fhr- 
iijicatioji, Lond. 1822; Malortie, Ptnnaneni FtirlOleatitM, 
Lond. 1821; Capt. Straiib, .4 Treatite on ForlffieattM, 
Cr^diHi, 1833.) 

BAT. [Sea CniiitoPTiKA.] 

BATA'RA (Zoology), D'Atara t name fw the Btuh- 
thriket, fbnning the genua T^amnepMut of Vieillot A 
ver7 good account of these bifda, which appear to hare been 
found between the noctbern and southern points of Canada 
and Paraguay, will be foiind In the Memoir* of Dr. Such 
and Mr. Swainson. published in the Zoolagicai Journal. 
The latter toologist eoniiden the typical gtoup to c^itist of 
the species with long tails; and of this £viiiion, TTiamn^ 
philu* Fiform, Such (yanga tlriata, Quoyand Gaimard), 
mar be taken at an illuitratioD. 

Dr. Such states ihia to be the largest tpeciet yet known, 
and (pves thirteen inches as the length of the body. The 
bill is black and ^eij much compressed. In the male 
(which is the tez here figured) tha back, wings, and tail are 
blaek, btoadlj banded with fulvont, and the under part of 



BAT 



a> 



BAT 



ployod hf AgriepU io bM van Sa BnUia. <TaHc 4fri& 
xx&vM Id iMM ittfcripCiMM tbey an catt ai * fhcoda ^ 
broClMra or tba RofBan peopla.' or of the ' Ronaa cMoan.' 
Tbo data of ono of tboie lOMmpacna » dcicnuaed bjr Ae 
naiao of tbo Evpanir Aondiiuk (Gralar. faucL) 

In tbo lattor part of tbe tbtui eeatmry^ dannr 
war wbSab doMtatod tbo enpire, tbo fiabaa Ftaaiu 
tbo ooQBtry of tbo Botari, ai»d o a faHtdifd 
Tbojr arnad piralo toaada, vbkb vcat i 
doMtodataoa bjrCaranaiQiL Conatanfiaa aad Coottantrne 
vagod var afuait tbo Fraaka of tbe B ala yi aa ulaad. but a pnmnoe of tbe Fi 
oooldDOtdnvotboaioatoftt. TW Fraafca k«t a, bcmcrcr, 
aador /uliaa. by aa imiptaoa of Fmiana, vba caaM firaai J bjrtbeticatTaf UlS 
tbo BOftbora eoaotry aoar tbo Ziudanaa, aad drave tbe | ta tbo 
Sabaa Fiaaka bejoad tbe Maaa. AAer tbk tbe lB«4ila , Batnia 
Batairorvai fiMwad part of tbe eonairy caUod Freua, viueti, 

ID tbo tiiaa of tbo MovtioaJaaa. ostcsded aocxtbwd aa • tbe BMotb af tbe met J 
frr aa tbo Sebddt. Uijder Cbarieaucao it fioaod a duebj ' aianbea. aaniMded bv 
bcanof aOeipaaee to tbe ooipire, * Dixatoa Fretim luqpa ad i cxbalatioaai 
Mamm.' It aflorvaidf baeaaK drndcd mto Wi 

calkd Frraia Hsraditaha, vfakb vaa wuhjtxt to bcrobtary ' Bata. Bcaidea tbk, all tbe 
aad BaaloraFriMa, or Ficaio libera, wfajcbfcaBained brcaaals, pbated 
The Ymd lanmtA tbe dirisaon betvcea tbe ' 
tvo, Abr«t tbe deveatb eeatory we ftit fad Westera 




In tbo 







FnMa caiM by tbe aaaw of Holiaad, loow aay Iridi kM . prvreat tbe paaaaee of boota ia 

i^MlL ' a ksv br>l:ov laad«' aad aa ocpuau took tbe aaaie of tbecoanaoa iiiij^aibafcr aHtheiltbof tbe 

OjusJm of Hoflapd, Tbe oooatry of tbe aatieat Betari dry 

faro^sd tbe »wtbera port of tbctrdooamioaa; but tbe islands most iDic4erzbie itcadi, vbik ia tbo 

ai tbe mootb i4 the Maaa, aad betvotn a aad tbe Scbekie, fl.yv their banks, and Inw a qaaatity of 

vcae tbe ff.b;«et of ftoquoa t eooteatioDa aad ynn between Fr>3 tbeae mated caaaea it la aO 

tbcs a«l tae CxMflU of Flaadera. (IT AanUe. E/a^/wer uv.a has been eanadocd tbe bmI 

em Emrope mpre$ ia CkmU dt tEmpirt B'^maim ; Meyer, wrkd, and baa been de»i£nated tbe 

JU9 Ftamdrvi^,} AithooiEb tbe aaae Batari has faDea mto Aoeordin^ to Rarnal, the abi i of 

it baa alvaja beea employed by modcra aathoia \ alooe wha died in tbe hfwyink araiaf od 1400 aaaaally for 

la Lalai to siirufr the Duleh or HoOaadera gcnerallT. . sxtr Tean, aod the total •***—*»» of daaiba ia to oalj -two 

BAT A'Vl A, one of the dMtheu,orreBidcBCfla,of tbe island j yean 'exceeded a Billkia of aoak; battbb laaka Tcry like 

ofJata. Itii WwiadedoBtbeaorthbythe JaTm8ei,ontbe I 

by tbe reg^eaey of Bonfim. from which it ia dtnded by 

the icota by tbe fcstdeaee of Boitea- 
aad oa tbe eart by the mer Tjitanim, which fonm 
boaadary of tbe dictrirt of Crawaag. The di- 
of the dutnet of Batarm am about twenty-foar 
to weal, and aUsot ax and a half leagaea 
aortb to aooth, the capital being aitttaled aorly ia tbe 
■oAdIa of tbe aorujera boucyiary. 
Tbe diat/Kt of Bolana m dn^ied pr^tkaUy into four de- 
lta, oae of vhMrh oooaistA of the ctty and ita aaborbL 
to tW aea-^ore tbe coonCiy k flat,' bat mca with a 
ii'tay tovsnU the locth to the 

tt«t iMand Itmb lite wetteni to the 
diAtnet t* veil watered. Tbe rvn. 
wbirb joiaa tbe aaa at the town of Batam, dividing it iato 
aoarif oqwal porta, baa a bank or bar at it^ mouth which 
prevcaa* tao entraoee of any bat the soMilcat boata. This 
diia di aatafo genenlly attends all the iiTcra oa tbe aorth 
■ a aa t <^ J«ta, objcfa, aa they hare their aouroea oa tbe 
aortb side of the mooatain- range, aad flow in a pretty 
dkfoct hao to the aea, are aot of great leagth. Tbeyaame, 
however* together with aimierotta liruietap to irrigate die 
kads, aad laai w of the frraatcr beaeflt, aa one of the chief 
p ro d a ct j o na cf tbo district ia rice. Thoe are laaay aogar 
ia tbe djatnet of Batam, aad their BQmbcr has 
vOTy dooth increaaed of late yean since the island waa 
iaiheuutrh. This speaea of cnltivatioa baa baaa 
efvt.iuratod t^ tbe local govemaieat, aa aflbrdiag tbe mcaaa 
of mmjuing to tbe paieat atalo tbe surpltis rereaoe of tbe 
ookmy. OiCUMi,peppcr,aadcaffK(thelaattoaconaadarable 
oaleot^ are like« MO prodoead iathia district. Tbe popola- 
tioa, acerirdmg U# the ceaaoa takoa ia 1821, waa 182,654. 

Kuvorwns s V/fffogee ; Couat Hogoadorp's Coup dCBil 
mr tlU fU Jam. ^. laio.) 

BATA' VIA M a city on the ooitb coaat of Jata, eitnatod 
at the bottom of aa exten«vo bay, about 60 milea E.SJS. of 
toebcraiuof SuDda. It waa formerly a Dative Tillage called 
iseaifa, oad though ptobably TiMtod by the Portuguese, 
thoy did not form any eomamrcial aettlemoat here. The 
KoglMh aad Dutch bad foctoriaa, tbe former of whirJi was 
o K s Mf hod la 1610, aad tbo lattor m 1612 ; bat the Dutch, 
bating OMMiaaasd the oouatry, fooadod the present town 
ondor the aamo ef Baum, aad roawvod the gorernaieDt 
iTMm Bantam ia 1619. U flaally bocaam tbe capital of their 
lUst ladiaa ompire.aad tbo raaidoaoa of the goiemor gcne- 
al I aad Ibo lagbab, bariag takoa part with tbo aatirca ia 




During tbe Fvcaeb anrinalkm, tbo walla 

of tbe towa were rcowved by GenenI Tlaanduli with the 

of admitting a freer cjwwlatina of aav aad with the 

tbe caatoamcBt of Wchemedca waa bailt, a abort 

dirtance from tbe towa inbnd. 

Tbe dty IS about three qaaitem of a milo ia loagtik, north 
aad about half a aule wide. It waa eadoaed by 
a wan of coral rock, with a stream of waoer oa each aide, 
witfaia aad without. There are aow oaly three cburebea in 
tbe town, aad one theatre : at tiie aoeteia part is a large 
aqaan where the atadthaai ataads. ia which tbo courts of 
kw am beU, aad aU public Wmai tnasaoted. Tbe 
sticcU are geacrally at right aaglaa ta one aaotbar, and 
tbe bonaea mostly of hnek rtneeoed, Thty am wall built, 
dean, and spacious, aad their eonatraetion ia aaited to tbe 
country. Tbe dooca and windows am klhr, aad tbo ground 
flooca am coTered with flags of aaaibla, which are kept con- 
stantly wet, and impart a ooolaeaa to the dwelliag. Few 
Europeans, however, sleep within the town, u the aight 
air ia considered Terr baneliiL Tbe iabahitaatB (poaaibly 
aa aa antidote against the nozHiua cfllaTia arising from 
the awampa and canals) continually bum aromatic woods 
and resins, and scatter about a proluaion of odoriforoua 
flowers, of which there are great abnndanra aad raiiety. 
During the proaperity of tbe Dutch Bast India Company. 
BaUTia obtained the title of Queea of tbo Boat, aa the re- 
sources of all other distrieta were aacu flca d to ita exeluaiv^ 
oommerce ; but ita splendour has greatly deermaed, owing 
chiefly to the increase of the Britiah empire in India. 
Whole atreeU abo haTe beea pulled down ia conaaquenco 
of the Buropeaa aettlen reaamng their reaidenem from the 
town to the high grounda in the naighboufbood. 

In the north-east quarter of tbo town ia the ettadel, n 
laive aquare incknure with a bastkw at each aagle, but 
without any outworks; witbia dm citadel are loakleacea 
for the GoremorGeneral and diief officera, with warehouaes 
for the moat valuable of the Company a gooda in caao of 
daager. In addition to theao defenoea there am mveral 
small batteriea and redoubte in and around the Iowa, beeidea 
fortified houses, so placed aa to A«w.mmnii ^j^ navigation of 
the principal canals. Most of them worka are merely for 
tbemirpose of keeping the naUvea in awe, aad are iU-eaktt* 
Uted to withstaB'l an invading aimy.aawaa profod in 181 1. 
But If the fortifieatk)na of Batavia are not formidable in 
tbemselvea, they beeome ao from their ntaation amour 
swamps and morasaea, where, by the doatractfoa of a few 
nods that cram thMa to tbo town, tbo appioaeh of baavy 



BAT 



21 



BAT 



artillery would be tmpraetieable ; and towftrdi the bay the 
water is too shallow to admit even of a boat coming within 
gunshot-range of the castle, except by the narrow entrance 
tu the river, which may be closed by booms. 

The diversified population of tfatavia and its suburbs 
within two miles, aooording to the census of 1815, amounted 
to 47,417, and consisted of Dutch, English, Portuguese, 
Chinese, Moors, Arabs, Malays, Javanese, and negro slaves : 
of these classes the Chinese are by f^ the most numerous 
and important. In 1824 another census was taken, when 
the number was 53,861, of whom 14,708 were Chinese. This 
does not include the military establishment at Welte\Teeden. 
The Chinese fiurm the revenues, are the principal artisans, 
and exclusively nuinu&cture the sugar and arrack. They 
have a separate quarter outside the town, the suburbs of 
which occupy a larger space than the city itself: they suffer 
greatly from disease, and the mortality among them is very 
great, owing to the closeness of their apartments and their 
^ross manner of living. Many junks arrive annually from 
China, bringing about 1000 settlers. In 1742, in conse- 
quence of a supposed organised plan of insurrection on the 
])urt of the Chinese, the Dutch government perpetrated a 
must cold-blooded massacre, in which more than one half of 
the Chinese were murdered. 

The country around Batavia is very beautiful and fer- 
tile, though flat in the vicinity of the town. Markets are 
ret^ularly held, one within and the other outside the city, 
which are remarkably well supplied with fruit, which is the 
most abundant article of vegetable luxury ; the principal 
borts are, pine-apples, oranges, shaddocks, lemons, limes, 
mangoes, bananas, grapes, melons, pomegranates, custard- 
ap|)les, papaws, mangosteens, and rombusteens, wiih many 
oiiicrs mostly unknown in Europe. Fowls, ducks, and 
^eesc, are plentiful and cheap ; turkeys, pigeons, and wild- 
fowl are, in general, very scarce, and butcher's meat inferior 
and dear : of fish there is an abundant supply, and turtle 
are sometimes found. The chief imports are opium and 
])icce goods; the exports sugar, coffee, and spices: salt 
aUo forms an important article of colonial commerce ; near 
Batavia there are some very extensive works for making 
salt from sea-water. 

The anchorage of Batavia is a bay, about eleven miles 
lon{r and six d^sp, capable of containing any number of 
vessels of the largest size ; it is studded with coral knolls 
and protected by several small islands, averaging half 
a mile in diameter, all of which are occupied, and have 
their different appropriations; one is a convict establish- 
ment ; another an hospital ; a third is covered with ware- 
lioui»es for articles of small value ; a fourth (Onrust) is the 
naval arsenal, which is well fortified. 

These islands protect the bay from any heavy swell ; and, 
asi the bottom is very tenacious, it becomes a perfectly safe 
a n c horage. But when the sea- breeze blows strong it causes 
a cockling sea, which renders the communication with the 
town unpleasant, and sometimes dangerous, as the only 
I Lin ding-place is up the river; the channel of which is 
fonned by wooden piers, projecting half a mile into the sea, 
and across it is a shallow bar. The river Jacatra abounds 
in large alligators. During the easterly monsoon, which 
blows from April to October, the weather is uniformly fine 
and warm ; but the north-west monsoon is always aooom- 
paniod by heavy rains and strong winds. The summer range 
of the thermometer is from 70 to 74 in the mornings and 
evenings, and 80 at noon. The rise of tide is about six feet. 

BaUvia lies in 6° 9' S. lat, and 106^ 52' E. long. 

(Rattles's History of Java; Staunton's Embassy to 
Chhia ; Cook's Voyages ; CnviiutCL it History of the Indian 
Archipelago; HonhiirgKi East India Directory ; Hogen- 
dorp's Coup dCBil, &o. There is a plan of Batavia, for the 
year 1669, in Mandelslo's Travels.} 

BATAVIAN REPUBLIC. [See Holland.] 

BATH, the chief city of Somersetshire, celebrated for its 
natural hot springs, is about 108 miles from London, in 
51° 22' 32" N. lat., and 2° 3 1' 30" W. long. The town lies 
in a valley, divided by the river Avon. Geologically it is 
placed upon the great western oolitic range, which attains 
its greatest elevation on Lansdown, above Bath, where its 
summit is 813 feet above the level of the sea. This range 
ii intersected in the neighbourhood of the city by deep 
tr&nsvorse valleys, but re-appears on the south of the Avon, 
w here its elevation is so broken that its continuity is de- 
stroyed. Its section near Lansdown is a bed of upper, or 
gieat oolite* varying from 40 to 150 feet in thickness, form- 



ing the brow of the hill; then a gradual slope of ftdlert" 
earth -clay; next a terrace of inferior oolite with its under- 
lying sand and sandstone, which falls with a precipitous slope 
and rests on lias clay, or blue marl, and then on lias rock. 
The freestone or oolite, worked from ouarries situated to 
the east and south of Bath, has furnisned almost entirely 
the chief building materials for the city. The soil upon the 
declivities of the hills is generally rich, and the lower grounds 
afibrd very fine pasturage. The country about is wooded ; 
and from the inequality of the ground presents a great va- 
riety of agreeable landscape. From the sheltered position 
of the city, its temperature is mild. The following table 
is made up from observations continued through fifteen 
years, the temperature being noted from a thermometer 
placed in a north aspect, and fifteen feet from the ground, 
compared with tables given by Dr. Clark in his work on 
climate 

Nov. Dec Jan. Feb. M&r. 

Near Loudon • 40*93 37 66 3416 39-78 4!'51 
Oxford . . 43-60 3700 36'90 37*10 42*10 
Bath . . 45*35 42'25 37*75 41*25 44 40 

In the summer months, the same observations give the 
mean temperature of Bath at 61*20 in June, 64*20 in Julv, 
and 62*70 in August. The mean annual depth of rain 
which falls there is 36*30 inches, and the number of days 
on which rain or snow falls is 162, every day being noted 
wet on which suflScient rain fell to mark the pavement. 

This city was a Roman station, mentioned by Ptolemy, 
under the name ofAquof CalidtB, and by him placed wiui 
Venta and Ischalis in the country of the Belgos. It is also 
placed in tho 14th Iter of Antoninus, in connexion with 
other stations, thus, Ab Isca Venta Silurum, M.P. ix. 
Abone, M.P. ix. Trajectus, M.P. ix. Aquis Solis, M.P. 
vi. Verlucione, M.P. xv. Cunetione, M.P. xx. Spinis, 
M.P. XV. Calleva, M.P. xv. The stations preceding and 
following that of Bath are much disputed, and their actual 
position is very doubtful. In the Notitia, Bath is not 
mentioned. It was intersected by the antiont Roman road 
leading from London into Wales, and by the road called the 
Fosse, which ran from Lincolnshire to the south coast of 
England. These two roads joined near the bridge crossing 
a small stream in the parish of Bath Easton, about two 
miles from Bath. They then continued in one course 
through a great portion of the parish of Walcot, separating 
again near Walcot church. Tiie Fosse entered the north 
gate of the city from Walcot- street, passed through the 
town, up Hollowayand on to llchester. The other road ran 
up Guinea Lane, and on to the station of Abone. Close 
to the spot where these roads separated, and towards the 
river, numerous coins, vases, and sepulchral remains have 
from time to time been found. The Roman remains dis- 
covered in Bath and in its neighbourhood have been con- 
siderable. At Box a tessellated pavement of large dimen- 
sions is at this time lying open, proof of the existence of a 
villa on the spot Several such remains have been found 
in the country around Bath, especially at Bath-Ford, Dithe- 
ridge, Horeland near Warley, and at Wellow. In the citv of 
Bath itself, the foundations of extensive buildings have often 
been traced. On the eastern side of the Fosse, near the 
north end of Stall-street, portions of a large temple were 
discovered, and are still preserved in the Bath Institution. 
Its front was towards the west, and consisted of a portico 
with fluted columns, crowned with Corinthian capitals. 
Towards the east of this building stood the principal 
baths, the remains of which were discovered in 1755. In 
other parts of the city, altara with inscriptions, tessellated 
pavements, ornamented bricks, urns, vases, lachrymatories, 
fibuhe, coins, &c., have been turned up, but none of the 
inscriptions throw any light upon the history of the place. 
No city in England can produce such a collection of local 
Roman remains as is now deposited in the Bath Literary 
and Scientific Institution : there is nothing like it in the 
kingdom, except at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where the col- 
lection is from the whole of the northern field. The new 
town is many feet above its antient level ; in some plaoea 
more than twenty. The walls, as they oxisted until a late 
period, are presumed to have been built, to a great extent, 
upon the base of the Roman walls. There are accounta 
and engravings of Roman inscriptions and sculptures incor- 
porated in the walls, none of which are now existing. 

The modem city of Bath is of great beauty. Its streets 
are very regular, clean, and, at night, well-lighted. Its 
best buiildtngs, such as the Upper RoomSt the north sidtt 



BAT 



29 



BAT 



of Quecn-squmre, th« Crescent, and Circus, were built about 
the middle of Ibe last centur)% from designs of tbe two 
>Vo(td<. Tho last forty Years have hardly produced a build- 
in ;* of any arcbitectuml valuot though* the materials for 
building are cheap, and the stone is worked with great ease. 
The architecture of the later buildings is generally of a 
bald character. 

The city is governed by a corporation, under charters 
inranted by Queen Elisabeth, Sept 4, 1590, and by George 
III^ 1794. The first of these charters directs that the 
corporation shall consist of a mayor, aldermen, not exceed- 
ing in number ten, nor fewer than four, and a common 
council of twenty members. There are also a recorder, 
town-clerk, and two sergeants-at-mace. The local court of 
record has cognizance of all personal actions whatsoever 
arising within the city and its suburbs or precincts, without 
restriction as to the amount of the sum in dispute. The 
non-residence, however, of the recorder, the legal adviser of 
the magistrates and one of the presiding judges ; the attor- 
neys of tho court being the two sergeants-at-mace and un- 
profeiisional persons ; and the ease with which a cause may 
DO removed to any of the superior courts, by writ of cer- 
tiorari or habeas corpuSt destroy all its advantages. A 
oourt-leet« and court of quarter-sessions are also held by 
the magistrates, who, though without power to try persons 
charged with febnies under the charter of the city, are 
perhaps enabled to try them under ^e 4 and 5 Will. IV. 
c. 27, see. 3. By the charter of 1794, eleven instead of two 
members of the corporation are empowered to act as jus- 
tices of the peace within the city. The members of the 
corporation, though self-elected, must be chosen from the 
freemen; and as the freemen by purchase were consi- 
dered to have a claim to be elected before the freemen 
bv servitude, the price of the freedom, shortly before the 
Reform Act passed, was 250/. Tbe property of the body 
is very extensive, including lands and bouses in the best 
part of the city ; all the hot- springs but one ; nearly all 
the cold-springs which supply the town with water ; and 
the tolls of the market; altogether producing, in 1832, a 
rental of more than 12,000/. per annum. In 1832 the public 
debt of the corporation amounted to 55,863/. 

The charter boundaries of the city include part of the 
parishes of Walcot and Bathwick, and the parishes of St. 
Peter and St. Paul. St. James, and St. Michael The 
parliamentary boundaries of the city, under the Boimdary 
Act, include, in addition, the remaining parts of the parishes 
of Walcot and Bathwick, and the parish of Lyncombe and 
AVidoombe. The new limits comprised, m 1831, a popu- 
lation of 50.800 persons (21,035 males and 29,765 females), 
charged with assessed taxes to the amount of 62,000/. 
a-year ; 331 acres of ground, and above 7000 houses, more 
than 5000 of which were taxed at the annual value of 10/. 
Tim power of electing the parliamentary represenUtives of 
the city was formerly in the oorporetion only. Under the 
Reform Act» tbe number of registered electors, in each of 
the last three years, has been about 2800. The inhabitanto 
of Bath are exempt from serving on the juries of the county. 

A community of Religious existed here from the earliest 
ages of Christianity in Britain, who had their house near to 
the springs and baths. The constitution of the society 
underwent several changes, and at last the house and all its 
possessions, which were extensive and valuable, were sur- 
rendered to the crown by William Holloway, the last prior, 
June 29, 1539. What is now called tbe Abbey Chureh was 
the chureh of this community, and was connected, on the 
lottth side, with the conxjentual dwellings. An older chunh 
having iallen into decay, the budding of the present editice 
was begun by Bishop OUver King, in the reign of Henry 
VII., at the time of whose death it was unfinished, and 
continued to be so when the priory was dissolved. After 
having been in a dilapidated state for many years, its re- 
pair was underUken by Chapman, in 1 572, continued by the 
munificence of Thomas Bellot, steward of the household of 
Queen Elisabeth, and was nearly completed by Bishop 
Uontsgue, about the year 1609. This edifloe is of the 
shape of a cross, with a very handsome tower rising fl!om 
the eentre. lu length from east to wea is 210 feet, and 
from north to south 126. The west front is decorated with 
numerous figures, now much impaired by time, intended to 
n*|>rcf»cnt Jacob's dresm. Tbe east window is remarkable 
for ben:g square, and was until very lately appmpriately 
supported by two square towers, wliicli have been converted 
icio iU-designed octagonal piunaelee. Tlie buildtiig itself 



is an example of the pointed style at the latest period m 
which it prevailed, and was completed with great simplicity 
and taste. In 1834 its whole design and character were 
materially changed, and its most peculiar features de 
strayed. The interior is entirely disfigured by the multitude 
of monuments with which it is covered. It is the parish 
chureh of the parish of St. Peter and St, PauL 

The ecclesiastical division of Bath is into tbe parishes 
already named, each of which has its parochial church. 
There are also tbe following chapels connected with tho 
Established Chureh:^ Queen Square, Margaret's, All 
Saiuts, Kensington, Octagon, Laura, St Mark, Trinity. 
St. Saviour, Christ Chureh, Magdalens, St. John's Hos- 
pital. Records also exist of eleven chapels which have 
been desti*oyed. The Independents, QuakerSt Moravians, 
Methodists, Unitarians, Roman Catholics, Jews, and Bap- 
tists, have all places of worship in the city, the majority 
of which are large and handsome buildings. 

There are charitable institutions in wis eity of antient 
and modem date of every kind. The oldest is the hospital 
of St. John, founded in 1 180 by Reginald Fitqooelyne, an 
it is ssid, for the benefit of the sick poor resorting to Bath. 
The beneficiaries now are a master, six brethren, and six 
sisters. The patronage of the mastenhip was cranted by 
Queen Elizabeth to the corporation of Bath. Its endow- 
ments are large, and the annual value of its property in 
1818, chiefly leased on lives, in consideration of fines, was 
11,396/. The master receives two-thirds of the fines and 
income, and the brethren and sisters the remainder. The 
chief establishment, however, for tho sick poor is called the 
General Hospital. It was opened in 1748, and is regulated 
by act of parliament. No patient can be admitted unless 
his case has been certified as proper for the trial of the hot 
waters, previous to his coming to Bath, and no inhabitant 
of Bath is admitted into it. This last regulation, thou^rh 
wisely fremed, is to some extent evaded by the admission 
of persons dwelling in the suburbs, but beyond the charter 
limits of the city. The charity is well endiowed, end its re- 
cords have had the character of having been kept with great 
care, fideUty, and exactness. There is also another large 
hospital called the United General Hospital, or Casualty 
and Dispensary, which affords to the sick poor of the city 
the advantages x>f the use of the hot waters, and give^ 
assistance in cases of ordinary illness and casualty. It is 
well governed, and the whole of its anraugements aae good. 

There is a small collection of books in the vestry of the 
abbey church and some antient MSS. In the year 1826 a 
literery and scientific institution was founded, com prising, 
partly by purchase and partly by benefactions, an extensive 
and well-selected library of reference both in science and 
literature. The institution also contains a small museum 
and laboretory, with rooms for the delivery of lectures. 
There is also a Mechanics* Institute, which has a tolerabW 
collection of books, and which has been almost entirely sup- 
ported for some years by the dass for whoee use it was 
designed. 

The chief institution for instruction is the free granmar- 
school, founded by Edward VI., and endoised wiu part of 
the lands of the dissolved priory of Bath. It was designed 
for the gratuitous instruction of the children of the inha- 
bitants of the town without distinction. The school-bouse 
is a large and handsome building with spacious premises. 
The schoolmaster may be a layman ; but if in holy orderK, 
must be presented to the rectory of Charleombe, the valutf 
of which was, in 1834, about 300/. a-year. His salary, a^s 
master, is 84/. a-year ; but as the school is well attaaded. 
and only ten free scholare are admitted, the value of the 
ofiice is much increased by the pavments of day-scholars 
and boaiden. The lands of the school are venr badly let. 
producing, in 1834, a rent of only 376/. a-year, though their 
annual value, in 1822, was about 1S38/. There are several 
other schools which afford the elements of education, such 
as reading, writing, and arithmetic, suppoited chiefly by 
voluntary subscriptions. 

The * ever memoreble* John Hales, of Eton, was bom 
in 8t James's paririi, and Benjamin Robins, said to hsie 
been the actual writer of Anion's Voyage rownd iks HoH4, 
was a native of this city, whieh also claims Adelardus ik> 
Bathonia, who passed some time in the east during tho 
reign of Henry I., and brought to Envland, among su^roe 
Arabic M8S., a translation of Euclid, being the first eopy 
of the work known in this country. 

The gaieties of Bath ore eelebreted, but ha\0 mvoli d»> 



BAT 



23 



BAT 



f lined during the last twenty years. The Assemhiy Rooms 
are a handsome siuto, the ballroom being nearly 106 by 
nearly 43 feet, and 42 feet G inches hiph, and the tea-room 
70 l)y 27 feet: they were erected by Wood. The theatre is 
probably one of the best of its size in England ; for it Mr. 
Palmer obtained the first act of parliament passed in this 
country for the security of theatrical property. It is justly 
remarked by Seneca, * Ubicunque scatebunt aquarum ca- 
lentium vens, ibi nova divepsoria luxurise excitabuntur : ' 
' wherever warm springs abound, new places of amusement 
are sure to arise up/ 

There is no manufacture of importance in this city. It 
AT as formerly celebrated for its cloth, and at the Restoration 
no less than sixty broad looms were employed in the parish 
of St. Michael's. The paper-mills in the neighbourhood 
are of some note, and paid, in 1832, to the excise 10,575/. 
The city is well-supplied with coal from extensive beds 
lying a few miles distant. The river Avon was made navi- 
gable to Bristol under an act of the 10th Anne, and there 
is a water- communication with London by the Kennet and 
Avon Canal, which joins the Thames at Reading. 

The remarkable peculiarity of Bath is its natural hot 
s]>rings. They are four in number, and rise near the centre 
of the city ; and, with the exception of a spring belonging to 
Lord Manvers, are vested in the corporation. The tempera- 
ture of three of the springs is as follows: — Hot Bath 117^, 
KincT's Bath 114^ and Cross Bath 109° of Fahrenheit, 
yielding respectively 128, 20, and 12 gallons a minute. 
The specific gravity of the water is 1*002. As it flows 
from the earth it is transparent, but in a short time yields 
a slight precipitate and loses its transparencv. When fresh 
drawn it has a slight chalybeate taste. The King's Bath 
is 60 feet 11 inches in length, and 40 feet in breadth, and 
the Queen's Bath, a square of 25 feet, is supplied from it. 
The daily quantity of water discharged into tnese basins is 
1 84,320 gallons. There are private baths attached to the 
Hot and the King's Bath, admirably arranged and con- 
structed, and capable of having their temperature regu- 
lated. Bathing is far from being a practice among the 
inhabitants. The public baths are not much frequented, 
and the private baths, though they occasion few charges for 
their support, but that of linen and attendance, are expen- 
sive. The encouragement of their general use, and the 
efft'ct of low prices, as connected with the advancement of 
local interests, are not yet understood. The baths yielded 
to the corporation, in 1831, a rent of 1442/., and the pump- 
room a rent of 416/. a-year. The waters have been very 
accurately analyzed by Drs. Falconer and Gibbes, and by 
Mr. H. Phillips. According to the last of these writers, 
whose cxpeiiments were very carefully made, a quart of 
water taken from the hot springs contains — 

Carbouie acid • • , 2*4 in. 
Sulphate of lime . . 18* grains. 

Muriate of soda • . .0*6 
Sulphate of soda • • 3*0 

Carbonate of lime , .1*6 

Silica . . • • '4 „ 

Oxide of iron . . , '00394 






n 



Loss 



29-60394 
39606 



30 



n 
»» 
»* 
>» 



Estimating the muriate and sulphate of soda in a crys- 
tal I ized state, a pint of water contains — 

Carbonie acid • • . • H in. 

Sulphate of Ihne ... 9 grains. 

Muriate of soda . . 3^ 

Sulphate of soda ... 34 

C'arbonate of lime . • • ^ 

Silica . . • . . T 

Oxide of iron . . • • ti'b- 

A considerable quantity of carbonic acid gas escapes through 
the writer. 

Taken internally the water acts as a stimulant. Its use 
is most succcas^ul in cases of palsy, rheumatism, gout, le- 
prosy, cutaneous disease, and especially in cases of scrofuUi 
nffecting the joints, such as the knee, elbow, hip. It cannot 
l>o used without danger in cases accompanied with fever, 
rouE^h, or pain in the chesl, open sores or ulcers, or in cases 
V here there is reason to suspect internal suppuration, he- 
morrhage, rupture, mania, or plethora. From its improper 
internal use mischie^'ous results are frequently produced. 



The earliest work on the hot springs is by W. Tnnior> 
dated 1562. The writer, a divine and doctor of medicine, 
and the first English writer on natural history, was bom at 
Morpeth, and was imprisoned for preaching the doctrines 
of the Reformation. Obtaining his liberty, he went abroad, 
where he continued during the greater part of the reign 
of Henry VIII. On his return he was preferred, and re- 
ceived ffom Edward VI. the deanery of Wells. Other 
treatises have been written by Venner, 1617; Guidott, 
1691, 1708: Pierce, 1697; Oliver. 1716; Cheyne, 1725; 
Wynter, 1728; Quinton, 1734; Kinnier, 1737; Randolph, 
1752 ; Charleton, 1754; Lucas, 1756 ; Steven, 1758; Suther- 
land, 1763; Falconer, 1770, 1789; Gibbes, 1800; Wilkin- 
son; PhiUips, 1806; Daubenv, 1834. 

(See CoUinson's History of Somersetshire, vol. i. ; War- 
ner's History of Bath; Lysons's Reliquite Romanee; 
Wood's Essay totcards a Description of Bath, 1742, 1749, 
1760; Charity Commissioners' Reports; ' On the Climate 
of Bath,* Bath Magazine, vol. iii. p. 289 ; On the Oolitic 
District of Bath, by Lonsdale ; Transactions of the Geolo^ 
gical Society, vol. iii. p. 241 ; Mujiicipal Corporation In- 
quiry, 1833; Turner's History of England, 8vo. vol. iv. 
p. 438 ; MS, Communication from Bath.) 

BATH, a town in Lincoln county, state of Maine, in the 
United States of North America, situated in 43° 54' N. lat, 
and 69° 47' W. long. This town is built on the west side 
of the river Kennebec, at the head of the ship- navigation on 
that river, and sixteen miles from the sea. It is distant thirty- 
five miles north-east from Portland, which town was, until 
1832, the seat of government in the state. With the ex- 
ception of Portland, Bath has more shipping belonging to 
its port than any other town in Maine ; the amount of re- 
gistered and licensed tonnage in 1831 was 26,237 tons: 
the population, according to the census of 1830, was 3773. 

BATH, KNIGHTS OF THE, so called from the an- 
tient custom of bathing previous to their installation. The 
origin of this order of knighthood has been described as of 
very remote antiquity ; but as Camden and Selden agree 
that the first mention of an order of knights, distinctly called 
Knights of the Bath, is at the coronation of Henry IV. in 
1399, there can be little doubt that this order was then 
instituted. That bathing had been a part of the discipline 
submitted to bv esquires in order to obtain the honour 
of knighthood from very early times, is admitted; but it 
does not appear that any knights were called Knights of the 
Bath till these were created by King Henry IV. 

Froissart (see Lord Bernerss TVanslat. edit. 1812, vol. ii. 

{). 752), speaking of that king, says, * The Saturday before 
lis coronation he departed from Westminster, and rode to 
the Tower of London with a great number ; and that night 
all such esquires as should be made knights the next day, 
watched, who were to the number of forty -six. Every esquire 
had his own bayne {bath) by himself; and the next day the 
Duke of Lancaster made them all knights at the mass-time. 
Then had they long coats with strait sleeves, furred with 
mynever hke prelates, with white laces hanging on their 
shoulders.* 

It became subsequently the practice of the English kings 
to create Knights of the Bath previous to their coronation, at 
the inauguration of a Prince of Wales, at Uie celebration of 
their own nuptials or those of any of tlra royal family, 
and occasionally upon other great occasions or solemnities. 
Fabyan {JChron. edit. 1811, p. 582) says that Henry V., in 
1416, upon the taking of the town of Caen, dubbed sixteen 
Knights of the Bath. 

Sixty-eight Knights of the Bath were made at the coro- 
nation of King Charles II. (see the list in Guillim's He- 
raldry, io\. Lond. 1679, p. 107); but from that time the 
order was discontinued, till it was revived by King George I. 
under writ of Privy Seal, dated May 18» 1725, during the 
administration of Sir Robert Walpole. Tlie statutes and 
ordinances of the order bear date May 23, 1725. By these 
it was directed that the order should consist of a grand- 
master and thirty-six companions, a succession of whom 
was to bo regularly continued. The othcers appropriated to 
the order, besides the grand-master, were a dean, register, 
king of arms, genealogist, secretary, usher, and messenger. 
The dean of jiie collegiate church of St. Peter, Westminster, 
for the time being, was appointed ex officio dean of the 
Order of the Bath, and it was directed that the other officers 
should be from time to time appointed by the grand-master. 

The badge of the order was directed to be a rose, thistle, 
and shamrock, issuing from a sceptre between three im- 
perial crowns, surrounded by the motto Triajuncta in uno 



BAT 



24 



BAT 



Ib W of pure gold, ohued uid pierood, and to be worn 
by Ibo bnight-elect, pendant fVom a red riband placed 
ooliouely over tbo right fthouldor. The ooUar to be of gold, 
vreigniug thirty ounces troy weight, and composed of nine 
imperial crownt, and eight roses, thistles, and shamrocks 
issuing fVom a sceptre, enamelled in their proper colours, 
tied or link^ together by seventeen gold knots, enamelled 
white, and having the badge of the order pendant from it. 
The star to consist of three imperial crowns of gold, sur- 
rounded with the motto of the order upon a cirole gules, 
with a glory or ray issuing fVom the centre, to be embroi- 
dere<l on the left side of the upper garment. 

The installation dress was ordered to be a surcoat of white 
satin, a mantle of crimson satin lined with white, tied at the 
neck with a coidon of crimson silk and gold, with gold 
tassels, and the star of the order embroidered on the left 
shoulder ; a white silk hat, adorned with a standing plume 
of white Oitrioh feathers ; white leather boots, edged and 
heeled ; spurs of crimson and gold ; and a sword in a white 
leather scabbard, with cross hilts of gold. 

Each knight was to be allowed three esquires, who are to 
be gentlemen of blood, bearing coat-armour; and who, 
during the term of their several lives, are entitled to all the 
privilei^ and exemptions ei\joyed by the esquires of the 
sovereign's body, or trie gentlemen of the privy chamber. 

In 1815, the Prince Kegcnt, being desirous to comme- 
morate the auspicious termination of the long and arduous 
contests in which the empire had been engaged, and of 
marking, in an especial manner, his sense of the valour, 
perseverance, and devotion manifested by the officers of the 
king's forces by sea and land, thought fit to advance the 
splendour and extend the limits of the Order of the Bath : 
upon which occasion his Roval Highness, by virtue of the 
royal prerogative, was pleased to ordain that thenceforward 
the^ order should be composed of three classes, differing in 
their ranks and degrees of dignity. 

The first class to consist of knights grand crosses, which 
designation was to be substituted for that of knights com- 
panions previously used. The knights grand crosses, with 
the exception of princes of the blood-royal holding high 
commissions in the army and navy, not to exceed seventy- 
two in number; whereof a number not exceeding twelve 
might be nominated in consideration of servioes rendered in 
civil or diplomatic employments. To distinguish the mili- 
tar)' and naval officers upon whom the first class of the said 
order was then newly conferred, it was directed that they 
should bear upon the ensign or star, and likewise upon the 
badge of the order, the addition of a wreath of laurel en- 
circling the motto, and issuing from an escrol inscribed 
Ich dim ; and the digniiy of the first class to be at no time 
conferred upon persons who had not attained the rank of 
major- general in the army, or rear-admiral in the navy. 

The Pccond cl«ss was to be composed of knights com- 
manders, who were to have precedence of aU knights 
bochelorji of the United Kingdom: the number, in the 
first instance, not to exceed one hundred and eighty, ex- 
clusive of foreign officers holding British commissions, of 
whom a number not exceeding ten may be admitted into 
the second class as honorary knights commanders ; but in 
the event of actions of signal distinction, or of future wars, 
the number of knights commanders may be increased. No 
person to be eligible as a knight commander who does not, 
at the time of his nomination, hold a commission in his 
Mi^esty's army or navy ; such commission not being below 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the army, or of post-captain 
in the navy. Bv a subsequent regulation in 1815 no per- 
son is now eligible to the class of K.C.B. unless he have 
attained the rank of migor-general in the army or rear- 
admiral in the na>7. Each knight commander to wear his 
appropriate badge or oogniionce, pendent by a red riband 
round the neck, and his appropriate star, embroidered on 
the left side of his upper vestment. For the greater honour 
of this doss, it was further ordained that no officer of his 
Migrsty*t army or navy was thenceforward to be nominated 
to the dignity of a knight grand cross who had not been 
Appointail previously a knight commander of the order. 

The third class to be composed of ofilcers holding com- 
missions in his Migesty's senice by sea or land, who shall 
bo styled oom^niona of the said ortler ; not to be entitled 
to the appellation, stylet, or precedence of knights bachelors, 
but to take precedence and place of all esquires of the United 
Kingdom. No officer to be nominated a companion of the 
order unlosa he ahall previously have recei\'ed a medal or 
other badgo of honour, or shall have boon specially men- 



tioned by name in despatches published in the l/mdon 
Gazette as having distinguished himself. 

The bulletin announcmg the re-modelling of the Order 
of the Bath was dated Whitehall, January 2, 1815. 

By another bulletin, dated Whitehall, January 6, 1815, 
the Prince Regent, acting in the name and on behalf of 
his Majesty, having taken into consideration the eminent 
services which had been rendered to the empire by the 
officers in the service of the Honourable East India Com- 
pany, ordained that fifteen of the most distinguished offi- 
cers of that service, holding commissions from bis Ma- 
jesty not below that of lieutenant-colonel, might be raised 
to the dignity of knights commandera of the Bath, exclu- 
sive of the number of knights commandere belonging to 
his Majesty *s forces by sea and land who had been nomi- 
nated by the ordinance of January 2. In the event of future 
ware, and of actions of signal distinction, the said number 
of fifteen to be increased. His Royal Highness further or- 
dained that certain other offioere of the same service, holding 
his Maiesty*s commission, might be appointed companions 
of the Order of the Bath, in consideration of eminent services 
rendered in action with the enemy ; and that the said officers 
should enjoy all the rights, privileges, and immunities se- 
cured to the third class of the said order. 

(See QbeervcUiaru introductory to an Historical Estay 
upon the Knighthood of the BatK by John Anstis, Esq. 
4to. Lond. 1 725 ; Selden's Titles of Honour^ fol. Lond. 1 6 72, 
pp. 678, 679; Camden*s Britannia^ fol. Lond. 1637, p. 172; 
Sandford's Genealog. Hist. foL 1707, pp. 267, 431, 501, 562. 
578 ; J. C. Dithmori, Commentatio de Honoratissimo Or- 
dine de Balneo, fol. Franc, ad Viad. 1729; Mrs. S. S. 
Banks's Collections on the Order of the Bath, MSS. Brit 
Mus. ; Statutes of the Order of the BatK 4to. Lond. 1 725. 
repr. with additions in 1812; Bulletins qf the Campaign 
1815, pp. 1-18.) 

BATH, a place for the purpose of washing the body, 
either with hot, warm, or cold water : the word is derived 
fVom the Saxon bab. The Greek name is balaneion (/3aXa- 
i/c7ov), of which the Roman balineum, or balneum^ is only a 
slight variation : the elements bed and bad in the Greek 
and English words are evidently related. The public baths 
of the Romans were generally called Themue^ which lite- 
rally means ' warm waters.* 

The bath was also in common use among the Greeks, 
though we are not well acquainted with the construction 
and economy of their bathing-places. At Athena there 
were both private and public baths : the public baths appear 
to have been the property of individuals, who kept them for 
their own profit or let them to others. (See Isseas, On the 
Inheritance of Diceeogenes, cap. vi. ; ditto of PhUoetemon, 
cap. vi.) Lucisn, in his Hippias (vol. iii. ed. Hemsterh.), 
has given a description of a magnificent bath. Though he 
does not tell us whether it was bnilt in the Roman or the 
Greek style, we may safely conclude that he is speaking of 
a bath in a Greek city. His description is not precise enough 
to render it certain wat this bath in its details agrees with 
those of Rome and Pompeii ; but the general design and 
arrangement appear to be nearly the same. 

We learn from Seneca that the Roman baths were 
very simple, even mean and dark, in the time of Scipio 
Africanus ; and it was not until the age of Agrippa, and 
the emperore after Augustus, that they were built and 
finished in a style of luxury almost incredible. Seneca 
{Epist. Ixxxvi.), who inveighs against this luxury, observes 
that ' a person was held to be poor and sordid whose baths 
did not shine with a provision of the most precious mate- 
rials,— the marbles of Eg>pt inlaid with tiiose of Nunidia: 
unless the walls were laboriously stucooed in imitation of 
painting ; unless the chambers were covered wiUi glass, the 
basins with the rareThasian stone, and the water conve\cd 
through silver pipes.* These it appears were the Inxunes 
of plebeian baths. Those of freedmen h^ 'a piofaaion of 
statues, a number of columns supporting nothing, placed as 
an ornament merely on account of the expense: toe water 
murmuring down steps, and the floor of precioos stones.' 
(Sen. Epist. IxxxvL) These baths of which Seneca speaks 
were private baths. 

Ammianus Marcellinus reckons sixteen public baths in 
Rome. The chief were those of Agrippa, Nero^ Titus, 
Domitian, Antoninus Caracalla, and Diocletian. These 
edifices, diflbring, of course, in magnitude and splendour, 
and in the details of the arrangement, were all constructed 
on a common plan. They btowl among extensive gnxdens 
and walks, and were often surrounded by a portioow Tbe 



BAT : 

main building contained lai^ htlU for awiminiug and 

b^iiUing, tome for ooaversation, other:) for various athlelic 
and manly exercises, and aome fur the declamation of poets 
and llie lectureg of pbiloBophars ; in a word, fur every species 
of polite anil manly amiuomeDt. These noble rooms wure 
lined and paved with marble, adorned with the most valu- 
able culumna, paintings, and statues, and furnished with 
iMllectLoas of boohs fur the studious who resorted to them. 
iS.'c Pompeii, publiahed by the SiKiety for the DilTusion of 
Useful Knowled)^, vol. i.) These baths, which were called 
Thermre, are now bU in ruiiis. The best preserved are 
(huso ofTitus, Diocletian, and Antoninus Caiiocalla. (Seo 



5 BAT 

Life nf Anhn. Curaeall. by JEX. Spartianua.) We boM 
subjoin a plan of tlio baths of baracalla. nhich were Hnished, 
according to Eusebius, in the fouHh year of thot em- 
peror's reign. The most complete and elegant boths had 
generally the following apartmenis :— An apodytcrium, or 
roam far undressing; an uncluarium, for the ointments; 
a sphnriGterium, or large room for exercises; a calida 
lavatio, or warm bath ; a laronicum, or hut room fur sweat- 
ing ; a tcpidaiium, or warm room Willi a tepid balh ; and 
a fricidarium, which contained the cold bath ; to these may 
be added rooms for feasting and conversation. (Cameron On 
Raman Bal/u.) 




ns>. 



i 



[Pluiat the DalhiuICiniiKUiftaiii 



H mcoiutvcaeDli vt Palludio.] 







at Uiwe ■fao lHIh'«<l 

ft Pwiua tor \inthbi| i I, 



Vndlbuln on tba Mi at lb* FMai, 






-i T. t7p1™ fet heitlBt .— --_ 
irt: Y, Y, il» CoDiHeriom) Z.Z, B™ 

* in Ub opi-D olr; !f, Apnrlmedta of ' 



u wilk in, d««h«d rn 






}. Q. RoDnsi foe lbs •prclnti 
: V. V. Ctll. ftff bitbini 
HI &r, onumanb ud whK 

> th< Slidliimi i.i, A 



sf Ibe FalBiln; 9.9. Cd»ib1 B< 



h Hrred br the tprcifU 
DKwbolu'------ 

ii 10. 10, !i 






B fui tUe philoaophfln 
li'liyiiuJn by which you uuul 



Flaminiua Vacca informs us (hat in 14 71 there was to be 
st'i'ii iu these baths an artificial itiland formed of marble, full 
'It' il)>! remains of fij^ures which had been carved on it. Near 
iUl' islaiul was a ship, with many figures iu it, much broken. 
There <ru also a bathing vessel of granite. Two labra of 
iiiunitd, found in the samo place, are now employed as 
l<>unt<iiiu in tike great square before the Farneso Palace at 
R<iiac. In these baths were also found tlie Farneso Her- 
I'tik'R and the great group of statues known by the name of 
0..a Famese Bull. Besides the great granite column now 
111 llie palaoe of S. Lorenzo at France, Pinnesi tells us 
ili'Jt lie taw, in tlte peristyle, two fountains enriched with 
:lie remains of bai reliefs. 



The provincial towns bad al»n their baths, both publio 
and private. The public baths of Pompeii, which were dis- 
covered in 1824. in a very perfect state, throw much light 
on what the Itumnn writers, and especially Vilruvius, have 
written on the subject. Tlie fullowin)[ description of them 
is taken from the second volume of the Pompeii. (nubUshad 
by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge}, with 
a few verbal alterations, and some omission*. These b*tbs 
occupy a space of about 100 feet square, and ore divided 
into tbreo separate and distinct parts. One of them wea 
appropriated to tlio fire-places and to the servants of the 
establishment ; tlie other two were occupied each by a set 
of baths contiguous to each oilier, similar, and adapted to 



No. 208. 



tTHI PKNNV 0V0L0P«D1A.] 



, furnace, and from Ibe »nio resMrmr. The apart- 

■ and paitagirs are panid with while mariile in tnoaaic. 

(uiuectiucd Ibal the more tpaciouj of Ihe two teti of 

L« for the lue of the meo, the amallet fcr tha votDon. 



i BAT 

VitTuriM (lib, ». cap, 101 aayi that the caldaniim far ihe 
women sbould bo coniij^woui to that for the men. Mid 1>* 
exposed to tho lanaa aspect ; for thus Hie same bypooaustuin. 
or itove, may aufflee fur both. Annexed » tbe plan of 
theie Pompeian bUh*, alluated near Um Foruto. 




[PUaW Aa Bute dbMnlsl in Pompeii, tan UkMiih Bi>rtMia>,] 



LPhIu: t.tM««.erft*kbkmUBqii>daeltaHWfnlk«nlnl 




■iipi»ri<^U»»^rur"h""iur['3:S,MUu^irhlehw'uii>euebJn.''i(L^'i' 
liufia; 3e.I>eK>ii.|a>iiinii iDiD Ibc lUmiit ttm Vmmi n.TfpUinuat : > 



lb> Alndklirliui 41^ A[M>l}l<Tl<mi; 17. Sfiti inlbr u*a; tf.TrtfhUo.n 
a. T>pijAriiimi so. r.l.UiluD with • buUw iMTinKUi U. Lkod.. . 
M.I^bikuii;U,llal Bilb^ M.oiioUruaa.Iueunkiuiii! »,Ktn^<. 
Om HwtDrtbontii W. Bl4lni>7.H. TnnaUTDUawtahauuT'-' 



■ k alKfe nn ftf* >■ ^ iimiii t. * «■!»■>— i T. CuualCViUDt i/lh« FrifkUriami 8, N>di»i S.AtMiuor uiUa ti 



Tht vtartaia or naRmU w 
lb* huh* IhPtnvltn tn t 
"•UM. The ptp** whirh CDmrauiiKnle'l belwi 



I t4>p«rate4 al Pomprli frrnn | itrpot. There wet« tbtM entniKM to tb* (tamioM wh-.. ^ 

J tha itrrt-l which r>p«ni into the heainl Ihe wtnn and vaiwur^lha. Hie chief MitTuir« 

1 CDmraunKnle'l belwiH-n the tvn^r- opened upon a eouttof tn IrreffuUi' flgure. fit for eant*iui-,£ 

Vttr Mid ibabaib fVbed orcr an arch thnrarn arrv* lite [ wjudand oilier ueccii^ahei for tha nee of tbt ai' '" ' 



BAT i 

covcrcil In pnrt by n roof; the nften of tho roof railed at 
one end on ihn Literal walls, Bnd at the other on two co- 
lumns, constructed mlh small piecei of atone. From hence 
n TL-r}' small stairctise led to the flimacm, and to the upper 
pari of the bath*. Another led to the small raom, called 



the pneftirnium, into which projects the moudt of a (brUMM: 
In Ihii room were the atlendBntg on the himace, or linkers 
(fornoearii), whose duty it wbs to keep up the flras. Dure 
was found a quantity of pitch, used by the fumaee-maQ to. 
enliven the llraa * tw alaln in the room (39) l»d up to the 



H tluwish whjeh Uia wfeter of Ibe Labruin vu eiihfT introduevii or tnwt* Eli 



7i LoadvD pIh thn 
13.SUi>Iau<»iiilIh«IWlL (£! 
coppers. The third entrance lad ftom the apodrterium of 
the men's baths by means of a corridor (23). There is no 
communication between these furnace* «iid the bath of the 
rfomen, which was heated from them. The (Urnace wa* 
ronml, and had in the lower part of it two pipes, tt bleb trans- 
mitted hot air under the pavements, and between the wall* 
of the vapour-baths, which were built hollow for that purpose. 
Close to the furnace, at the distunre of four inches, a round 
vacant space still remains, in which was plaoed the copper 
{■-raktarium) for boiling water; near whicn, with the same 
Interval between them, was situated the copper ft>r warm 
water (lepidarium) ; and at the ilistance of two fbet from 
this was the receptacle (3D) for cold water {/rigi<ianum\ 
which was square, and plastered round the interior, like the 
piscina or reservoir. A constant communication was main- 
tained between these vessels, so that as fast as hot woter 
was drawn off from the caldarium, the void was supplied 
from the tepidarium, which being already considerably 
heated, did but slightly reduce the temperature of tho hotter 
boiler. The tepiiUrium in its turn was supplii^d from the 
piscina, and that from the aqneduct. Tho ti-rni'i frigida- 
rium, tepidarium, and caldarium wore applied lo the apart- 
ments in which the cold, tepid, and hot-baths were placed, 
as well as to the vessels already described under these re- 
spective names. The furnace and the coppers were placed 
between the men's baths and the women's baths, as near 
aa possible to both, to avoid the waste of heat consequent 
on transmitting the fluids through a length of pipe. Tho 
coppers and reservoir were elevated conaiderahly above the 
baths, to cause tho water lo How more rapidly into them. 

The men's bath had three public entrances (3,12,17). 
Entering at the principal one (12), which opens lo the street 
leading to the forum, we descend three steps into the (5) 
vestibme, oortile, or portico of the baths, along three sides of 
which runs a portico (ambulacrum). The seats (8), which 
ara arranged round the walls, were for the slaves who ac- 
companied their masters to the baths, and fbr the servants 
of the baths themselves, to whom also the apartment (9) 
appears to have been appropriated. In this court was found 
the boK Ibr the quadrani, or piece of monef, which was paid 
by each bother. Another door (17) lead* to the same ves- 
tibule by means of a corridor. From the Street of the Arch 
(55) we proceed through (he pannge (17) into the apodyte- 
rium, or undresaing-room (U), wliich is also accessible by 
another corridor (13) from a street called the street of the 
arch : avast number of lamps wcrefbund here. The ceiling 
oftfaispaasageis decorated with stars. The apodylerium has 
three seats, made of lava, with a slep to place the feet on ; 
holesstillremaininthewnU. in which (it is<!onjcctured)pe^ 
were fixed for the bothers to hang their clothes upon. This 
room is highly decorated with stuccoed ornaments, relieved 
by colour. In the centre of the end of the room is a small 
Opening or reces*, once covered with a piece of glass ; in this 
recess, as is plain from the appearance of smoke, a lamp has 
been placed. In the archivolt, or vaulted roof, immediately 
above, is ft window two feet eight Inches hl)[h, and thrw 



fbet eight inches broad, closed by a single pane of cast glasa 
two-Sfths of an inch thiolc, fixed into tho wall, and ground 
on ono side : the floor i* paved with white marble worked 
in mosaic, and the ceiling divided into panneis. Jn this 
room there are six doors, one leading to the pnefurnium, 
another into a small room, perhaps designed for a wardrobe, 
the third by a narrow passage into the street; tho fourth 
to the topidarium ; the flflh to the frii^dariuro ; and the 
sixth, along the corridor >o the T--stia'ile or portico of the 
hatb. 

The frigidarlum (19), or oold-bath, is a round chamber, 
with a ceiling in the form of a truncated cone ; near the 
top is a window fhim which it was lighted. The plinth, 
or base of the wall, is entirely of marble, and four niches are 
dtspoaed round the room at equal distances ; in these niches 
were seats fscbols) for the convenience of the bathers. 
The basin (alveui) ii twelve feet ten inches in diameter, 
two feet nine inches deep, and entirely lined with ulute 
marble; two marble steps facilitate the descent into llie 
basin, and at the bottom is a sort of cushion (pulvinus), also 
of marble, to enable those who bathed to sit down. The 
water ran into this bath in a copious stream, through a 
spout or lip of bronze four inches wide, placed in Uie wall 
inree feet seven inches from the edge of the basin. At 
tho bottom of tho siveus is a small outlet, for the purpose of 
emptj'ing and cleansing it ; and in the rim there is a waste 
pipe to carry off the superfluous water: like the apodrte- 
rium, tho frigidarium bos been highly decorated, and it 
remarkable for its preservation and beauty. Tho topidarium 
(37), or worm-chamber, adjoining the apodyterium, was so 
called, from a warm but soft and mild temperature, which 
prepared the bodies of tho bathers for the more intense heat 
of the vapour and hot-baths, and vice vertS, aoftened the 
transitinn from the hot-balh to the external air. This apart- 
ment is decor«[ed with niches, divided by telam6nes [see 
Atlantks]. Thq room was highly enriched, both with stucco 
ornaments and colour, and was lighted hy a window two 
i%et six inches high and three feet wide, in the bronze 
frame of which were (bund set four very beautiful pane* ot 
glass, fastened by small nuts and screws, very ingeniously 
contrived with a view to their being removed at pleasure. 
In this room a largu bronxe bmiier and three bronze 
benches wera (bund. A doorway led from the tepidarium 
into the caldarium, or vapour-bath (39) ; at one end was the 
laconicum, whero a vase (41) for washing the hands and 
Ikce was placed, called labrum ; on the opposite side of the 
room was tho hot bath, called lavacnim. Vilruvius, in ex- 
plaining the structure of the apartments, says, (cap. sj. 
lib. V.) ' Here should be placed the vaulted sweating-room, 
twice the length of its width, which should have at ono end 
the laconicum, made as described above, at the other end 
the hot-bath.' This apartment is exactly as described, 
twice the length of its width, exclusively of the laconicum 
at one end, and the hot-bath at the other. The pavement 
and waits of the whole werv made hollow, to admit the heat. 
Vltnivhu n«v«r mentions the laeonkum a* being ieparated 
£3 







^1 






TM ^i.«jri irxyti :z* c 












■/ - K ^1 



r M. / y M fcj,. ^, 






lit *--rt»/«, «t*l rea- 
)»-j« or •M-it.iK %t^A >jt»d} de- 
. , •-(.« i^, -/w %iif\ \t». thjii ron- 

y<-u^.X «t* U,-! 'jn Ib*-^ till 



• h'. .,' 



of W 



lOlJ 



«>* T--«l.ie,l 



ra m.i'lR in a euniui 
MS eu-cuUr uMtrmnciiC 



:> nkf ahde. at l!i? 
f.-rrr:;';* bolloir pm- 
•^, ca [tie inside of lh« 
nnMn, iron cUmpi 
■4 tiwa to the >^1. 
ia« fonoed, wer« alter- 
ci.-Tf_;.t t:^.-.^i aai ^ iti The bol low space m 
• i^ af v=e &:;h ■: P^xpeu reaf'-io to Ibe top of Ihf 
-re; b.it the ft.. ::t* are □:; t.'iijw. a> is tbe baths 
ra V.inii.j* drrfr.*-! \-A ■iiieh be dittingvuhM, (t 
ror.pa-ceni*. Thcteilinas 'if 
, ar.-l :bc caldinnm arc arcboil. 







The vonien'a bath resembles rerr much thfit of llic lui n. 
and diScn only in beinu unaller and less ornameiiled : ' r 
an account of it, we rvfer to Geli's Pompeii, the Mureo B r- 
brmica, and Pompeii published bf tbe Society &» the Dii- 
fuaiiin of Uuful Knoutedge. 

Vitraviiu lecommenda 4 aituation for ball», whicfa U dt^- 
fended froia the north and north-west windi, and he sa; > 
that the window* should bo opposile the south, or, if U-. 
nature of the grounil will not permit this, at least ti>watTl> 
(be south, because the huursof bathing among the Roman- 
being from aftot mid-day till avcning, thaw wIm batli«J 



BAT 



29 



BAT 



could bj these windows have the advantage of the rays and 
tlie heat of the declining sun. Accordingly the baths just 
described have the greater part of their windows turned 
to the south, and are constructed in a low part of the city, 
where the adjoining buildings served as a protection from 
the north-west winds. 

The baths at Rome were on a much larger scale. The 
public baths of Caracalla were 1500 feet in length, and 
1250 in breadth* 'at each end were two temples, one to 
Apollo, and another to Esculapius, as the tutelary deities 
of the place (genii tuielares), sacred to the improvement of 
the mind, and the care of the body ; the two other temples 
were dedicated to the two protecting divinities of the Anto- 
nine family, Hercules and Bacchus. In the principal build- 
in ^^ were, in the first place, a grand circular vestibule, with 
four halls on each side, for cold, tepid, warm, and steam 
baths ; in the centre was an immense square for exercise, 
when the weather was unfavourable to it in the open air ; 
beyond it a great hall, where 1600 marble seats were placed 
for the convenience of the bathers ; at each end of this hall 
w ere libraries. This building terminated on both sides in a 
court surrounded with porticos, with an odeum for music, 
and in the middle a spacious basin for swimming. Round 
this edifice were walks shaded by rows of trees, particularly 
the plane ; and in its front extended a gymnasium for run- 
ning:, wrestling, &c. in fine weather. The whole was 
bounded by a vast portico, opening into exhedro) or spacious 
halls, where the poets declaimed, and philosophers gave 
lectures to their auditors. This immense fabric was adorned, 
within and without, with pillars, stucco-work, paintings, and 
statues. The stucco and paintings are yet in many places 
perceptible. Pillars have been dug up, and some still re- 
main amidst the ruin ; while the Farnesian bull and the fa- 
mous Hercules, found in one of these halls, announce the 
multiplicity and beauty of the statues which once adorned 
the Therms of Caracalla.' (Eustaces Classical Tour, vol. 
i. p. 226.) For an account of the baths of Titus and Dio- 
cletian, see the same author. 

On entering these baths the bathers first proceeded to 
undress. They next went to the elaK)thesium (the oil-cham- 
ber), as it was called in Greek, or unctuarium, where they 
anointed themselves all over with a coar^e cheap oil before 
they began their exercise. (Plin. xv. c. 4 & 7.) Here the 
liner odoriferous ointments which were used on coming out 
ol the bath were also kept (Plin. 1. ii. Epist. 41.) and the 
room was so situated as to receive a considerable degree of 
heat. This chamber of perfumes was full of pots, like an apo- 
ihecarj's shop ; and those who wished to anoint and perfume 
the body received perfumes and unguents. In the repre- 
sentation of a Roman bath, copied from a painting on a 
^Yall forming part of the baths of Titus, the unctuarium, 
chilled also ela)othesium, appears filled with a vast number of 
vases. The vases contained a great variety of perfumes and 
balsams. When anointed, the bathers passed into the 
sphaeristerium, a very light and extensive apartment, in 
which were performed the various kinds of exercises to 
wiiich this part of the baths was appropriated. (Plin. lib. 
i. Epist. 101.) When its situation permitted, this apartment 
w as exposed to the afternoon sun, otherwise it was supplied 
with heat from the furnace. (Plin. 1. 11. Epist, 41.) After 
the exercise, they went to the adjoining warm-bath, wherein 
they sat and washed themselves. The seat was below the 
suriace of tho water, and upon it they scraped themselves 
with instruments 'called strigiles, which were usually made 
of bronze, but sometimes of iron or brass. (Martial, lib. xiv. 
Epi^. 51.) This operation was performed by an attendant 
slave. The use of the strigil is represented on a vase, 
found lately on the estate of Lucien Buonaparte at Canino. 
The vase is large and shallow, and painted within and 
without. (Vol. i. p. 183. Pompeii,) From the drawings on 
it we learn that the bathers sometimes used the strigils 
themselves, after which they rubbed themselves with their 
hands, and then were washed from head to foot, by pails 
or vases of water beinjj poured over them. Tliey were 
then carefully dried with cotton and linen cloths, and 
covered with a light shaggy mantle, called gausape. Effe- 
minate persons had the hairs of their bodies pulled out with 
tweezers. When they were thoroughly dried, and their 
nails cut, slaves came out of the elieothcsium, carrying 
with them little vases of alabaster, bronze, and terracotta, 
full o( perfumed oils, with which they had their bodies 
unointed» by causing the oil to be slightly rubbed over 



every part, even to tho soles of their feet. After this they 
resumed their clothes. On quitting the warm-bath they 
went into the tepidarium, and either passed very slowly 
through or stayed some time in it, that they might not too 
suddenly expose their bodies to the atmosphere in the frigi- 
darium; for these last rooms appear to have been used 
chiefly to soften the transition from the intense heat of the 
caldarium to the open air. 

' It is probable that the Romans resorted to the baths, 
at the same time of the day that others were accustomed to 
make use of their private baths. This was generally from 
two o'clock in the afternoon till the dusk of the evening, at 
which time the baths were shut till two the next day. This 
practice however varied at different times. Notice was given 
when the baths were ready, by the ringing of a bell ; the 
people then left the spheeristerium, and hastened to tho 
caldarium, lest the water should cool. (Martial, lib. xiv. Epig, 
163.) But when bathing became more universal among 
the Romans, this part of tlie day was insufficient, and they 
gradually exceeded the hours that had been allotted for that 
purpose. Between two and three in the afternoon was, how- 
ever, the most eligible time for the exercises of the pa- 
IsDstra. Hadrian forbade any but those who were sick to 
enter the public baths before two o'clock. The thermm 
were by few emperors allowed to be continued open so late 
as five in the evening. Martial says, that after four o'clock 
they demanded a hundred quadrantes of those who bathed. 
This, though a hundred times the usual price, only amounted 
to nineteen-pence. We- learn from the same author, that 
the baths were opened sometimes earlier than two o'clock. 
He says that Nero's baths were exceeding hot at twelve 
o'clock, and the steam of the water immoderate. (Mart, 
lib. X. Epig, 48.) Alexander Severn:?, to gratify the people 
in their passion for bathing, not only suifered the thermce 
to be opened before break of day, which had never been 
permitted before, but also furnished tho lamps w^iih oil, for 
the convenience of the people.' (See Cameron On Roman 
Baths, p. 40.) 




[Coin repmentiag tlie BaUis of Alexander Scveraa.] 

The thermae were constructed at a vast expense, and prin- 
cipally for the use of tho poorer classes, though all ranks 
frequented them for the sake of the various conveniences 
which they contained. 

* Nothing relating to the thermoo has more exercised tho 
attention of the learned than the manner of supplying the 
great number of bathing vessels made use of in them with 
warm water. For, supposing each cell of Diocletian's baths 
large enough to contain six people, yet, even at that mode- 
rate computation, 18,000 persons might be bathing at the 
same time ; and as no vestiges remain of any vessels in the 
thermoo, to give the least foundation for conjecturing in 
what manner this was performed, it has been generally re- 
ferred to the same process described bv Yitruvius on a 
similar subject. 

* Baccius has more professedly treated this subject than 
any modem author. He imagined that the water might l>e 
derived from the castella, which he observed to be situated 
without the thermos ; but as these castella were upon a level 
with the thermoo themselves, he thinks for that reason they 
were obliged to make use of machines to raise the water to 
such a height, as he observed it to have been by the ruins 
of Diocletian's baths. What led Baccius into this way of 
thinking was the number of pipes which he saw dug up 
under the open area, where there had never been any build- 
ings, all of them surrounded with Hues from the hypo- 
caustum. He therefore imsfgined that the water was heated 
on the outside of the thermro; but this supposition appeared 
so full of diflicuUies, as, upon retlection, to discouragu him 
from inquiring any further into the subject.' (Cameron.) By 
the assistance of two sections of the castella of Antouinu:<> 



4ra«n I'y PifHiesi, C»meron endeavoura lo »liov- ibeinslbod 
■ilopteil by iha Komtuu to ItL-tt ilie lur^ 1> >ilii» 
fihioii thwr eitoDiivA thannn miut hava required. 



' To bava a clear conception of tlio tnanncr in which tbii 
wu executed, it will bo nBcesury ta refer to u )iUie of tbeie 
• Mctioni. 




' Tbo rasteltum of the Ibenna) of Antaninut CaraFalla 
wns supplied wiih water by the aqueduct of Antoninus. 
Two of the arcl)cs of thia aqueduct are represented at A ; 
B is a cistern which received tbc water from the aqueducl ; 
C ia an aperture fut permitting 'be descent of the woter from 
tlic rrceploclc to Ibe chamber below ; D is a receptacle with 
a mwaie pavement, wherein the waler was exposed to the 
heat of the sun; E is another aperture througu which the 
waler passed into the lowest cliamhere placed immediately 
over tliQ h) pocaustiim i F, the hypocaustum ; O Oi <loars 
for intrmUicin); the fuel. A transvoriie section through the 
middle of the same cuslellum i:> given at H. 

* By the plan of this castellum, it appears that there 
twenty-eipht of these vaulted rooms pluced over the hypo- 
caustum : Ihuy were placed in two rows, fourteen on a side, 
and hud all a cummunicalion with each other. The sections 
ehow. rtiat over these were twentyei^ht other rooms, having 
likewise a communication with each other, although i ' 
ono of them bod any communication with the cham 
below, through the apertuie at E. Upon the top of all 
a spacious receptacle, not very deep, but extending the 
whole length of the caslellum, in which the waler na^t con- 
siderably healed by the inlluenee of the sun, befbre it passed 
into the several chambers. This receptacle received its 
ffftter from the cistern B, and not immediately from the 
aqueduct. The use of this cistern appears to have consisted 
in pmtnoting a more gentle How of the water into the 
cc])tacle, that its surface might not be nilUed by the h 
agitation, ai that would very much have counteracted tbe 
purposes to which tbo receptacle was applied, nothing 
tributing so much as tranquillity in the water to acuuii 
the advanla^ ttwa the mOuencc of the £U1 
would permit When there wis no efflux from the inferior 
chambers, there eould be no demands forwater trom the 
ceptacle, whieb would have been liable to overHow * 
there not an aperture in the side of ibo ci.itern, throu 
which the water ran off in different dircr.tionTi from that 
which was used for bathing. During all this ti 
water in the receptacle would be in the most perfect state of 
rest The cistern, therefore, answered two material piir- 
)K>tes, as it orevented any agitation in the water of the re- 
ceptacle, ana likewise carried off what was sMperHuous. 
The twenty-eight vaulted chambers, pl-icfil immediately 
over the hypocaustum, would now begin to be heated, which 
heat they would acquire so much the quicker, as only ono 
of Ihem bad any mmmunicniinn with the external air by 
tbe apertures C and K. The^ therefore evidently were con- 
structed upon the xame principle as Papinius's digester, the 
■lrenf;tb of the walls and of tbe roof being sufficient to resist 
the force of the rarefaction of the air in the water, and con- 
sequently to prevent any loss from evaporation. Flues were 
itilt neccBsary to give the water a heat sufficient for bathing. 
The ■rcbedebamber* were also supplied with Hues, NN, from 



the hypocaustum, and served OS a reservoirof tepid water for 
those below. The wntor they received was likewise heated 
by the sun. When tbo time for bathing was come, the cocks 
were turned to admit the hot water from the lower chambers 
into the iabra of the baths, to which it would run with great 
velocity, and ascend a perpendicular height in the thermos 
equal to the surface of the receptacle in the castellum. Tbe 
current would be accelerated oy the great tendency the 
water would have to expand itself after having been con- 
fln^d in the chambers. The pressure of the column of tepid 
water was equal to, if not greater than the diameter of the 
column ofhot water which ran out from the chambera below. 
To prevent the water cooling as it passed through the tubes 
undereiound, they were all cnrefullf surrounded with flues 
from the pmfurnium, so that these tubes were in the centn: 
of a fanncl, and always considerablyheatedbefore the water 
entered them. Each of these chambeta was, within the waJIs, 
furty-nine feet six inches long, by tnenty-seven feet six inches 
wide, and about thirty high ; the number of superficial feet 
in tbe bottom of the rooms bcing3B,ll9. If we allow thirty 
feet for the mean height, the whole quantity of water in 
these lower rooms will amount to 1.143,430 uubic feet, and 
the like quantity must he alloweil for the upper rooms; 
allowing, therefore, eight cubic feet of warm water as suffi- 
cient for one men to bathe in, and that water preserved in a 
bathing heat in the labriim half an hour, the whole con- 
sumption of hot water, in this given time, for Itt.ODO peof'c, 
would be 144.000 cubic feet. By this calculation there 
would be a sufficient quantity of wnter for throe hours. I'r 
until five in the oveninj;, for 108.000 people. The watt-r. 
however, would gradunlly cool as it flowed in frwn the hrj;her 
chambers. 

' We have no intimation tram the antients when Ihej- firt" 
fell upon this expedient for heating such large boilirs if 
water, wbetlicr il was the invention of the Romans or bimig'it 
from the East. We mny icasonalily suppose, Uiat as it <'..i» 
not necessary before the public warm-baths were buQl in 
Home, it was not more antiont than the time of Auguxiiic. 
in whose reign we are (old by Dion Cassius (lib. Iv.) thrii 
Mccccnns first itistitulcd n svimming-balh of warn waler. 
or a calida piscina." (Cameron.) 

But few Roman citizens in easy circumstances were with- 
out the luxury of a private bath, which varied in their ccn- 
siruction according to llic taste or pi-odigatily of their ownor. 
' Amongst many articles of liixui'y for which Pliny cMisurf* 
the ladies of his timc.he tnkcs notice of their bathing- rooms 
being paved with silver. Even the metal lluesof the by\'' 
ceuslum were gilt." (See Cameron On Boman Bttlkt. Fix 
an account of the private baths, sec PnmpHi, \-<i\. i. p. 19'>.i 

The Persian manner of bathing, in some respet^s, is xikA 
unlike thai adopted by the aiilient Romans. Sir R. Ker 
Porter describes it in the followin;,' terms: — 'The balhi-r 
having undressed in the outer room, and retaining notliitir 



BAT 



32 



BAT 



is deserving of much praise. The system of education 
adopted in this institution is of the most approved kind, and 
the manner in which it is conducted reflects great credit on 
the rector and other teachers. Instruction, in all the useful 
and learned branches, is obtained ^a/if ; ample funds, for 
paving the teachers' salaries, being placed by Mr. Newlands 
in his trustees* hands for that benevolent purpose. All the 
youths of the parish, with the exception of such as have 
not been three years resident, enjoy the benefit of it. The 
railway, between Edinburgh and Glasgow, is to pass close to 
the town, and will, when completed, be of incalculable ad- 
vantage to the district The population of the town in 1831 
was 2492, and it has increased since ; the population of the 
parish was 3593. Under the Reform Act, the voters in the 
buri^h join those in the county in electing a representative in 
parliament. This circumstance has tended much to raise 
tlie place into importance. 

Bathgate has been a * free burgh of barony * since 1663, 
ill which year King Charles II. granted its charter ; and in 
1824 an act of Patliament was obtained, erecting it into a 
' free and independent burgh,* and vesting the magistracy 
in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, twelve councillors, 
town clerk, and procurator fiscal. These are chosen by the 
free votes of the burgesses : the qualification is less than 
that fixed by the Reform Act. Nowhere, in so short a 
fcpacc (ten years), have the benefits of popular and annual 
election of magistrates been so well exemplified. At a small 
expense to the inhabitants, the streets and wells are now 
kept in the best order, and the police of the town properly 
preser\'ed. Bathgate has been a sheriffdom from a remote 
]ieriod. In 1530-1 Sir James Hamilton, of Finnart, ob- 
tuincd a charter of the oftice of sheriff of Renfrew, within 
the parish and barony of Bathgate, on the resignation of 
William Lord Sempil, hereditary shehiT of Renfrewshire; 
and in June, 1663, King Charles II. granted the barony to 
Thomas Hamilton of Bathgate, with theofiiceof sheriff of 
Bathgate. In 1 747, when the heritable jurisdictions were 
bought up, the sheriffship of Bathgate was hereditary in 
the noble family of Hope of Hopetoun, heritable sheriff of 
the shire of Linlithgow; and smce the Jurisdiction Act 
the two shires have been under the same sheriffs, whose 
commission from the Crown styles him ' Sheriff of the 
Shonffdom of Linlithgow and Bathgate.* In the immediate 
vicinity, and near to the new academy, is the site of an 
antient castle, traditionally said to have been given by King 
Robert the Bruce to his daughter Marjory, along with ex- 
tensive possessions in the neighbourhood, as part of her 
dowry, upon her marriage with Walter, the Great Steward 
of Scotland. J'rom these illustrious persons the Stuart race 
sprung ; and from them the present royal family of Great 
Britai n . ( Communication from Bathgate. ) 

(Further particulars will be found in Sir John Sinclairs 
Statistical Account of Scotland; Penney's Linlithgow- 
shire ; Chambers's Gazetteer^ c^c, ^c.) 

BATHING, means the temporary siurounding of the 
body, or a part of it, with a medium different from that in which 
it is usually placed. The means employed for this purpose 
are generally water, watery %'apour, or air of a temperature 
different from that of the common atmosphere. The objects 
for which these are employed are usually the prevention of 
disease, the cure of disease, or the pleasure derived from 
the operation. To understand in what way these ends are 
accomplished, we must observe that the human frame is 
endowed with a power of maintaining, within certain limits, 
a nearly uniform temperature in whatever circumstances it 
is placed. The general temperature of an adult in a state 
or perfect health is from 97" to 98** of Fahrenheit's thermo- 
meter ; that of a new-born infant about 94°. In some cases 
of disease the temperature rises far above this standard, 
even to 106°, while in others it sinks far below it. The 
|X)wer by which the body maintains a uniformity of tempe- 
rature is the property of developing animal heat.ihe perfec- 
tion of which function is intimately connected with the state 
of the nervous system, and through that, with the circulation. 
When the body is well nourished and the circulation vigorous, 
the temperature is high, and nearly equal over all parts of the 
body, provided the supply of nervous enerf^ be adequate. 
If anything impairs the vigour of the circulation generally, 
or of an artery going to a particular limb (as when it is tied 
in the operation of aneurism), the temperature of the whole 
or of the part will be low. On the other hand, if the whole 
ner\'0U8 system be impaired, a lower temperature will prevail 
generally, and especially at the extremities ; or if a particular 



limb, such as a paralysed limb, have an imperfect share of 
nervous energy, a lower temperature of the part will exi^t. 
The respiratory function is also intimately connected with 
the development of animal heat, and the skin as>ists in re- 
gulating it, especially in reducing it when too high. When 
3ie body is placed in a medium of a temperature much 
lower than itself, the heat is abstracted from the surface with 
more or less rapidity, according to the difference of tempera- 
ture, and, if the medium be air, according to its state of 
humidity or dryness; the effect of which would be a reduction 
of the temperature of the whole body, were it not counteracted 
by an increased development of animal heat. Again, when 
the body is surrounded by a medium much higher than 
iUelf, the exhalation from the surface, both of the skin and 
lungs, is greatly augmented : that from the former being 
thrown off in die form of perspiration, that of the latter m 
the form of vapour. The evaporation attending these pro- 
cesses causes a reduction of temperature. As illustrations 
of the truth of these two positions, we need not do mere 
than allude to the nearly equal temperature of the body 
maintained by Sir Joseph Banks, Sir Charles Blagden, Dis. 
Fordyce and Solander, in their experiments, when the heat 
of the room was 2G0^ of Fahrenheit (see Animal Physiolo^ij, 
Library of Useful Knowledge^ part i. p. 3), and that ma at- 
tained during the winter by the members of the expeditions 
under Captains Ross, Parry, and Franklin, when the ther- 
mometer frequently fell to dT below zero of Fahrenheit. 

In a moderate temperature the animal heat is genenilly 
prevented from rising too high by means of the ituenhiUe 
perspiration, the quantity of which varies with circumstaiuoai. 
According to the experiments of Seguin, the largest quan- 
tity from the skin and lungs together amounted to thirty-two 
grains per minute, or three ounces and a quarter per hour, 
or Ave pounds per day. The medium quantity was fifteen 
grains per minute, or tliirty-three ounces in twenty -four 
hours. The quantity exhaled increases after meals, durin;; 
sleep, in dry warm weather, and by friction, or whatcvi i 
stimulates the skin ; and it diminishes when digestion is 
impaired, and the body is in a moist atmosphere. These 
last-mentioned circumstances prove the sympathy which 
subsists between the skin and the internal organs. The skin 
must not, therefore, be regarded as a mere covering of the 
body, but as an organ, the healthy condition of which i& of 
vast importance to the well-being of the whole frame, but 
especially of the stomach and lining membrane of the lungs 
with which, as mucous membranes, it has the closest sym- 
pathy. It also sympathizes with the kidneys, the quantity 
of discharge from which is regulated by the action of the 
skin. Hence in summer, when the perspiration from the 
skin is abundant, the secretion from the kidneys is less ; and 
when, in winter, the secretion from the skin is diminished, 
that from the kidnevs is increased. 

The perspiration is the channel by which salts and oth» 
principles, no longer useful in the system, are removed from 
it. According to Thenard, it consists of a large quantity of 
water, a small quantity of an acid, which according to cir- 
cumstances may be either the acetic, lactic, or phosphoric ; 
and some salts, chiefly hydro-chlorates of soda and potass. 
Taking the lowest estimate of Lavoisier, the skin appears to 
be endowed with the power of removing from the system, in 
the space of twenty-four hours, tweutv ounces of waste : the 
retention of this in the system is productive of great injury, 
and the inconvenience is only lessened by the increased 
action of some internal organ, which becomes oppressed by 
the double load thus cast upon it Even the relent iuu i»f 
the perspired matter close to the skin, from neglect uf 
changing the clothes, is the source of many cutauieous dis- 
eases, particularly in spring and summer. 

The great vosculaiity of the skin, and tlie manner in 
which the vessels of this part are intluenced by affections of 
the mind, as in blushing, when it becomes red from muic 
blood being sent to it, and during fear when less blood goes lu 
it, and more to the vicarious organs, as the kidneys, point out 
how an exposure to a cold and damp atmosphere and bov 
mental emotions are concerned in producing morbid action of 
this organ. Tlie skin must also be regarded as a net^work <.<f 
nervous filaments, and the most extensive organ of sensa- 
tion : in this way it enables us to judge of heat and cv»l^ 
though not with absolute certainty, as the sensation con- 
veyed will depend upon the temperature of the medium ir 
which the l}ody or any of tlie limbs may have been pla<*tr%i 
immediately before. To understand this doctrine, it i^ ne- 
cessary to be acquainted with tlie action of heat and ockld ua 



BAT 



33 



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the human system ; in our iexplanation of which, we will 
rnrleavour to be as concise as possible. We treat first of 
cold ; in doing which it is necessar>' to distinguish between 
the immediate primary action of cold on the organ or part 
with which it is brought into contact, and the seconaary 
action, depending; upon the organic activity residing in the 
part, or that train of effects usually denommated re-action. 
The primary effect is always the same, consisting in the 
abstraction of heat from the part, and the consequent re- 
duction of its temperature, while the internal development 
of heat becomes greater, so that the organic life strives ever 
to maintain an equilibrium between the conflicting powers, 
in order that it may not be limited or disturl^a in its 
healthy action. Yet it must be remembered, that both the 
external and internal degree of the primary action of cold, 
as also the period in which it slowly or suddenly shows 
itself, and the time, whether longer or shorter, that it lasts, 
occasion a variety of effects, both in the part to which 
it is applied, and those more immediately sympathizing with 
it, as well as in the whole system. The degree of primary 
action of cold can vary in endless degrees, from the lowest, 
where it scarcely affects the sensibility, to the highest, when 
it utterly destroys life. This difference of degree depends 
iipon the concurrence of several circumstances, partly re- 
lating to the action of the cold itself, and partly to the nature 
of the organic life upon whicli the cold operates. The essen- 
tial conditions which must be here borne in mind are, that 
the continual evolution of animal heat is closely connected 
with the development or exercise of animal life ; and that 
the power or extent of action of external media, having a 
lower temperature ^han that of the animal they surround, 
depends less on the absolute degree of their temperature 
than upon the quantity of caloric which they can abstract 
in a given time. 

The relative power and quickness of abstracting heat, 
with which different external media are endowed, depend 
upon different properties, such as their density, conducting 
power, capacity for heat, &c., and display themselves through 
the diversity of sensations which, at the same absolute tem- 
perature, they occasion. Thus, air at the temperature of 66° 
Fahr. feels pleasant, while water at the same degree feels 
somewhat cold. The organs of the body also differ in their 
power of sustaining the same temperature ; hence, in the 
employment of vapour- baths, it is of importance to know 
whether the watery vapour is to be breathed or not, since, 
where it is to he breathed, the temperature must be much 
lower. The following Uable is given by Dr. Forbes aa an 
approximation to what may be deemed correct as a measure 
ot !<ensation in the cases where water and vapour are used. 





Wmter. 


Vapoar. 




Notbroolhed. 


BrMHied. 


Tepid Bath . 
Warm Bath . 
Hot Bath 


85" to 92" 
92 ., 98 
98 „ 106 


96** to 106" 
106 „ 120 
120 M 160 


90" to 1 00° 
100 „ 110 
110 „ 130 



As a full exposition of the subject of the temperature 
of animals will be given under the article Heat, Ani- 
mal, we must refer to it for further details, confining our- 
selves here to remark that the ultimate action of cold, when 
extreme, is a sedative to the nervous system, and alters the 
circulation from external to internal; and that moderate 
cold continued causes the same consequences as severe cold 
of short duration (See Beaup6 On Cold, Edinb. 1826.) 
Heat, on the other hand, is a stimulant to the nervous system, 
and alters the distribution of the blood from internal to ex- 
ternal. Taking these principles as our guide, we proceed 
now to consider the different kinds\>f baths, and their action 
on the system in different states both of health and disease. 

First, of water-baths. The common division is into cold 
and warm ; but various subdivisions are formed, marked by 
a certain range of temperature, which are designated 

1. The cold-bath, from 40" to 65° 

2. The cool » 65 „ 75 

3. The temperate ., 75 „ 85 

4. The tepid „ 85 „ 92 

5. The warm-bath ,• 92 „ 98 

6. The hot-bath „ 98 ,» 112 

We shall treat first of the cold-bath, as applied to the 
whole surface of the body. 

A healthy person upon entering a cold-bath experiences 
a sensation of cold, followed by slight shuddering, and if 



the immersion has l)een sudden, a peculiar impression on 
the nervous system, called a shock. The skm becomes 
cooler and paler, the respiration hurried and irregular, the 
action of the kidneys increases and the bladder contracts. 
In a few moments the colour and warmth return to the 
skin, and a glow is felt, especially if assisted by rubbing the 
surface. If the person remains more than five or ten mi- 
nutes in the bath, the glow disappears, and paleness returns, 
which again gives place, though less quickly and perfectly, 
to a renewed glow. During the existence of the primary 
action of the cold, the bulk of the whole body, but especially 
of the more contractile parts, diminishes. Should Che stay 
in the water be greatly prolonged, no reaction ensues, but a 
general feeling of chilliness prevails, with quick feeble pulse, 
convulsive breathing, cramps of the limbs, or fainting. If 
the person quit the hath nSter the few first minutes, as in 
pruaence he should, the blood returns to the surface, accom- 
panied with a sensation of pricking, itching, and sometimes 
throbbing of the arteries : the elasticity of the muscles being 
increased, more animal power is felt, accompanied with a 
general feehng of enjoyment 

Very young or feeble individuals are either incapable of 
bearing the shock, or the reaction is so slight that they can- 
not endure to stay in the bath beyond a very short time. If 
they unwisely stay or are held in tlie bath longer than one 
or two minutes, the heat never regains its proper height, 
the extremities remain contracted, and they, as well as the 
lips, nose, &c., are of a livid hue. In such cases either 
artificial means must be used to bring about reaction, or the 
bath must be relinquished, as improper for such persons, 
as we shall show at a future part of our observations. 

The phenomena just described generally accompany cold 
bathing; and it is clear that we can recognize in them 
a series of three or even four distinct actions ; viz., 1st, 
The shock ; 2nd, The cooling effect ; 3rd, The contrac- 
tion or astringent effect; and, 4th, The re-action. Cold 
bathing may be employed, therefore, in such a way as to 
ensure the predominance of one action over any of the rest, 
according to circumstances, whero all are not desired. Tliey 
vary with the degree of cold and the suddenness of the ap- 
plication, as well as from the body being plunged into the 
water, or the water dashed against the body. Where the 
shock, as a stimulus to the nervous system, is desired, the 
water should be very cold, and where practicable should be 
dashed against the body, or. if the contrary, the stay in the 
bath should be momentar)'. This mode of using it may be 
either general or local. It has been employed generally, i,e, 
the whole body exposed to the action of the water, in mania, 
with occasional success, and in the early stage of the com- 
mon continued fever (under certain regulations, for which 
see Currie's Medical Reports), sometimes with great success, 
cutting short the train of morbid actions which constitute 
the fever. It has been employed also in nervous affections, 
accompanied with a convulsive action, or deficient action of 
the muscular system, as in hysteria, in lockjaw (see Paper 
by Dr. Wright. LmdoH Medical Observations and Inquiries, 
vol. vi. p. 143) : in some cases of obstinate constipation, 
dashing cold water on the person, or the cold bath fre- 
quently repeated, has been of great service. 

Its stimulating effect is sometimes best procured by a 
local application, in the form of a stream of water falling on 
the head, from a considerable height. The simplest ex- 
ample of this is the cx)mmon practice of sprinkling the face 
with cold water in case of a tendency to faint ; and in many 
diseases of the most dangerous character, it is a remedy 
superior to any other. It is called the cold dash, or douche, 
or douse, and is beneficially employed in fever, particularly 
when the brain continues the seat of inordinate action of 
the blood-vessels, after depletion has been carried as far as 
prudence will allow. (See the instructive case of Dr. Dill 
in Dr. Southwood Smith's treatise on Fever,^, 398.) It re- 
quires to be used with the greatest caution. Also in the 
state of stupor or coma which occurs in the last stage of 
hydrocephalus acutus, or water in the brain, it often succeeds 
in rescuing the patient from imminent danger. (See Aber- 
crombie On Diseases qf the Brain, first edit 1828, p. 157.) 
Its utility is well known in the East in rousing drunken 
soldiers from their stupor so effectually as to enable them to 
rise up and appear immediately on parade. In the melan- 
choly and mania which overtake habitual drunkards it is of 
great efficacy, and also in cases of loss of nervous power from 
excessive mental exertion. In apoplectic stupor it has also 
been very advantageously employed. In the sinking stage 



No. 209. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPiBDIA.] 



Vol. IV.- F 



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:m 



BAT 



of cftNip, when M oUmt lemedies hftTe fiuled, eold affiisioa 
bas sometimes restored the functions of life to new action. 

The cooling or refrigenting effect of eold bathing is most 
desired is riisriiiei where the animal heat rises above the 
proper standard, as in fevers, both eontinned and eniptiTe, 
capeciaUj acailet ferer; ako in some local inflammations, 
partifwiariy of the brain. For the prineiplea which shoaM 
regulate our piaetiee in tfab application we must refer to Dr. 
CuirieandoUier writers* only remarking that in the hot and 
restleas stage of scarlet fcver, when the heat is rteadily abore 
the natnral standard, the skin hot and dry, and neither sleep 
nor perspiration can be pioenrad, a plunge into cold water 
wiU be followed by botfa« to the relief and often raeovery oT 
the patient (See Batasman Om Cmiameoui DiaeoMet^ edit 
1 S-29i. p. liO.) In applying eold locally, as in inflammation 
of the brain, eoa rule is of the utmost impoftanee to he ob- 
serred, m^ that the application of the cold shall be eontinu- 
ous: therefore a seoona set of eold cloths or bags of iee should 
be applied before the former has become warm. This i^an, 
especially punraed during the night elong with judicious 
internal treatment will save many tduldren from perishing 
under the moat insidioua and Ihtal diseaae of childhood — 
water in the bimin. 

The eases already mentioned are mostly acute diseases, 
where the cold aflknion is employed to avert an imnunent 
but temporary danger. It ib generally in ohvonio diseases 
that the cold bath is employed for a length of time, and 
in these it is chiefly the secondary elfoct ue glow or reac- 
tion, which is desired. The rules to be obaerred in order to 
obtain this effect are founded upon the strength, which is 
generally inferred from the age, of the individuaL The de- 
gree of reaction is, for the most part dependent upon Uie cold- 
ness of the water and the length of time the person remains 
in the bath. Very eold water, in which the person remains 
bat a short time, will, in general, produce a greater degree 
of re-action than a more modente temperature in which he 
remains longer. But here everything depends upon the 
general power of the individual, the state of the system, 
especially of the skin at the moment of immersion, and the 
nature of the bath, according as it is fresh or salt water, and 
abo the seaaon of tfie year. As the immersion of infei.ts and 
young children in tubs of water must be considered 4S bath- 
ni:<, we deem it necessary here to explain the orinciples 
upon which the temperature of the bath for them should be 
rej^ulated, especially during winter. The experiments of 
Dr. Edwards (see Sdwards On thM in/Uimux of Pkygical 
AsenU on Li/e^ London, 1 83i) have proved that * the power 
ofproducing heat in warm-Uooded animals is at its minimmm 
at births moX incna$e$ mceeuivei^ to adult ag€* It is elea/, 
thcKfore, that water of a higher temperature than what feels 
cu(il to the hand of the nurse should be used, partioulariy in 
winter, when the power of regaining a proper degree of heat 
4 necessarily less. The attempt to harden chadren by ex- 
posure to too great a degree of cold is of the most injurious 
nature ; it either produces acute disease of the lungs, which 
are then very sensible to external impressions, or disease 
r>f the digestire organs, leading to disease of the mesenteric 
Inlands, scrofula, water in the brain, or, if they survive a 
few yean, to early consumption. Ddicate and feeble per- 
s^jns of all ages require a higher tempenture of the bath, 
and a shorter stay in it than others. If the re-action 
dues not speedily take vlaoe, means must be employed to 
ensure its so doing, or the use of the cold bath must be 
abandoned. A tepid or tempemte bath may be used in the 
cariy treatment of feeble persons, and the cold bath gradu> 
ally substituted for it or a glass of wine, er, what is far 
preferable, stronr ci^fee or chocolate may be taken before 
entering the bath. Where the amngements are such as to 
admit of it, a brief stay in a warm ba& before going into the 
cold has a good effect Nor, in general, is danger to be ap- 
prehended from such a praeeeding. Thou^ in most eases 

advanta0 



moderate exercise is advantageous before bathine, unl< 
tbe person has an opportunity of springing out of bed into 
the bath, still he should never think of undmsing and 
roing into tbe water when fetigued, or when the skin is 
covered with perspintion. It is a good rule to wet the head 
before taking the plunge. For a person in good health, 
early in the morning is the best time to bathe ; for one more 
delicate, from two to three hours after breakfast is prefereble ; 
but no one should bathe immediately after a ftill meal, par- 
ticulariy if there be a tendency is^ blood to the head, and a 
dispoaition to uoplexy. 
BzereiM whde in the bath, such ts friotiOB of the limbs 



and chest or swimming, is advisable, but not evm this can 
prevent evil consequences if the bather remain too long in the 
water. To say nothing of the risk of cremps and cootuI- 
sire action of the respiratory mnsdes, from the blood beine 
pent up in the large internal veaseU, winch may occur while 
the person is in the water, the foundation may be laid for 
ftttare internal disease if the bknd do not soon revisit the 
surfeoe, eiother from the natural powen of re-actioa, or frrxn 
friction with coarse dry doths. Friction should follow the 
nse of the bath in most instances, except where the bath has 
been in the sea, in which case the salt particles, if allowed 
to remain in contact with the skin, stimulate it more. 

The cases of disease for which cold bathing is a raluaKle 
remedy are, morbidly increased irritability and sensibilitT, 
aeeompanied with general debility. If tiie sensibility be 
extremely high, it is best to begin with the tepid or cool 
bath, and pass gradually to the cold. Where there is a 
tendency to colds and rheumatism, the cold bath is an ex- 
odlent preventive ; for this purpose it should be used con- 
tinually throughout the year, and the chest should be sponged 
with eold water, or vinegar and water may be substitnted in 
vrinter, when there are not facilities for using the complete 
bath. Before beginning this practice, carefm investigatioo 
of the state of tlw mucous membranes of the chest and in- 
testinal canal should be made, as it will certainly prove 
hurtful where ehronie inflammation of these organs exists. 
If tubercles are suspected to exist in the lung8» cold bathing 
should be dispensed with. Though cold bathing is very 
useful in a tendency to scrofolous diseasea, it is very hurt- 
Ail when these are reidly dereloped, though tepid and warm 
badung are allowable. 

Where the increased irritability shows iiaM in tiie mental 
f^mctiona or in the muscular system, as in hypochondriasis 
or hvsteria, cold bathing is very useful ; and especially in 
the hypochondriasis of literary persons, accompanied with a 
disposition to indigestion, and a dry Inrsh skin. In actual 
indigestion, especially if complicated witii sub-acute inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane of the stomach or intes- 
tines, cold bathing is very injurious. 

In cases of torpor and loss of power, cold batfiiog is of 
much service ; in a relaxed state of the skin, subjerl to de- 
biUtating perspirations, it is often the most effectual 
remedy ; in weakness of tile limbs, or of any member, and 
after sprains or paralysis, the local cold bath is very useful. 
The astringent as well as tonic effect of the eold bath is 
employed to prevent the prolapsus or descent of different 
parts: hence, in a tendency to hernia (or even when it hu<i 
occurred, ice laid upon the tumor, and frequently renewed 
has restcved the bowel to its place, or at least waided off the 
inflammation till other means could be tried) ; in loss • f 
power of the sphincter mnsdes, or of the contractile pot« er 
of the bladder, pumping cold vrater on the back is verv 
usefbl ; but it should be used only for a minute at a time. 
In ehronie hsemo r r hag e s , eold applied locally or generally 
has a good effect 

The cold bath, like every other powerfhl agent, when im- 
properiy used, is capable of producing mu<£ misohief ; ra 
some states of the svstem it must be carefully avoided. Iti 
infancy and venr advanced age it is less admissible than at 
other timea, and even (juite improper if the debility be grv;)t. 
It is inadmissible dunng, or immediately before, certain 
conditions of tbe female system; also when there is conges- 
tion of Uood in the veins or internal organs : hence it is 
not suited to chlorosis. In any organic affection of tbe 
heart or aneurism, it is altogether improper. 

Of the cold shower-bath and douche we shall onlv observe 
here, that their efiects are more speedy, and extend more to 
the internal organs : oonsequently they are only to be used 
for a very short time, whenever recourse is had to them. 
A glow of the sur&ce is sooner felt after tbe shower 
than the common bath ; and as soon as this is perceived 
the person should withdraw himself fh>m the stream. If 
the douche falls upon the head, it produces almost in- 
stantaneous and most powerfbl effocts. If its use be pro- 
longed, it quickly lowers, then de8tro3rs» the sensibility, 
induces faintings, and plaees tiie patient in the most immi- 
nent danger. Medical superintendence is therefore required 
through every stage of its emplovment 

When the body is surrounded by media of a temperature 
in some cases lower, and in some higher than ita own, it re- 
ceives caloric, instead of parting with it The diibreDce of 
density and humidity is the cause of its reeeiving it from 
some media which are of a tower temperatore than its own, 



BAT 



36 



BAT 



in for a length of time. Proper bathing-rooms fthould exist 
in every well-construeled home ; but u thii is nrely the 
ease in tMs eountrv, a good sabetitate may be obtained by 
using some of the recently-invented bathing-machinee, 
which combine fhoilities for using the different kinds of bath 
in the same apparatus. The best which we have seen is 
that made by Read, Regent Cirous* whieh possesses an 
apparatus for applying the douche while in the warm bath, 
and may be usea as a eoldf a shower, a warm, a douche, or 
a Tapoul^bath : it is therefore called 7^ Universal Bath. 
Baths should be attached to all large manu&etories, as a 
refreshment for the workmen, to ensure deanlineas, and as 
a means of warding off many diseases: in lead-works, 
painters' and plumMrs* establishments, they would pro- 
tect the men from painters cholic ; and in other establish- 
ments, they would preserve the workmen from many cu- 
taneous diseases. ' A multitude of chronic inflammations 
of the skin are produced by uncleanliness, or other agents, 
which directly irritate the skin; and it is to the want 
of cleanliness in the inferior classes that Willan attri- 
butes the frequency of cutaneous diseases in London. In 
France, advantages are placed within the reach of the poor 
to which the rich alone aspire in other countries. The num- 
ber of gratuitous baths which are given at the hospitals of 
St. Louu and La Charity is truly prodigious: in 1822 it 
amounted to 127,752 for the out-patients only of the hospi- 
tal of St Louis.* (Rayer On Diseaset qf the Skin,) Why 
some portion of the funds of hospitals and dispensaries in 
London, and other large towns, should not be applied in a 
similar way, we can see no good objection. There is as 
much phflanthropy and benevolence in preventing disease 
as in curing it 

A partial warm bath, such as the foot-bath, is of much 
service in warding off many complaints. After getting the 
feet wet, plunging them into warm water will often prevent 
any ill consequences ; and even when the first chili and 
sliffht shiverings, whieh usher in colds, fevers, and other 
inflammatory complaints, have been felt, the disease may 
be cut short by the use of a foot-bath, continued till free 
perspiration occurs. In inflammatory diseases where the 
heaa and throat are much affected, the employment of a 
foot-bath, at a later period, often gives great relief, by 
causing a revidsion of the blood from the upper to the lower 
part of the body. 

Water of a temperature from 99° to the highest which 
can be endured, is termed the hot-bath. When a person in 
health enters such a bath, it greatly excites tlie nervous sys- 
tem, and, through that, the heart and arteries ; causes heat 
and constriction of the skin, with disturbance of the internal 
organs generally, but especially those of secretion. This 
state of uneasiness is lessened by the breaking out of 
perspiration, which is succeeded by great languor, torpor, 
and disDOsition to sleep. In such a bath little absorption 
takes place through the skin, and the body is found to 
have lost weight The hot-bath is a powerful stimulant, 
and can never be used by persons in a state of health. 
The same cautions which were stated under the head 
of the warm-bath ^ply to it in a greater degree. The 
few cases to which it u suited are chronic amotions of 
the ner^'ous system, such as paralysis, when all vascular 
fulness of the brain or spinal chord has been removed. 
The waters of the King's bath at Bath, and some of the 
hot-baths on the oontinent, are very beneficially employed 
in such cases; but careful discrimination must be made 
to suit the temperature to the degree of sensibility remain- 
ing in the paralysed part Where the power of motion 
is lost, the sensation is sometimes increased. Here the 
hot-bath would be very hurtful. On the other hand the 
sensation may be lost, while the power of motion lemains. 
Here equal care must be obser\'ed not to use too high a 
tempenture. Srythema, erysipelas, mortification, or death 
mav follow the use of too high a temperature or a stay too 
prolonged even in a proper temperature. 

Sudden retrocession or repulsion of some cutaneous or 
eruptive diseases is relieved by the use of a hot-bath for a 
few minutes, the eruption often coming out favourably after 
it Some chronic cutaneous diseases, in which great thick- 
ening or torpor of the skin exists, are benefited by the hot- 
bath. 

Vapour-baths are either natural or artiflciaL Severel 

id vapour-baths exist in the Neapolitan Sutes, in 

rland (Pfeffen in the country of the Orisons), and in 

The artificial vapour-baths are much in use in the 



Bast and in Russia, where they are public, or intended for 
several persons to use at the samo time ; and occasionally in 
Britain, where they are always solitary or for a single indi- 
vidual. The Russian baths are described in Lyall's Cha- 
racter qf the Rueeiane, p. 112—115. The bathing-room 
oontains tiers of benches, like an amphitheatre, the seats 
nearest the bottom being the coolest, those higher up hotter. 
The temperature varies from 112^ to 224°. Persons com- 
mencing the use of such baths occupy the lower seats, and 
ascend as they become aocustomeu to them. While ex- 
posed to the vapour, the body is washed or rubbed with soap 
or bran, and beaten with fresh bireh-twigs. The head is 
surrounded with a cold cloth, or cold water is dashed over 
the head. When the person does not wish to breathe the 
heated vapour, a sponge which has been dipped in oold 
water is held to the mouth and nose. On first employing 
the vapour-bath, the .person usually remains about fifteen 
minutes, but afterwards three-quartere of an hour, and at 
Pfeffen the temperature of which is only 1 00, sometimes four, 
eight ten or sixteen hours. After coming out of the bath, 
the bather goes into a room heated with dry air, where he is 
rubbed, puts on a flannel dress, and then reposes upon a couch 
for some time, where he may drink warm drinks to promote 
the perspiration. 

' As soon,* says Dr. £. D. Clarke, ' as the inhabitants of 
these northern nations have endured the high temperature 
of their vapour-baths, which is so great that Englishmen 
would not conceive it possible to exist an instant in them, 
they stand naked, covered with profiise perspiration, cooling 
themselves in the open air. In summer they plunge into 
cold water, and in winter they roll about in the snow, with- 
out sustaining iigury, or even catching cold. When the 
Russians leave a batli of this kind, they moreover drink co- 
pious draughts of mead, as oold as it can be procured.* 
{Travele in Russia, part i. p. 143.) The absence of all 
risk in exposing the peraon to such extremes of temperature 
is explained by the experiments of Dr. Edwards, who found 
that ' after an exposure to cold, sufiident to diminish the 
power of producing heat continuance in a high temperature 
tends to the recovery of this power ; for, in exposing ani- 
mals to suooessive ^iplications of cold, their temperature 
will fall the mora slowly the longer they shall have been 
subjected to the influence of warmth. It follows, therefore, 
that the effect of the application of a certain degree of heat is 
continued after the cessation of the cause. Hence, wc spe 
that those who are liable tofirequent exposure of severe cold 
are rendered more capable of supporting it by subjecting 
themselves in the intervals to a high tempcrature.'-a 
practice adopted by northern nations, and justified by fact«».* 
(Edwudiontho Influence o/Physical Agents on Li/e,^. 1*25.) 

The vapour-bath is distinguished from all other means <k 
introducing more heat into Qie body, chieflv by the circum- 
stance, that as a portion of the vapour is converted into 
water, by coming in contact with the surface of the body, it 
communicates a quantity of sensible caloric to it. It is 
without doubt the most powerful means of supplying a great 
heat to the greatest portion of the surface of the body, in- 
ternal as well as external ; for when breathed, the extensive 
surface forming the interior of the lungs is influenced by u 
in the same way as the skin. On the skin it exerts a pecu- 
liar influence. It does not cause that constriction of tlie 
skin, which follows the application of dry air, nor does it 
exert that pressure upon the surface, wliich, in the case ol 
warm water, retards the breaking out of the perepiration. 
On the contrary, mouiture of the skin, followed by profuse 
perspiration, occurs immediately upon entering the vapour- 
bath. 

Ill Russia, where such baths are used on a large scale, 
their employment is not found to be productive of weakness. 
The subsequent exposure to cold restores the tone of the 
skin which hsd been lost, and the process leaves the pereon 
with a general sense of good health, strength, and power, 
both of the internal organs and of the skin. 'These praiy 
tices,* says Dr. Clarke, * seem to delight them, and to add 
strength to their constitution.* 

The vapour-bath, by attracting the blood more qieedily 
to the surface, and by being followed by more profuse per- 
spiration, is more powerful U&an the warm water-bath. It 
is employed as a remedy in gout and rheumatism, and in 
the numerous conseouences of these when they ha\^ as* 
sumed the chronic form. Many cases of rheumatic and 
gouty contraction of the joinu have been removed by 
persevermg in the use of vapour-bath&i, as employed by 



BAT 



37 



BAT 



the continental nations. In aorofaloiis diseases, especially 
when they affect the skin and the glands, benefit is derivea 
from the vapour-bath, unless there be a manifest tendency 
to active inflammation, and ^reat irritability of the nervous 
iiystem. In some chronic affections of the nervous system, 
especially when connected with the repulsion or imperfect 
development of cutaneous diseases, the vapour-bath is of 
^rcat use : and also in some affections of the respiratory 
organs, such as dry catarrti, asthma, spasms of the muscles 
of respiration, if these are not complicated with inflamma« 
tion or organio disease of the lungs or heart. 

The use of the vapour-bath would be found to ward off 
many acute diseases resulting from exposure to cold, if had 
recourse to immediately after exposure to the exciting caase ; 
as after travelling, or falling into the water in winter. 

The local application of warm vapour is very serviceable 
in many recent diseases. Catarrhs, sore throats of an in- 
llammatory kind, inflammations of the eyes and ears, are 
greatly alleviated by such means. But when the lungs are 
inttamed, though Mudge's or other inhaler is much recom- 
mended, yet the effort required to draw in the vapour is in- 
jurious. The head, from which a flannel cloth may fall 
down, in such a way as to hinder the vapour from escaping, 
should be held over a bason tali of warm water, and the 
vapour inhaled in the ordinary mode of respiration. The 
vapour-bath is very improper for plethoric persons, those 
predisposed to congestion, or to apoplexy, and also for indi- 
viduals in a state of great debility. 

The employment of heated air, as an application to the 
body, causes the primary action of heat to manifest itself 
more than the secondary. The hot air-bath is therefore 
powerfully stimulant to the skin and nervous system, and 
is of great service in all cases where the production of animal 
heat is less than natural, as in the cold stage of fevers, and 
exhaustion of the nervous power. It has been employed 
beneficially in congestive fever, and after great and conti- 
nual mental exertion. It ptoved less useful in the Asiatic 
cholera than was anticipated. A convenient apparatus 
for applying it was invented by the late Dr. Gower, called a 
Sudatorium, and also others by Jones of the Strand, London. 

Medicated baths rarely possess greater power than that 
possessed by the water alone ; but there are a few exceptions. 
The admixture of common salt makes the water more sti- 
mulating and tonic. 

Sulphurous vapour-baths fall under the head of medicated 
baths, and a few remarks may be here made respecting 
thcra. Nishtmen, and other individuals who live much in 
an atmosphere charged with sulphurous exhalations, are 
rarely affected with chronic diseases of the skin, while other 
tnides seem to predispose to their development, such as the 
baker's itch and grocer's itch. It is chiefly for the cure of 
cutaneous diseases that the sulphurous vapour-baths are 
employed. In many of these they are very useful, espe- 
cially those belonging to the genus scabies and genus 
impetigo of Bateman. A caution is requisite for their safe 
employment, that the vapour should not be applied to more 
than a fourth part of the body at one time, lest the disease 
should be suddenly cured, and the internal organs suffer by 
the repulsion. The person who uses the sulphurous vapour- 
hath must be careful not to breathe any of the vapour. 
This kind of bath has been used in rheumatic affections, 
some diseases of the stomach, and in chronic paralysis. It 
may sometimes be a useful addition to internal treatment, 
but alone can be of little avail, till the state of the internal 
or^rans be improved, especially the liver, the action of which 
is almost always faulty in gout and rheumatism. 

Tiie nitro-muriatio bath of Scott is of use in chronic in- 
ilamraation of the liver, such as occurs in warm climates. 
Tlie iron-baths in Nassau and the Hartz are more tonic 
than the simple cold-bath : but none of the iron can be ab- 
sorbed at the low temperature of these baths ; it is only there- 
fore by their direct action upon the skin, and the sympa- 
thies of this with the internal organs, that they are more 
beneficial. We have no knowledge of the effects of the mi- 
neralized mud baths, called by the Italians Luiatura, 
(See Gairdner On Mineral Springs, p. 404.) 

Though unacquainted with the results of employing hot 
sand or ashes, as done by the Turks, we can conceive them 
useful in allaying cramps and neuralgic pains, as heat ge- 
nerally does in whatever way applied. A collection of the 
opini >ns of antient writers on the subject was published in 
the si \teen tb century. {De balneit omnia qua extant apud 
Gru-cov, Latinof, et Arabe$t fol. VeneU apud Junt 1553.) 



The best modem tieatise is that of Marcard, in German, an 
abstract of which may be found in Dr. Beddoes's Treaties 
on Consumption, A French translation of it was published 
in 1802. The natural baths will be treated of under the 
article Watxrs, Minxral. (See Osann, Enq^clopadis" 
ches Worterbuch der Med. Wtssenschq/t, art. ' Bad,* vol. iv. 
Berlin, 1830, and Osann, Darstellung der Heilquellen Eur 
ropas, 1829.) 

BATHURST, ALLEN. EARL BATHURST, eldest 
son of Sir Benjamin Bathurst, governor of the East India 
Company in the years 1688-9, and treasurer of the house- 
hold to the Princess Anne of Denmark, was bom at West- 
minster in November, 1684. His descent was from an 
antient family of Luneburg, who resided at a place called 
' Batters,* and settled in England in very early times at 
'Batters Hurst* in Sussex. Of their property at this place 
the family of Bathurst were deprived, and the castle de- 
molished during the civil wars of York and Lancaster. 
In 1699 Allen Bathurst was entered at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, of which his uncle. Dean Bathurst, was then 
master ; and, six years after, commenced his political life 
as representative for the borough of Cirencester. As a mem- 
ber of the legislature he actively promoted the union of the 
two kingdoms, and concurred in the opposition to the Duke 
of Marlborough and his adherents, of which Harley and St. 
John were the leaders. In pursuing this course he pro- 
bably acted from conviction and not as a political partisan, 
since, upon the dismissal of the Whig ministry, he accepted 
no place under government, though his abilities and con- 
nexion with some of the principal Tories entitled him to notice. 
He was, however, in 1711, made a peer of Great Britain by 
the title of Lord Bathurst, Baron Bathurst of Battlesden, 
in the county of Bedford. In the upper house he exerted 
himself in the debates on many of the important questions 
that were there agitated. In 1 7 16 he opposed, as a violation 
of the constitution, the Septennial Bill. He distinguished 
himself in 1 723 as a zealous defender of Bishop Atterbury, 
when the bill for ' inflicting jMiins and penalties' on that 
prelate was discussed in the House of Lords. In 1 727 he 
opposed a war with Spain which then threatened the coun- 
try; and in 1731 supported the bill to prevent pensioners 
from sitting in the House of Commons. On other occasions 
also of pubUc interest, — in moving the address to the king 
for discharging the Hessian troops in the pay of Great 
Britain ; in resisting the undue taxation of the poor, on the 
bill for the revival of the salt duty ; in advocatmg the mo- 
tion of the Earl of Oxford for the reduction of the forces, 
and in the debate on the mutiny bill. Lord Bathurst took 
an active and decided part ; and, during the whole period of 
which this narration is a brief review, he showed himself a 
steady opponent of Sir Robert Walpole's administration. 

Lord bathurst was married, in 1704,^ to Catherine, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Peter Apsley, by whom he had 
four sons and five daughters. In 1742 he was made cap- 
tain of his majesty's Band of Gentlemen Pensioners, which 
post he resigned m 1 744. He was appointed treasurer to 
G^rge III., then Prince George of Wales, in 1757, and this 
office he held till the death of George II., in 1760, when he 
declined the acceptance of any further employment, on 
account of his age. In consideration, however, of his pre- 
vious services, he received a pension of 2000/. per annum 
on the Irish establishment, and was advanced to an earldom 
in 1772. He died at his seat near Cirencester on the 16th 
September, 1775, aged ninety-one. 

In his private character Lord Bathurst was generous and 
affable ; that he possessed knowledge and acquirements as 
a man of letters may be inferred from his long and intimate 
acquaintance with Pope, Swift, Prior, Rowe, Congreve, 
Aibuthnot, Gay, and Addison ; and the sincerity of his 
political friendships was manifested in his firm and stre- 
nuous opposition to the attainder of Bolingbroke and Or- 
mond. Mr. Pope acknowledged his obligations bv dedicating 
to Lord Bathurst the 3rd Epistle of his Moral Essays, ana 
in the following lines pays a happy compliment to the judg- 
ment and integrity of nis patron :— 

The fenM to valiie riches, with tb* art 

T enjoy them, aod the virtue to izDMiti 

Not meanly nor ambitiously puriuedt 

Not Bunk by iloth, nor raised by icrvitade: 

To balance fortune by a just expenie, 

Join with economy magniflcence ; 

With eplendour, charity : with plenty, bMlthj 

O teach ui, Bathurst 1 yet untpoil'd by wealth. 

That secret rare, between the extremes to mort 

Of BUd food*aatitfe» and of ibmb •^•lov*,* 



BAT 



3B 



BAT 



The only sumying fon of Lord Betbnrst* Henry, tbe 
second earL horn in 1714. was made Chief Justice of the 
Common Fleas in 1754, and in 1771 was appointed Lord 
Chancellor with the title of Baron Apsley. He resigned 
the seals in 1778, and died in 1 794, He was the author of 
a pamphlet in 4to. entitled The Case </ Miu Swor4feger, 
and of a work on Uie Theory of Evidence, 8vo. 

BATHURST, a settlement of the English on the west 
coast of Africa, is situated on the south-eastern extremity 
of the island of 8t. Mary, at the mouth of the river Gam- 
bia, in le^'G'W. longM and 13^28'N. lat. The greatest 
length of the island is about fbur miles, but its general 
breadth does not exceed one mile and a hal( and in some 
places it is much less. The surftice of the island is a low 
plain, with a slight descent from the north and east sides 
towards the centre, which during the season of rain is much 
inundated. The town itself does not stand more than twelve 
or fourteen feet above the level of high-water mark. The 
settlement, although in its infancy, has made rapid advances 
in Improvement. Many fine and substantial government 
buildings have been erected ; and the merchants residing 
there have vied with each other in the elegant and conve- 
nient arrangement of their dwellings and warehouses, all of 
which are built witb stone or brick, and roofed with slates 
or shingles. The population of this settlement has been 
greatly increased, not only by British merchants, but by a 
firge rafluz of the inhabitants of Goree, who have emigrated 
to Bathurst. This emigration was caused by the peoj^e not 
finding employment under the French government, and also 
by their being excluded from the trade of the Gambia, 
except through the medium of St Mary*s, or of the small 
factory belonging to the French at Albieda, beyond which 
they were not allowed to ascend the river. The inha- 
bitants are abundantly supplied with beef, mutton, poultry, 
fish, fruit, milk, butter, palm -wine, and all the AfVican 
vegetables, bv the natives of the surrounding towns, who, 
sensible of tne advantages they derive from the settle- 
ment, flock to it in great numbers, and consume a large 
proportion of the European articles imported into the colony. 
Gofd. ivory, bees'-wax, and hides are brought to Bathurst in 
considerable quantities by the native traders, and by the in- 
habitants of Goree who have settled there. These products 
are annually shipped for England by the British mer- 
chants. (Gray's TYavele in JFestem J/fiea in 1818, 1819, 
1620. and 1821.) 

BATHURST, in New South Wales, one of the counties 
into which that part of the territory of the colony which lies 
west of tlic Blue Mountains has recently been divided. At 
first the whole of this part of the countiy was distinguished 
by the name of Bathurst, but it is now divided into several 
counties, of which one only retains the original denomina- 
tion. The country west of the mountains was not dis- 
covered until 1813, but has since rapidly risen into notice 
on account of its excellent cool climate, and its fine rich 
pastures, flats, and downs. The climate and soil are in 
many parts well adapted to agriculture, which has partially 
been attended to, with the very best results in some places ; 
but the distance (torn a market, uid the want of easy access 
to the coast, prevents any settler from raising produce be- 
Tond the wanu of his own establishment. As all the riven 
beyond the Blue Mountains run westerly, and terminate in 
the immense interior swamps, the outlet of which is yet un- 
ascertained, the absence of a water communication with 
Sydney and the eastern coast has obliged the settlers to 
confloe tlieir attention chiefly to the rearing of sheep and 
cattle. By far the greater proportion of the wool exported 
from the colony comes firom this territory, and, with cheese, 
forms the only article which interior sertlen have to give in 
exchange for tea, sugar, clothing, and other things which 
they require. This must be undentood as applying gene- 
rally to the appropriated territory beyond the Blue Moun- 
tuins, including, besides Bathurst properly so called, the 
counties of Westmoreland and Roxburgh at least. The 
rcnsu^ of 1 83.1 seems to include the entire transmontane po- 
pulation under the head of Bathtint, as no mention is made 
of other counties. The result gives a population of 3454, of 
whom 2000 are conviots. Tbe total number of females, free 
and ronvictM. does not exceed 523. In the restricted sense, 
Bathurst is the westernmost county of the colony, extending 
55 miles in lensth from N.N. W. to 8.8.E., with 42 miles of 
extreme breadth from B. to W. 

The limall town of Bathurst Is 744 yards abeve the level 
of tho sea. oq the west bank of the Maequarie river, at 



the distanee of 192 miles ftom Sydney, to which there is m 
carriage road. It is yet in its infancy ; but aa no situation 
west of the Blue Mountains can be preferable, it will, no 
doubt, ultimately become a place of considerable import- 
ance—a sort of capital to the interior. Its healthiness may 
be estimated from the fact, that only one death took place 
in the fint twelve yean of the settlement It now possesses 
a very fair proportion of respectable settlen in oomfbrtable 
circumstances, who have established a society, called ' The 
Bathurst Literary Society,* with the view of forming a 
library for the use of the members, and of promoting the 
improvement of the community by the discussion of inte- 
resting topics. A hunt, called * The Bathurst Hunt,* wa» 
established several yean since by the gentlemen of the 
^ace, for the purpose of coursmg the native wild dog. 
The recent accounts of the rava ges of these animals in the 
pastoral districts of New South Wales show the great im- 
portance of this object beyond the mero purposes of sport. 
Mr. P. Cunningham mentions among the signs of the rapid 
progress which Bathunt has made, Siat it possessed several 
yean ago a boarding-school, in which Greek, Latin, and 
other branches of education, were professed to be taught. 

(Cunningham's TYuo Vean in New South Wales; Breton's 
Excursions in New South Wales ; Strutt*s Expeditions in 
Australia; Dawson's Present State qf Australia; New 
South Wales Calendar, 1834.) 

BATHURST INLET is a deep bight on the eastern 
shores of George the Fourth's Coronation Gulf, It runs to 
the S.B. about 76 miles, and was explored by Captain 
Franklin in his overland journey to the Polar Sea in 1819. 
(Franklin's First Journey to the Polar Sea.J 

BATHURST ISLAND, one of the North Georgian 
group, in the Arotio Seas, was so called by Captain Parry, 
who fint discovered it in his passage to MelviUe Island in 
1819. Its appearance was high, barren, and rugged, tbe 
highest part exceeding 600 feet, and the shores generally 
steeo. There was no opportunity of landing on iL Tim 
southern coast only was traced lor a distance of 75 miles 
from 97^ 50' to 103^ W. long., lying in an E.S.E. and 
WJ^.W. direction, on the parallel <? about 75^ N. lat. 
(Pvry's First Voyage in 1819.20.) 

BATMAN (pronounced BAWMAN), a person allowed by 
the government to every company of a regiment on foreign 
service. His duty is to take charge of the cooking utensils, 
&c., of the company. There is in the charge of the batman 
a bathorse (pronounced bawhone) for each company, to con- 
vey the cooking utensils from place to place. For the pur- 
chase of this horse the officer commanding the company is 
allowed a sum of money, and fiirage is also providea at the 
^emment expense for the horse. For regiments on duty 
m the kingdom the batmen and bathorses become unnecea- 
sarv, as the soldiers are billetted on the inns, public-houses, 
and beer-houses. 

BATMAN, a weight used in Persia, and at Aleppo, 
Constantinople, Smyrna, and other places in the Levant 
In the Turkish dominions a batman contains six okes, each 
weighing 400 drachms. At Constantinople, silks from 
Persia are weighed by the batman of six okes. In Persia, 
there are two sorts of batman : the batman of Chemy,and 
the batman of Tauris. The former is exactly double the 
latter. The batman of Cherray weighs 88,771 Engbsh 
grains. (See Kelly *s Universal Cambist^ 4to. Lond. 1831. 
voL i. pp. 4, 72. vol. iL pp. 226, 278.) 

BATN-KL-HAJ AR (i. e. ' the Womb of Rocks'), or 
Ddr-et-Hqfar (*the Mansion of Rocks), is the name of a 
stony wilderness, stretching along the Nile fVom the district 
of Succot in the south, to wddi Haifa in the north. In the 
map of the course of the Nile, drawn by Col. W. M. Leake, 
which accompanies Burokhardt's Travels in Nubia, it is 
laid down between 21-22^ N. lat and 30** 35'-3l** 10' B. Ion. 
of Greenwich ; in Riippeirs map, between 2 1** 1 0'-50' N. lat^ 
and SO'' 40'-31'' 1 0' E. long. The Nile, during iU progress 
through the upper part of this district, as far as Wiidi 
Merehed, is often forced into a narrow channel by the close 
approach of the mountains on both sides ; and towanis 
the north of Wildi Menhed navigation is interrupted by fre- 
quent cataracts, rocks, and small islands. A few spots only 
admit of cultivation, which consist of namw strips of land 
situated along tbe Nile : but even here the banks are gene- 
rally so high, that the annual inundations of the river do not 
reach the plains, and the soil must be irrigated by means of 
water-wheels. The mountains of Batn-el-Huar consist of 
primitive rocks, principally of greenstone and gcauwacke. 



BAT 



39 



BAT 



and towards the south of 8eras, of granite ; Ifaey differ 
in this respect fVom the hills accompanying the Nile helow 
Wudi Haifa, where the prevailing rock is sandstone. The 
mountains on the eastern side of the Nile reach their 
{zrcLitest elevation towards the south: the Jabal Lamoule, 
ul»ove Wadi Ambigo, is noticed by Burckhardt as one of 
tlie highest. Anotlier group of high hills called Jabal 
Bilingo, is found farther towards the north, between Wildi 
Attar and Seras. In his route from W^di Attar to Wddi 
Am hi go, Burckhardt had to cross over a high mountain pass 
in the hills, named Jabel Doushe. 

The small strips of level land on the banks of the river 
were formerly populous and well cultivated, but are now 
thinly inhabited. The number of the present male in- 
hahitants of the whole district of Batn-el-Hajar is esti- 
mated by Burckhardt not to exceed 200. They consist 
partly of Beduins of the tribe Kerrarish ; partly of Arabs, 
^^ ho pretend to be Sherifs, or descendants of the family 
of Mohammed, from Mecca. The chief of the latter, who 
is distinguished by the title of tnelehy or king, is tributary 
to the governors of Nubia, and resides at W^di Attar, or 
Attyu, the principal village of Batn-el-Hajar. In conse- 
quence, however, of the frequent incursions of the Sheygya 
Arabs (who live on the southern banks of the bend of the Nile 
in Dongola, at a distance of eight days* journey from Suecot 
across the desert), the greater pert of the Shertfs have now 
quitted this neighbourhood, and have settled partly in the 
district of Succot, and partlyin Dongola. Most of Uie Sho- 
rt fs speak a little Arabic. They are described as being re- 
markably well made, with fine features, and of a dark brown 
rolour. They go naked, and the women are in the habit of 
wearing leather amulets round the neck, and copper orna- 
ments on their arms and vrrists. They dwell chiefly upon the 
little islands of the river, where they are less exposed to 
the attacks of the predatory Arabs than on the banks of the 
river. 

Rilppell, who in 1823 passed through the part of Batn-el- 
Hajar situated on the western side of the Nile, describes 
that district as consisting of a chain of syenite hills along 
the banks of the river, and beyond them, as far as the eye 
could reach, a tract of moveable sands, the dreary unifbrmitv 
of which Was but seldom interrupted by projecting dark 
cliffs of primitive rock. On the western bank of the river, 
towards the south of Wftdi Haifa, Riippell found many de- 
serted villages and monasteries: the local appellation of the 
latter is Sulli. Nearly the whole of the western part of 
Drlr-el-Hajar is now uninhabited. At Semne (in 21" 30' 
N. lat.) Ruppell saw the ruins of a large and apparently 
nntient village or town, with several temples in a mixed 
Roman and Egyptian style of architecture. (See Edward 
Riippcirs Reisen in Nubien, &c., Frankfurt, 1829. 8vo. 
pp. 12, 13.) 

The vegetable productions of Batn-el-Hajar are few. 
Date-trees are occasionally found in the wddis or vallevB 
that intersect the hills and slope towards the Nile. At 
AVddi Seras Burckhardt saw a few cotton-fields and bean- 
plantations. Dhourra is scarce. The principal Ibod of the 
inhabitants consists of beans, and the grains of a shrub 
called kerkedan, which grows wild here. Another legumi- 
nous plant, the sj^ka, is used as food for camels, and 
from its grains an oil is prepared which the natives use 
instead of butter. 

At the southern extremity of Batn-el-Hajar, the village 
of AVudi Okame, or Ukme, is situated: this place is often 
^i<^ted by pilgrims who perform their devotions at the tomb 
oi a Mohammedan saint. Sheikh Okashe, who is buried here. 
At a distance of two hours' ride S.S.W. of Okame is the 
island of Kolbe, the residence of the chief of Succot. 
(J. L. Burckhardt's Travels in Nubia, Lond. 1819. 4to. p» 
42-50.) 

BATOLI'TES, in zoology, a genus of fossil shells esta- 
Itlibhed by Montfort, and placed bv him among his coquilles 
univalves cloisonnees, Cuvier, however, who quotes the 
observations of M. Deshayes and of M. Audouin, considers 
them as cylindriccd and straight hippurites, and places 
them under his family of ostraccs or ostraceans, among 
tliose fossil bivalves wnich are supposed to have bad their 
vahes connected by no ligament but by mere muscular 
alhe^ion, and immediately before the oysters. Montfort 
«»tatcs that these shells acquire a very sreat length, and that 
they constitute masses of rock in the High Alps. [See 
BiRosTRiTEs and Hippuritbs.] 



BATRA'CHIANS. [See Frogs.] 

BATRACHOMYOMA'CHIA (BarftaxofivofAaxla), the 
battle of the frogs and mice, is the title of a Greek poem, 
consisting of 294 hexameter verses. This poem, though 
generallv ascribed to Homer, and printed with the editions 
of the Iliad and Odyssey, undoubtedly belongs to a late 
age, and is attributed by Flutarch and Suidaa to Pigres, of 
Halicarnassus, in Asia Minor. Pigres is called by Suidas 
the broflier of that Artemisia who was the wi& of Mausolus. 
[See ARTSMistA.] This poem, however, is probably the 
composition of some still later writer of the Alexandrine 
school. Some critics consider it a satirical poem : as it is 
not very long, the reader may form his own opinion without 
much trouble. (See Pameirs Translation into English 
verse,) 

BATTA, an allowance made to military officers in the 
service of the East India Company, in addition to their pay. 
As the officers of King's regiments serving in India re- 
ceive their pay according to the scale fixed by his Majesty's 
regulations, and which pay is below the emoluments derived 
by officers of similar rank in the regiments of the East India 
Company, the allowance of batta is made also to them by 
the (Jompany, and is so adjusted as to preserve an equality 
of income between the two services. 

The scale of allowance under the name of batta varies not 
only with the circumstance of the re^ments being in the 
field or in cantonments, but also accordmg to the part of the 
country in which they are stationed. 

Batta was originally given with tiie intention of enabling 
officers to provide for field-equipment, and for those extra 
expenses which they must incur when marching, but it 
early lost this character when it was continued to officers in 
cantonments. In November, 1828, the distinction was made 
between the amount allowed when in actual service, and 
when in cantonments : before that time no difference was 
made. The effect of the alteration is this : that at particular 
stations of the army, where an officer formerly got full batta, 
he now gets half that batta, with an allowance for house-rent, 
which is inferior to what the other half of tho batta would be. 
The half-batta of a lieutenant-colonel is 304 rupees (about 
30/.) per month ; his allowance for house-rent is 100 rupees. 
A major's half-batta is 228, and for house-rent 80 rupees per 
month; captain s half-batta, 91, and house-rent, 50 rupees ; 
lieutenant's, 61, and 30 rupees ; ensign's, 4G, and 25 rupees. 
Colonels of regiments, not being general officers on the staff, 
nor holding offices specially provided for, are allowed the 
fUU batta of 750 rupees per month at any station, but they 
have not any allowance for house-rent. It was estimated, 
that by carrying into effect the regulation of November, 
1828, the government of the East India Company would 
save 12,000/. per annum. {Report of Commtttee of the 
House of Commons on the Affairs of India, 1832, part 5, 
Military.) 

BATTALION. This name is applied to a certain division 
of the infantry ia an army, corresponding, nearly, to the chi- 
liarchia in a Greek phalanx, and to the cohort in a Roman 
legion. The number of men composing a battalion is vari- 
able, but in the British service, according to the present 
establishment, it is, in general, about 750. One battalion 
in most cases constitutes a regiment, but some regiments, 
as those of the guards, consist of two battalions, and fhe 
regiment of artillery consists at present of eight, besides tho 
brigade of horse artillery. It seems, therefore, that, origi- 
nally, the name of regiment was applied to the body of 
men organized for a particular district, or a particular 
branch of service ; and that, when the numerical strength 
of the regiment exceeded what was considered convenient, 
it was divided into two or more battalions. 

The phalanges of the Greeks, and the legions of the 
Romans, with their respective constitutions and divisions, 
will be described under the words Phalanx and Legiox* 

The destructive effects of fire-arms among dense bodies 
of men necessarily caused the close order of battle used in 
antient warfare to be abandoned: though, down to the 
middle of the eighteenth century, an opinion that the troops 
could not otherwise resist effectually a charge of the enemy, 
and the desire to form them with facility into a column for 
attack, induced commanders of armies to draw up the bat- 
talions in a line from four to six files deep. But the nume- 
rous casualties which still occurred, led subsequently to the 
practice of forming the line in tluree ranks ; and in the latest 
regulations for the disposition of the British army, it is pre- 



BAT 



40 



BAT 



mHM itiM (W \miUiAym» tr* Ut U Anrnn ftp m iw^ nnU 
m\f. Tli« ftriciim«nt in f«fmir '4 thif »«tlKi4« «krli« ft 
umf !>• otMnnrMl, wt« riM'iirAiMMi4#4, in I r»3, t^ Torpio« the 
iwHtirnffiiUWr '/f V»*tfM4iM, ki, tiMii in n^i/ttm two nu>luor OMn 
iHily («ttM rtm Mt fm<4«, nM m tU i}af4 rsitK eta Imt no«iber« 
wttMi MMiplay#Ml timii In kMi4)ni(« and li«fi4io|f ihm moikcte 
I'f Ihi* tnt'n In Oi«ir frcntt, thi« •vrvie* •rsrcself eon|MnMlaf 
fiir IliM !';•• iN«f*M4i4m«fl t/y Omi Mpo«ur« of m maoy men to 
IliM mmny'% Ar«, A fvrwitfn wntor, ht/m^nm, eontrodft ilMi 
wHli i«il4)»«rN ■« wi>n (llttfTpUnod m IIkim of Riibm* three 
rahli« wiuUl \m ttuttn eilvMntuKeou* ttuin two: etnee tbo 
MinM In tiMf mi'MU rsnk ere eneUled to fire a eeeond time 
ivUli the mn«ki*t« oWeined from thoee in the third reak, 
ininiM<llMt«ly mHit tti^y ewl the frfrnt^rank men hmTemade 
llMiir Amt flm* m the! e mu/rh lewi interval Uk«t pleoe be- 
(iri*«n llie voltUi« then that which oocun when the line ecm- 
•)«(« (if finlx (wo renki. 

Dutltitf the werN whHi errnM mit of the Reirolotion in 
Vifkm»» tint erniiif* of that nati/;n became babitttated to a 
foMnntlon In iI^nmi rolunin* Ineiead of a line of email depth. 
1'liU prai«iif'e, whU'h ii4*<imfNl to tie a return to the tartica of 
IliM atitUMili« poM««M4*<i M<mie a«lvantaK<ni when an attack i« 
tu tilt i\\fm*\m\ ■tfiiiimt an enemy'e lino whu;h ia too far ex- 
tnii«1i>i| ff hIIow Utci ilivi«i'>ne to lurrour oarli other in time; 
arnl Ihe tfr««t ntftll of NatKilonn conftitteU in manomivring 
Ml M« to i«Mil hU opfMinont to fall int/> thi« error, and then 
ov^rw I ifl lining him by numeroui ronMN*utive and powerful 
nttni'k* fliroi>t«td AKAlttNi tbo weaker part of lit* line. The 
eMUtn, howevvr.Mmtni to have boon pemevcred in too tona- 
(Moti«|y by Ibe Kron(<b ((('(^•I'aU; for» atfainiit tteadv troopa, 
tbolr oohunn* not only iu(f(«rod ftoriou* lotte* in makinf; tiie 
iin«itul(i, but wore Im^opablo of keeping up a (Ire equal to 
Diet wtilolt niitfbt have boon proflurod iiy a more extended 
ordor. Nuott wan (ho oiror oommitted bv Mambal Soult at 
Dim bntdii tif Albuorn. A(*(*ordinff to Nanior {Hittory qf 
Ih0 /Vnintii^ir friir), 'that Konerafperiiitoa beyond reeeon 
lit fltfltlinii witti flMDMi rolumnii, and ihuN loit the fairest 
Itobt ever oflbrod (o thn nrm« of France. Hnd the fifth corps 
urtlio Kronohoponodln dine,' tl\o historian observes. 'nothing 
i*ouli| have SAVod (he Hrituh armv from a total defeat.* 

A bsKalloti Is now uonorally dlvldiNl into ton oompaniei; 
and, fur oonvonlnticn In |wrformlnK the movements which 
inriy bo ro<|Uli-«Ml,nrtr1i munpiiny ix subdivided into two equal 
fmrt*. And rAoli of tbowo into soctioiis. The battalion is 
eonttUAitded by lis own colonel ; and several battalions or 
rt«itiinonls sri*, on sorvico, united under one general officer: 
llitio con«titii(o a btltfudo. and may lie consiuerod as a small 
i**Mi<tn, Acco^llng lo (ho nreMont regulations each man oo- 
i*tiitli*« In Uno twenty one Inches, and, as no intenals exist 
l»o(w0t<n tbo ciini|t(imoi«, the KKtont of a battalion formed two 
dcop is About tfitt >nttU. Sl\ pnoos are loH botweon every 
Iwti bnllaliiMis, and the same interval only separates one 
briitAdo IVton Another. 

Tho crnnmny of K^^Adiers occupies the extreme right, 
and the liitlil InlUniiv company tbo extreme le(\ of tho bat- 
Idlion t the«e are csUod (he Hunk companies, and the others 
take (heir places (Vxim ri)th( to loft, according to the num- 
bers b> ^bieU they fii^« de%i)inate<l. Tlie captain, or officer 
contmiinduiiK imoli c«oup<iny, i« stationed in tne ftontline on 
iho riiiht of hu ooinpAU) ; and immc^bstely Miind him, in the 
ivar i^nK i« his c>>\onng seijeant. The lieutenants, en>it;ns, 
and the setjesnts of (be c%mu>anics f\>rm a thinl, or ^hiit is 
ealM a suiteinu(ucinr\,ranK in rear of the otbern, nt the 
dt«tAnee of \\\w^ pa*vs. The lw\> it^gmiental colours are 
pUo*il in (he fKvnt uwV l*et\^-eeu the two centre com))anic«, 
and tw>^ n«\u-«Mmmi«»ione%t otlicers are in the war imnk 
WUind them { a eegi'snt is staihutMl in the fronts between 
the i>vlou^<s« ano(hcr »tand» op)v%Kite to him in the rear rank, 
end a (b\r»t m a Ime xrith K^h* m th* supemttmersrr rank. 
Ttte^ IaM wcn(hM>e*t MH.^csnt* »cT\if to direct the narrh of 
th^ W((ah<n\ nhen \X nv\v» pAralWl to Us (Wwt ; Ibr which 
|*Mi^s\«^. ,\« (bAt «s>>A*^M>» tbo ^\rm th««*<*txy«s in a lin^ in 
Ihi^l dM>viH\n» and wsrv^h Wumx^ ttw battslh^n at the dis- 
taw^v *\f MX pw« 

IV is^AM^^^n♦b^r %^f (be hsiult.MK iN^cea him?icifin ft»>nt 
^Wnbe )»n» f.^ Mt)V"rM»i\rnd the ,v,0,»nsTX cvcrcRswi^ other- ' 
^^*rb^» tl^r-Mt in in ihcrc^A!. The hcuicv»jim^.MiMf>ot i* ' 
Wh»»v( t^^^%^^^^\M'« »» IV ^1 »\( tSc M.^vunmn^rsn rsnk; the • 
>\^ y... » ^.v »,> », A. ,»i \W *^v*vl *>A*,i.\^ ,v> c*^'v\pAnx»$ .-^ tSc ■ 
\iv''t ^ * '. ■\ \\ . V* i> xjN, \ \\\ . :.■ .\ iJv A V.,tfcm ^n a \vc 

>S'1^ l*U m »*.•,^^» r^ I.N t:o«N MJ-A T>C v.: AtNNVv M !><• 

^'Af "M 1^0 \^ \sxxs\K\, \\\^ m^\y\ -Anv ^c, t^pcThcT V th th^' ^ 



treatisea M tke fteid 



the 




die 4*^ of tlnvsrir^ 



r, 
ibe coeDij ; and tbe •rrioeks af tbe tafleen aad 
ligbi lafrotrr were difacBt Iran tbooe of the other troops : 
hot, except tb€ nMgmtm^ w1» vae pseees widi bairris riM^ 
or grooved* all die bdaaitrj of Ike fiae etnj die mme kind 
of oBosket. 

The principal crdotkioa of a battaSon eoMist n revet s- 
tng the froot of tbe bse, taking a poaitinii at rigbl-angles to 
tta actoal front; formiiig a edaui bj bringing die dil^rcnt 
companies or their sabdiviaioiia parallel le^ and directly m 
rear of each other, either at open or doee intervals ; ibnnin^ 
a column en Seheion, or with the divisiMis parallel to, but in 
positions receding from, each other towards tbe right or 
left, in the manner of atqia; or, laadj, fonning a hollow 
square. By changing tbe front, a retrograde movement in 
line mar be made ; l^ fonning tbe line perpendicularly on 
either lUnk, an attempt of tbe enemy to torn it may be op- 
posed. Columna are formed for tbe porpoae of marching 
along roads or through defiles* or advancing in a body to- 
wards an enemy's position ; a movement en echelon allows 
troops to gain ground obliquely towards the front or rear; 
and a hollow square ia formed in order to reatst an enemy in 
every direction, when die battalion is in danger of being 
surrounded. 

A regiment of cavalry now consists of three squadrons; 
each souadron of two troops, and the numerical strength of 
each of these is about 80 men : but from that number one* 
sixth is to be deducted for the men not under arms. The 
cavalry are formed two deep, and each file occupies three feet 
in front ; no interval is left between the troops, hut that 
between every two squadrons is one-fourth c^ the actual 
strenffth of each. A regiment of cavalry, when complete, 
will tnus occupy about 233 yards in front 

(Turpin de Criss£, Commentaires sur le$ IngtiiutionM 
Militairet de Vigece; Daniel, HUtoire de la Milice Prdn- 
poiiB ; OkouneC Examen Raiionni dee Proprieiee d^s 
Troie Annei; Bismark on the TacUce qf CavcUry^ trans- 
lated by Major Beamish ; Regtdatione for the Formaiioni^ 
Fidd Exereisett and Movemente qf ha Majeety^e Fhrcet^ 
corrected to 1833. For many particulars relative to tbe 

g resent state of the British army, the Monthly Liete may 
e consulted.) 

BATTARDEAU. [See Cofferdam.] 

BATTAS. The large portion of tlie island of Sumatra 
which is known as the Battaa country, is situated between 
the equator and about 2° 30' N. lat With the exception of 
the principality of Siak on the north-east coast, and of some 
settlements at the mouths of rivers, which are in possea»too 
of Malavs, this country includes the whole of the space be- 
tween those parallels. On the south-east it ia bounded bv 
the principalities of Rawa and Menancahow, and on tl.o 
north-west by the kingdom of Atcheen. 

The Battas country, which by the inhabitants is calletl 
Batak^h divided into several provinces* which are subdividt d 
into districts. The names of the principal provinces &.:« 
Toba, Mandeling, Angkolo, Humbang. Si Nsmbila, L/ooh ••, 
Manambin, Palampungan, Barumim, Sama Jambu, Pa::- 
garan, Lambung, Silendung, Butnr, Holbang, LintDvi, Dair^ 
Alas, Karaw, and Ria. 

The most populous of these districts are those aitaatc>l 
about the centre of the country, and particularly Toba. S)- 
lendung, Holbang, and Linton. The great Tob% Ln^.- 
which lies in a direction nearlv nortb-eaal from the Dut .; 
settlement of Tapanooly (which is in 1** 4(/ N. lat, and i -' 
50' K. long.), has never yet been visited by any Sat«fic^. . 
Messrs. Burton «nd Ward, Baptist mis^^ionaiies oo the islai. :. 
to whom this lake was pointed out from socae high l^nd xt a 
fv>n^Klcrablc distance, describe it as being from «• lo :. 
miles lone, with a breadth of from 1 S to SO miles. TVe ^..r- 
facc of the lake was deechhed to those gmtlttsu as I c .: 
»riq3ft<^n)c$ 90 roQch as to prevent tbe passage of bciax» * • 
aT>d ftom an island in the middle, on which a pen>i - i 
m&rktf TS held. Sct^eral streams;, one of tbem of ooosa^.* - 
«^^- ssrc. flow ir.trt the Toha Lake, and if it be troe, j 
037 )c ^tatc^ to Messrs. Burton mod Warl that m 
rr«.* ar 1 • ai! Twv^c m the cMiree of tbe tw«eity-lhBr 
;$ prot'sKe that fhrtber exansmatisn wwoM absv it to b 
srna of the s«^a* 



tr. 



.. > 



BAT 



41 



BAT 



Our infonnation with reeaxd to the people fonning the 
Battas tribes is so scanty, uiat any statement ve can give 
respecting their system of governmeat must be liable to un- 
certainty. It is said that the supreme government over the 
whole of the districts is exercised by one chief, who lives 
at the north-western extremity of the Toba Lake. By 
this chief a deputy is appointoa for each district, who, as- 
sisted bv a council compoeed of the leading inhabitants, con- 
ducts the political affairs of the district ; he frames laws, 
declares war, makes peace, and administers justice. The 
authority of these denuties is very much controlled by the 
councils with whom they act, so that the different districts 
may be considered as so many oligarchies. The more mi- 
nute functions of government are otherwise performed, each 
village forming, in this respect, a distinct community, and 
possessing withm itself the power of framing regulations for 
its own municipal government The inhabitants of the dif- 
ferent districts are so little held together hj the authority of 
the chief governor, that it is not unusual for two or more vil- 
lages to he engaged in war against each other, while the 
rest of the nation is at peace. It is probably owing to their 
system of government, as well as to their inland situation, 
and to the ease with which their few natural wants can be 
supplied, that these people have retained unaltered their 
primitive habits and character. Compared with the Malays 
uf the coast, although they are loss enterprising, the Battas 
are more industrious. A great part of the necessaries of 
lite required at such of the Malavan settlements as are 
within their reach is supplied from the Battas country. 

These people consider themselves to have been the earliest 
settlers on Sumatra, and they have a tradition that their 
forefathers came from a country lying to the east of that 
island, but their belief upon this subject is very vaffue, and 
they exhibit so many points of resemblance to Hindus, 
that it appears more probable they must originally have 
come from India. The resemblance here spoken of is shown 
in their persons: they are of middle stature, well made, and 
liave prominent noses. Their religious notions, likewise, 
savour strongly of Hindu origin. They believe in the ex- 
istence of a Supreme Creator of the world, who has com- 
mitted the charge of its government to three sons, who, 
in their turn, have delegated to inferior gods the duties of 
their office. The names of these gods are said to have a 
strong resemblance to those of the Hindu mythology. This 
system of faith is burthened with numerous superstitions. 
The people believe in the constant interposition of good and 
evil genii in their worldly affairs, and every village has its 
peculiar demons or spirits, chiefly composed of the souls of 
the deceased inhabitants. As might be supposed, under 
the influence of such a belief, the person who exercises the 
office of priest, and who is frequently the head man or rajah 
of the vUlage, is a person of great consequence, to whose 
advice and assistance recourse is had upon all occasions. 
The Battas do not appear to have any idea of an existence 
beyond the present, and Uieir religious prejudices and fears 
being thus limited to merely the objects of sense have little 
or no influence over their moral conduct. 

The well-ascertained fact of their cannibalism has occa- 
sioned them to be consideied brutal and ferocious in their 
nature, an opinion which appears to be by no means well 
founded ; they are, on the contrarv, quiet and timid to a greater 
depjree than even Hindus. Their principal food is rice 
and batetas. Meat tbey seldom or never taste, but when 
they do indulge in it thev are not particular as to the de- 
scription or condition of the animals they eat. According 
to Marsden, their indulgence in anthropophagy is limited 
to the devouring of persons slain or taken prisoners in war, 
and of certain classes of criminals. Robbers, if taken in the 
fact, dre publicly executed and eaten ibrthwith, but if they 
elude immediate detection, a slighter punishment than loss 
of life is awarded. Men taken in adultery are subjected to the 
same revolting punishment, with this additional circumstance, 
that they may be eaten pieoemeal without being previously 
put to death. It is not considered lawful to eat the bodies 
of persons taken or slain in the wars or feuds which occur 
between different villages or districts, but only such as fall 
into their power in what may be considered as national con- 
tests. An account has very recently (1835) been received 
in Europe of the killing, and probably also the eating by 
the Battas, of two English missionaries, who were proceed- 
in. i; through the country in the direction of the great Toba 
Lake. It appears that the tribe among whom the mission- 
aries fell were at the time engaged in war with another 



tribe, and they might easily, under those cironmatanees, put 
a wrong oonsiruotion upon the unusual appearance of 
strangers among them. It is said to be the opmion of per- 
sons near to the spot, and therefore bettor able than we can 
he to form a correct judgment on the case, that if the two 
missionaries had taken the precaution to send a messenger 
before them, to explain the pacific object of their journey, 
they would have met with hospitaUe welcome, instead of 
the melancholy fate that has befallen them. Dr. Leyden, 
in his work on the languages and literature of the Hindo- 
Chinese nations, states that the Battas frequently also eat 
their aged or infirm relations, as an act ^f pious duty. 
When, among them, a man becomes infirm and tired of 
life, he is said to invite his children to eat him : he ascends 
a tree, round which his friends and descendants assemble, 
and the whole of them join in singing a dirge, tlie burthen 
of which is *The season is come, the fruit is ripe, and 
it must descend.' The victim then descends, is deprived 
of life, and his remains are devoured in a solemn banquet. 
This practice of the Battas eating their a^ed parents has 
been comrared with the usage of the Padsi of ludia men- 
tioned by Herodotus (lib. iii. 99) ; and Dr. Leyden has con- 
jectured, perhaps rather hastily, tliat the Pads^i and the 
Battas are the same people. A similar practice prevailed 
amongst the Massagetss (Herod, i. 216), and among the 
antient Tupis of Brazil. 

Slavery exists among the Battas. The classes who are 
reduced to this state of degradation are their own country- 
men, and generally orphans, prisoners taken during their 
intestine wars, or debtors. To satisfy a debt, no matter how 
contracted, and probably the result of a same of chance (for 
these people are great gamesters), not only the man himself^ 
but his whole family also, may be sold into slavery. 

The custom of the country authorises every man to have 
as many wives as he can purchase ; and, as usually is the 
case whBre such a custom prevails, the wives perform all the 
drudgery, and are in fact considered to be little bettor than 
slaves. It is not often that a man has more than two wives 
at the same time. 

The Battas have a written language, which bears a con- 
siderable resemblance, both in sound and construction, to 
that of the Malays : it has by some persons been considered 
a dialect of the Malayan tongue. The spoken language is 
somewhat different — a circumstance which may very na- 
turally arise, in progress of time, among a people of whom 
only a very small proportion are able to use or understand 
the written characters. It is said that not more than two 
persons in one hundred amone the Battas are able to read. 
Such books as they have are chiefly upon astrology, omens, 
and other subjecte of a superstitious nature. Many persons 
among them show skill in poetry ; and it forms part of their so- 
cid amusements to undertake contests in improvising, which 
they keep up for hours together with considerable spirit. 

It is principally in the Battas country that the camphor- 
trees of Sumatra are found : none, it is said, grow south of 
the equator. The camphor which these trees yield is con- 
sidered to be so good in quality, that it sells in the markets 
of China for more than ten times the nrice paid for that pro- 
duced in Japan, and which is yielded by a different plant. 
The camphor-tree of Sumatra grows without cultivation, 
and attains to a size equal to that of the largest timber trees, 
being frequently above fifteen feet in circumference. Cam- 
phor in the Battas language is called Kapur, of which the 
European name is a corruption. In Eastern markets it is 
known as Kapur Baroos, tne latter word being the name of 
the town on the coast of Sumatra whence it is shipped. 

Benjamin, or benzoin, is almost exclusively a product of 
the Battas country. Marsden says that large plantations of 
the trees by which it is yielded (the Styrax benzoin) are 
cultivated by the natives. The other vegetable productions 
of this part of Sumatra are common to the whole island. 
[See Sumatra.] 

The entire population of the Battas country has been esti- 
mated at 1,500,000 souls, but this computation must be 
altogether coi^jectural. 

(Marsden's History of Sumatra; Asiatic Researches; 
Porter's Tropical Agriculturist; Library of Entertaining 
Knowledge, Vegetable Substances used in the Arts,) 

BATTENS, pieces of wood of various lengths, 7 inches 
wide and generally not exceeding 8{ inches in thickness 
when imported. They are used for floors, and are also 
placed upright against walls to fix the laths on which the 
plastering is set. East-country battens, as imported, are 



No. 210. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPiBDIA.] 



Vot. IVw-G 



BAT 



42 



BAT 



7 inohM wida and S) inchflfe Uiick, whioh. when pUuned up 
and shot, are cut into two boards each 1i inch thick. 
Such battens are used fiir the best floors ; but in attios» and 
nx>ms.of less impoctanoe, for eoonomy, the batten is out into 
three boards* When used for waUs» the 7 and 8| inch bat- 
tens are out into six pieoea lengthwajs* being then some- 
thing less than 2^ inches wide and H inoh thick, allow- 
ance being made for the sawing. Battens are usually placed 
at the distance of seven inches asunder, but sometimes 
eleven or twelve, which is, however^ considered slight work ; 
if double laths are used, it will then be sufficiently strong 
to carry the plaster. The battens are nailed to the bond- 
timbers of the wall ; or» if there are no bond-timbers, to 
wooden plugs placed at ec^usl distances. Walls of brick 
and stone, when not sufficiently dry to be finished in the 
usual way, require battens for tne lath and plaster; and it 
is of the utmost importance to employ battens in exposed 
situations, especially on the sea coasti where the driving 
rains will often penetrate the walls. 

Battens from the British possessions m North America, 
when 6 and not exceeding 16 feet long, nor above 7 inches 
wide and not above 2| inches thick, pay a duty of W. per 
120. Battens of the same dimensions from foreign coun- 
tries pay 10/. per 120. The duty increases with the length, 
and also with the thickness, of the battens* The net re- 
venue from battens in 1833 was 116,215/. The difference 
between battens and deals is this : battens are never, and 
deals are always, above seven inches wide. Battens are 
always at least six feet long, and batten-ends always under 
^at length. The duty on battens and batten-ends is dif- 
ferent: battens, 1/. British North American, 10/. foreign; 
batten-ends, 79. 6d. American, 3/. foreign. iOwemment 
Staiistical Tables, 1834.) The best battens are from Chris- 
tiania ; the worst, from America. 

BA TTE RING-RAM. [See Artillsey.] 

B ATTERSE A, a parish m the county of Surrey, situated 
four miles south-west of St P&ul*s Catnedxal, and forming 
one of the suburbs of the metropolis. In Domesday Book 
it is called Patricesy, and as the same survey mentions 
that it belonged to the abbey of St. Peter, Westminster, 
this probably indicates the true etymology of the name. 
The parish comprehends an area of 3020 acres, nrettv 
eoualfy divided between arable land and pasture. Much 
of the former is occupied by market-ganlenen, Battersea 
being specially noted for the quantity of vegetable pro- 
duce which it raises for the London market The manor 
of Battersea was gi^'en by the Conqueror to Westminster 
Abbey in exchange for Windsor; after the dissolution of 
monasteries the manor passed through various hands, and 
in the \ear 1627 it was granted by the king to Oliver St. 
John, Viscount Grandison, from whom it descended to the 
celebrated St John, Viscount Bolingbroke, and in 1763 was 
purchased of the St John family in trust for John Viscount 
Spencer, and is now the property of the present Earl 
Spencer. A church is mentioned in Domesday Book, but 
the existing parish church is a modem structure, openoi in 
1777. It is situated on the banks of the Thames, and is of 
brick, with a tower and small conical spire. It has neither 
aisles nor chancel. A new churrh has recently been erected 
by the commissioners for building churches. The living of 
Battersea is a vicarage in the diocese of Winchester, rated 
in the king's books at 1 3/. 1 Ss, 2^ The tithes which accrue 
from the gardens render the living one of the most valuable 
in the neighbourhood of London. Battersea lies too low on 
the Thames to be one of the most agreeable suburbs of 
London for residence ; it nevertheless contains a large num- 
ber of respectable houses and neat villas. Lord Bolingbroke 
was bom and died in the family mansion at Battersea, of 
which Pope was a frequent inmate. The house was very 
large, having forty rooms on a floor; but it has long since 
been taken down and the site otherwise appropriated. The 
village possesses a free school, which was endowed by Sir 
Waller St John, in 1 700, for twenty boys; and both he and 
his lady afterwards left fUrther sums for apprenticing some 
of the nuaber* Battersea is oonnected with Chelsea by a 
wooden btidm across the Thames, erected in 1771. The 
population o? this extensive parish was 5540 in 1831. of 
whom 302 1 were females. (Ly sons Environs ^ Lendon.) 

BATTERY, im Uw. [See Assault.] 

^ B ATTBRY. This name is given to any number of 
piecet of oidnanee placed behind an Epaulement, or eleva- 
tion of Mith» either to destroy the works or dismount the 
7ofiaen«Dy« 



It may be said that the antienta made uie of a ipeeieB of 
ordnance in the operations of attack and defence ; and the 
battering-rams, the balistn, and the oatapultae, which, when 
placed on the natural ground, or in buildings of timber, or 
elevated on mounds of earth, served the besiegers to demoliah 
the walls of fortresses, or to drive the defenders from them, 
may be considered as corresponding to the guns, mortars, 
&c, whioh constitute the armament of a modem battery. 

Vitruvius states {De ArcMteeturd, lib. x.) that Cetrea of 
Chalcedon was the fliat who covered the nan with a shed, 
in order to secure the men who worked it tnm the arrows, 
darts, and stones thrown by the enemy ; and he adds, that 
the construction of the shed was subsequently improved by 
the engineers of Philip and Alexander. The testudines 
and helSpoles were buildings of this nature, fbr the protec- 
tion of the men and military engines, and in this respect 
they correspond to the ^li/^m^fM which cover the ordnance 
at jpresent employed in the attack of a fortress. (See the de> 
scnption of the hel^polis (JXivoXic) of Demetrius, nutarcb, 
l^e of Demetrius, cap. 21.) 

While the same species of artillery oontinued to be used 
in warfare, it is evident that no material change could take 
place in the nature of the edifices constructed to cover it ; 
out from the epoch of the invention of gunpowder, the 
wooden sheds or towers were superseded by masses of eaith. 
whose thickness was necessarily made greater than the 
depth to which a cannon-shot can penetrate into them. In 
modem times the designation of a battery varies with the 
purposes to be accomplished, the nature of the ordnance 
employed, and the manner in which the firing maybe made. 

A breaching battery is one which may be placed at be- 
tween 50 and 1000 vards from any wall or rampart, in order 
to demolish it ; and the effect is produced by firing directly, 
or, as it is called, pot'n/ blanc at the object : such a battery 
generally has its front parallel to the face of the wall to be 
breacheo. 

An enfilading battery is one whose epaulement ia per- 
pendicular to the produml line of the enemy*s rampart ; 
so that the shot from the guns may grace the interior side of 
that rampart or its parapet m the direction of its length. 
When shot dischareed from pieces of ordnance make suc- 
cessive rebounds afong the ground, the firing is said to be 
d ricochet and the battery a ricochetting battery ; and this 
mode of firing is employea when it is intended to dismount 
artillery by enfilading a rampart. The effect is produced by 
giving to the axis of tne gun an elevation of between six and 
nine degrees above a line passing from its chamber through 
the crest of the enemy*B parapet in front ; and, aocoiding to 
the latest experiments, the distance at which a battery 
should be placed from the nearest extremity of the rampart 
to be enfiladed by ricochet firing is between 400 and 600 
yards : at a greater distance than the latter much of the 
ammunition would be expended without effect. 

A ^n battery is one in which guns only are employed, 
for either of the purposes above mentioned, or to defend 
any ground, by a fire of round, or solid shot. 

A howitzer battery, is one in which howitzers arc em- 
ployed. This species of ordnance throws shells, or hollow 
shot, generally at a small elevation of the axis to the horizon ; 
and it serves to produce, by the bursting of the shells, a 
breach in a rampart of earth ; or, when fired a ricochet, to 
destroy the pallisades or other obstacles which might impede 
the troops in assaulting an enemy's work. Howitzers are 
also used in conjunction with guns, to form breaches in 
ramparts of brick or stone. 

A mortar battery is one in which shells are thrown ftoxxx 
mortars at a great elevation of the axis of the piece ; so that, 
by the momentum acquired in falling, they may cruah the 
roofs, and by their exnlosion complete the destruction of 
magazines or other buildings. This b called a vertical fire. 
By employing large charges of powder, a very extensive 
range has been produced oy mortars ; for, at the siege of 
Cadiz, during the late war, the French are said to have sent 
shells to the distance of more than three miles firom the 
battery. 

When the battery is mounted on a natural or artificial 
eminence, in order to allow the guns to fire from abo\e 
dowiiward, or to make what is called a plunging firo 
against or into the works of the enemy, it constitutes & 
cavalier battery; and when the guns are elevated on a 
platform, or on tall carriages, so as to be enabled to fire o\-cr 
the superior surface of the parapet or epaulement, the bat- 
tery is said to be en barbette. This kind of battery is 



B A T 



44 



BAT 



A ptnilon of 66<. 13«. Ad. wu MitUd upon Um abbot* with 
■m«llor tumt on ■ixtetn othor oAetrt and monks. Tho 
iito and domoinot of tho abboy wora given to a penon 
namad OUmar, who ouUad down a oontiderable portum of 
tha buildings in order to dispose of the mateiisls. He 
afterwards sold the esUte to Sir Anthony Browne, who 
began to oonvert part of the abbey into a mansion, which 



the seeond Tuesday of etery month fnr eatde, at wfakh, 
well as at the fairs, on Whift-Mooday and SSnd November, 
considerable business is transacted. The town jpossasses 
a charity-school for forty boys. The Burrell MSo. in the 
British Museum state that the hundred of Battle * in a 
franchise, the inhabitants whereof are exempt ftom attend- 
ing assises and sessions, or serving on juries, and the lord 



was inlshed by his son, the first Lord Montague. This appoints a coroner thereof.* The petty sessions are holden 

afterwards fell to decay ; and when the propertv was sold at Battle. 

to Sir Thomas Webster, the ancestor of Sir GodArey Web- '^ — ^--* 

star, the existing proprietor, the present dwelling was erected 

on one side or the quadrangle of which the old abbey 

appears to have consistsd. 

Battle Abbey stands on a gentle rise, with a fine sweep 
Uofore it of meadows and woods, confined by wooded hills, 



which form a valloy winding towsrds Hastings, and there 
mooting tho soa. Tbe ruins show the antient magnificence 
of the structuro : their circuit is computed at about a mile, 
and Oilpin considers that the style proves that tbe greater 
nart must have been rebuilt in the time of the later 
Henries, when our architecture began to assume a lighter 
end more embellished form. The remains occupy three 
sides of a large quadrangle, the fourth having probably 
been taken down to admit a view of the country when 
what is now the middle side was converted into a dwelling. 
The two wings are in ruins. The side of the quadrangle 
that fboes the town contains the grand entrance, which is 
a large square building, embattlea at the top with a hand- 
some octagon tower at each comer. The front is adorned 
with a senesof arches and neat pilasters ; and this entrance 
Is altogether a very rich and elegant specimen of Gothic 
architecture. This pile is locally called ' the Castle,* and 
untiil 1794, when the roof fell in and rendered it unfit for 
the nurpoee, it was used as a town-ball by the people of 
Battle. The side of the quadrangle opposite this entrance 
oonsista only of two long, low, parallel walls, which formerly 
supportad a row of chambers, and terminated in two ele^nt 
turrets. The remaining side, which forms the existing 
manaion, has undergone the greatest dilapidations. Here 
stood the abbey church, thou(jh the ^und-)>lan cannot 
now be traced; the only vestiges of it are nine elegant 
arches, which seem to have belonged to the inside of a 
cloister ; they are now filled up, and appear on the outside 
of the house. Contiguous to the great church are the ruins 
of a hall, which appears to have been the refectory in ordi- 
nary use by the monks. There is another building of the 
same kind a little detached f^m the abbey, and which is 
of great beauty, although ita dimensions, 166 feet by 35, are 
not in good nroportion. It has twelve windows on one side 
and six on the other, and is strongly buttressed on the out- 
side. This appeara of older data than tho remaining por- 
tions of the aobey : it is now used as a bam ; ita original 
purixise was probably to accommodate the numerous tenants 
to whom the monks save entertainments at stated times. 
The floor of the hall m raited, and there is an ascent to it 
by a flight of steps. Underneath are crypto of fireestone 
divided by elegant pillan and springing arches, which form 
a curious vaulted building, now converted into a stable. 

The town of Battle owes ita origin to the abbey. Under 
the encourageipent of the monks, houses to the number of 
150 were gradually erected in the vicinity ; and to the town 
thus fbrraed. a market, to be held on Sundays, was granted 
by Henry L At the commencement of the seventeenth 
century Anthony Viscount Montague obtained an act of 
parliament fi>r changing tha market-day to Thursdav, on 
which it is still held. The prseent town oonsista of one 
street, ninning along a valley mm notthowealto south-east 
The church is dedicated to St. Mary, and is a very hand- 
ao»o edifice, eonsistintof a nave, chancel, two aisles, and 
a aubatanital tower. The windows of the north aisle 



decoratad with numeroiis figures, portraits, and devieee in 
painted ylasa* Tha incumbent is styled * Dean oTBattle,* 
Uioufh too living ie, in Ikct, a vicarage in the archdeaconry 
of Lewae and d i ooeee of Chic h es t e r , diarged in the king's 
book at fi4/. 13s. 4dL The kid of the manor is patron. The 
number of houaea in the parish was 515 in 1831, whsa the 
ppukUon amounted to 9099 persons, of whom 1538 weia 
mnalee. The only manulkcture hf which the place is 
remarkable is the excellent gunpowder, well known to 
sportsmen by the name of Battle powder. It is considered 
to be sttipaUed only by that of Dartford : there are several 
eatensive mills in the neighbourhood fbr the manufius 
turs of it* Besides the wi^ly market, there is one on 



(Camden's jSnlonma; Dngdale's MtnuuHeon; Gilpin'a 
Obiervaiiom on the CooHm o^ Hamptkire, Suuex^ and 
Kent; Pennant's Journey from lAndon to the Me qf 
Wight.) 

BATTLE-AXE, a military weapon of cflence used in 
different countries from the remotest times. Sir Samuel 
Meyrick says, as it was suggested by, so it immediately fol- 
lowed, the invention of the hatehet. The two Greek nttmes 
for the battle-axe lUivif {axine), and viXucvc (pSiekui), occur 
in Homer in the same vene, //. 0. 1. 711. What was tbe 
precise difference between the two weapons we are not told 
D^ antient writers, but it seems probable that the axine was 
similsr to our hatehet, while the pelekui, which is usually 
translated in Latin by hipenma^ had evidently two heads or 
edges ; for Homer mentions another instrument of the same 
kind in the 23rd book of the Biadt called 'H/airiXcray {hemi' 
pelekon), or the half-oiie. Suidas interpreto 'H/uriXcca 
(hemipeUka), by tu fiap69rof»oi il^iyoi, one-edged axes. (See 
Kustor's note on 'H/uirlXfca.) The pelekua^ or bipennU, was 
also colled tecuru Amazomea, the Amaxonian axe, from ita 
having been supposed to have been used by those female 
warriors. The best representation of the antient fiwm of 
this bipenms is probably to be found in Petit's Dis$eriatio 
deAmazonibui, Svo. Amst. 1687, where it appears on the 
reverse of a coin of Thyatira, as well as upon the reverses 
of two coins of Marcus Aurelius. Numerous other coins of 
great antiquity bearing the bipennU are referred to in 
Rasche's Lexicon Rei Nummarite, tom. L col. 509, et eeq. ; 
Supplem, tom. i. p. 596. 

Amongthe nations and tribes who joined the great expe- 
dition of Xerxes, we find battle-axes amouff the Sac» (He- 
rodot vii. c. Ixiv.), and the Egyptians iwid, c. Ixxxix.). 
Brennus, at the siege of the Iu>man capitol by the Crauls, 
was armed with a battle-axe. The Vindelici fought against 
Drusus with the battle-axe. (Horat Carm. iv. 4.) Tacitus, 
speaking of a later period {Hiet. ii. 42), describes Otho s 
forces as cutting through helmets and brmstoliOes with their 
swords and axes igladiie et eecurilms). In the Roman 
armies, however, we do not find the battle-axe in ordinary 
use. It seems to have been considered as the weapon more 
peculiarly used by uncivilised nations. Ammianus Marcel- 
linus (fbl. Par. 1681, lib. xix. c. vi), under the year 359, 
describes a body of Gauls as furnished with battle-axea and 
swords. 

The introduction of the battle-axe into this country has 
been frequently attributed to the Danea ; but proofs of an 
earlier use of it in our islands are deducible. Mr. Haymon 
Rooke, in a memoir printed in the Architologia of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, has engraved a firagment of a battle- 
axe found amouff some Dtuidical remains at Aspatria in 
Cumberland, in June, 1789 {ArchaoL vol. x. p. 113); and 
in the same volume, pi. xl., are two representations of tbe 
old Galwegian bill or battle-axe, each two feet six inches 
long, found in a moss near Terreagles. Remains of others 
are stated to have been found among the barrows on the 
downs of Wiltshire, and in tbe north of Scotland. The Danes 
and Norwegians, however, probably made more use of this 
instrument than any other nations of their time. 

At the battle of Stamford Bridge, between Haiold of 
England and Harold Harfager of Norway, when the Nor- 
w^gisns gave way and the English pursued them, a total 
stop is stated to have been put to the pursuit for some hoora 
by the desperate boldness of a single Norwegian, v^ de- 
fended the pass of the bridge with his battle-axe. HekiUed 
more than forty of the Eni^sh, and was himself at last slain 
only by stratagem. (Hen. Hunttngt L viL 81 1.) 

That the battle-axe was used in England in the Saxon 
times we have the authority of different MSS. of the ninth 
century, and the English are represented as using it, in the 
Bayeux tapestry. The, pole-axe, with an edge on one side 
and a shoip point on the other, is briieved to have conse in 
with the Normans. 

When King Stephen was taken prisoner by the Earl of 
Gknicester, we are toU by Gervas of Cantcmry that he 



BAT 

iiad brdieo hi* battle-kxe in pieces befora be took to bis 
sword, aad vu even then brougbt dowo by k atuno. (Script. 
X. l\vy»d. coL 1364.) 

Duriag the nuddle period of English historj' wa read but 
llilie of tjiis weapon, though it appeani to have been con- 
shintly used. The Welsh infantry at the battle of Agincourt, 
in U15, found it particularly lervioeable in despatching 
those nbom the irchers had wouoded irith tbeir arrows. In 
Strutt's Mmxneri and Ctulonu 0/ the ET^IitA, vol. iL pi. 
xUv., Henry V. is represented u letting lUnhard, Earl of 
^\ arwick, to keep Port Quartervyle, at the BiHge of Rouen, 
by the delivery of a battle-axe. 

Toward the close of the sixteenth centuiy, the battle-axe, 
0.3 a weapon of war, leems to hftve fallen into gradual dis- 
use: Bllhoughtheoceasionalplacingof a pistol in its handle, 
ill somo specimens which remain, seems to bespeak a wish 
un the part of the warriois of that period that it should 
bo retained with an improred use. 

Grose, in his JUiliiaru Aniiquilie», vol. ii. pi. xxviii. Bg. 
4, and pL xxxiv. fig. 3, bas engraved a Lochsber aze, and 
ail antient batlle<axe. Sir Samuel Meyrick, in his en- 
^T.ivcd illustrations of antient armour now at Oixidrich Court 
III Herefordshire, pi. Ixixiii., has engraved numerous spe- 
rimens uf battle-axes and pole-axes ftom the time of Henry 
\'l. Fig. 1 represents a German pole-axe of the time of 
Henry VI,, furnished with a ring to which a thong might 
bo fastened, in order to twist round the arm of the person 
\i lul ding it. Fig. 2, a battle-axe of the time of Henry VIII., 
to which was once attached a match-lock pistol. The whole 
is 1)1 iron, and came from Ireland. Fig. 3, a Venetian pole- 
axe of the same period, the blade beautifully engraved, and 
h:iving on it the lion of St. Mark. Fig.4, another specimen. 
Fi^. 5, a battle-axe of the close of the teign of Hetuy VIII. 
Fi^. 6, a Jedbuig axe, or Jeddart staff of the same period, 
found in a river in Scotland. Such weapons were implied 
by the single vari ' staves,' which included alt kinds of arms 
u iiose handles were long poles. Fig. 7, a Lochaber axe as 
old IIS the last describee, if not of greater age. Fig. 8, a 
battle-axe of the commencement of the reign of Oueen 
Elizubetb. Fig. 9, another of the middle of that period. 
Fi^s. 10, 1 1, two of the close of her reign. Fig. 12, one of 
ilie commencement of the leign of James I. Fig. 13, ano- 
tlior of this period, furnished with a wheel-lock pistol. Fig. 

14, a Polish pole-axe, having on tha blade a crown, and the 
loiter S. twisted round the number 111., for Sigisronnd III.; 
its stuff ornamented with a brass bead, and its form exactly 
like those of the Anglo-Saxons in the Bayeux tapestry. Fig. 

15, a Dutch batUe-axe, having on it the data 168S,the 
handle being ornamented with ivory. 

In Sir Samuel Meyrick'* engraved lUuilratiotu, vol. ii. 
pi. <J3, Bg. 7, he ha* given the blade of a battle-axe of 
Hi full size of the time of Queen Elisabeth, made in Oer- 
many. 

I'hfl battle-axe wa* used at a very early period in naval 
(1 L'hts, chieAy to cut the ropes and rigging of vessels. (See 
Sch<^ir«r, Mii. ^ae. ii. 7.) 

IIATTLE, WAGER OF. [See Appbal,] 

BATTLEMENT, a parapet wall, commonly employed 
in castellated and in ecclesiastical ediflceaof that kind which 
are diiilinguisbed by the general name of Cathie. [See 
Gothic ^CBtTXCTURB.] The battlement isof very remote 
antiquity, as remains of tbem still exist in Greece and Italy. 
(See Mazois' Pompeii and Stuart's Alheru.) The modern 
battlement, however, is better known as belonging to build- 
inss from the eleventh to the end of the sixteenth century ; 
but it was not in general use in ecclesiastical ediflees until 
the middle of the twelfth century. 

Tlie battlement is generally indented, with a coping 
sloping both wa^s fh>m about the oentre; the lower part 
between the coping and the oomice of the building is often 
pierced and decorated. Although by the word battlement 
is uenerallruDderstoodthewhoUindentedparapet wall, the 
term may perhaps with more propriety be applied to express 
mtlicr the bigger put of tha wall, in contradistinction to the 
indent, interval, or embrasure. It is possible that the term 
bultlcment may have derived its name from the facility 
nirurded to soldier* of doing battle under the protection 
nllorded by the higher part of the indented wall. Battle- 
ments oBbr in their proportions, and in the details of their 
moulding! and ornaments, a great variety of examples. 
IVlr. Rickman ha* endeavoured to distinguish the different 
poriuds in which the pointed-arch style of (lothio architec- 
ture changed the form of its detail ; and in this endeavour 



early English, decimtled English, and 
perpendicular EngUsh styles of battlements. 

As to Norman battlements, he say* it is very difficult to 
ascertain what was their precise form. He considers them 
to have been only plain parapets ; but remarks (hat there 
are instances in some castellated Norman buildings of a 
parapet witli here and there a narrow interval cut in it, 
which appear* original. 

It is more probable, then, thattheNorman battlement wm 
a plain parapet, but without intervals ; and, if decorated, 
thedecorationprobably consisted of the semicircular arch, the 
peculiar feature of the Norman style. In support of Uiis 
opinion we may mention the upper part or rim of a Norman 
font, decorated with semicircular-headed pannels, in South 
Hayling Church, Hampshire. The Norman church ol 
rAbbaya aux Damea, at Caen in Normandy, has a parapet 
decorated with pointed-arched-headed pannels, which at the 
introduction of the pointed-arch style most probably sup- 
planted the old semicircular-arched pannel, similar to that 
at Hayling Church, 

Early EngUth Battlements.— Dating nearly the whole 



decorated. At Salisbury it is executed with a series of 
arches and pannels, and in Lincoln Cathedral with quatre- 
foils in sunk pannels. A battlement of equal iniervali 




[i>*li>buij CiltulnL) 

occurs in small ornamented works erected about the close 
of this period, when the early English style gave way to 
another more decorated, denominate by Mr. Rickman the 
decorated English style. 

Decorated English Battlement. — During this period the 

Grapet wall without indentations continued flrequentiy to 
used ; but it is often pierced through in various forms, 
generally consisting of quatrelbils, and quatrofoils in cir- 
cles. Another form, however, which is not so common, 
may be considered more beautiftil. This is a waved line, 
the spaces of which are trefoiled. In St. Mary Ma^olen 
Church, at Oxford, there is a good example of this kind of 



[Hut H*(dilen CfanTch, r)dird.] 

battlemeut. Of the plain battlements, that which was most 

in use in this period has the embrasures or intervals narr.w, 
and is surmounted with a capping moulding placed in a 
horixontol position as at Waltnam Cross; but there are 



[Waltlum Ci 

somo battlt - . ., 

ning both vertically and horizontally, of which ti ._ .. 
fine specimen in the tower of Merton Chapel, Oxford. In 
some small works of this style a flower is occasionally used 
as a finish above the copping, moulding, or cornice, but it is 
by no means common. The nave of Vork Cathedral pre- 
sents a fine example of the pierced battlement so prevalent 
during tbi* pencil : it consists of arches or arched pannel* 



BAT 



■ wbate b ewwed villi m aaaldmg 



16 BAT 

* MHtu ud nrww AMlnnMs, viik A» Mpiis BaaMini 

pbeed tKrmauBr tad A* aiM (H ptam rt biMIi i i hu- 

bolh borinmnlly asd TCttkaDf. { Ucibcm nximUof mmocJdittcnaxiacivwidtkehMlIe'iDpri: 

/VfyJIiarijr fi^giiaA BiifffMfi. — In Ae butfetMnu I ami tba o^cmw^ wtek a gf f j ig"» Mt Wfmi tbe he 
Iwlongiu M thk pMwd, panmti wiihritf indeBtnc* Miil i Mot*l p«1 «f the 

flOBtunwd tab* ttiBd aenaMomlly; the terpentiBe linemh ' **' ~* 

Um mMl WM abo MiQ in bm, bu tha bii« dirtdiDC tbe ir«- 
ftkl «u nan freqaentiy made fltraiKhL ami ihe tl:<t»..'r^ 
were oMuaqntDtly formed icui tnanpnlar panneU. But ir. 
the Mil; ud bMt werti the trcfnlt an not dnided br 
■tnigbt lilMi. One of the Ineat fsiia^cs of puinr: cI 
panpila k U th« BmwIhbp Chajw], M Wanntk, 
mg of qaalfeMk in •qnarca, wnh ihMdi tod 
Tbete ai« Ban; ranetiM of oiemd banlerBenu beVr ^ra 
to thii period. TbMe encM in tbe eariv fji <rf h bi^ 
MiBiBealjt i|iMlnliili, ehber in tbe lover msTiGKD^iu ■ 
■be*( the ■aoDeb of Ae lowei naputtDeoi^ f:TiB:tfi pt 
ef the higher paneb. Two bfr.^re of piT:r,f'j m >!• 
Aequeullj taploved in battleTDrcts of \':^ iwrt^ J 
La>eU«««efa thcR i* as na— t-W of a l!» \iarl*-?F! 
«mMinf (/nth piored ';cs^-ti.'^^ rr^ t»t. bf-z^-j. S 
b«« lfiaijU hare em<Tt„;T a m:iu:t^ nrrinc ittt^ 
f«irad tte bcnSemeiM and ti? weVaj^T- A *ew td *•*■ 
■ lalTT peiTid hare pwjnerf ■.■fc;'.lai«-;t» -Tmat-lrf » 

■ L .or--CrJ>Kr«.. A., .^ — ■- Ts rf ibe ?Kp»iks;iii arie »et« Uili. 

tt. ther can^dC a^joe be depended on 1'. 
i age (rf a b^^i^i.:^. dLdnaa » Attempt i 

a ue pcrvidt acjch are rirr-ij.Tnhad b* the apprUa- 

' uics ;/ caivT, aeoEcaud, and pgyr-aiiraiar ugliali, iLere 

ut h^aac M^r.Btf f£b^e» ol tL^?¥cra ui the detail and pn>- 

prr-^^ rf banifeca. T^^ «^ be -n~^^ on an «i- 

- > a Gnat Biitaa. 





ib^n^K at Wid4^v. die La^ Chxrvl al haer* 
auc tw crru bKb^ana at Kinr » C^u ww Ca^eL 
Cf^ ^;nii<^:TDe» cili tbe ^arrvw irf" a tnuimr. lad 
:.^a. :te Tedx- « Itige lenred ft'-^vfr. fnvjitc t 

av 1^ ExMer Catwlral : woi liMre air a lev n- 
r lae «77«r part i^ a banJe^Rrm acalorTiat ■■ &m 
i^u.1 ir.ru ertru^ i:«* bF4!«« ■'» date. — aa mx 
T-* <^:^^ ^-1 n i^t-aa Cn<M, tne«d at the 



A- A 



'^"awa 



31?. a w-.-itT^: tixij Bniili. Spmf lianl«i>ei:3 rf tia 
I HHi ■ I z is; ndi desifma, Lave, :x li;^ i^ uk 
> >■ .. ■. a ■'-*■ <« tbe ttip of ptemu luu^jJ^ at ai 
1 -^ 2 .tiafCT^rt Cmircbe* in Svfl.ut. 
:i a ir j ejg-T t Hi tiie perpeiidK-ikr snLe Unc aie 
vrr---*. Sum a.-« i-CTDKi w.-.i &(».-;_» re^iij ai. 
fci.-: Tri a iLiii c:^-:.£ pUixii b;ta 'L.TJ3*:iaj|i 
i3»e=;i i»i« the ent.'iK.i^ 
T eq^ tstbevicia cf _, 
iaoea the? hai* vije banie- 









1 I *». --; 11 



j Ctcnrh, N.xf-'i. 
I 'Ft repEi*r:t;TirM rf lii!i:;=>mt^ aee Brfttos'i d- 
'i\^ir£,: e3dr.«r,-/r;.--.-T:i-T-^/toadliaf C*«-.-A-. 
I H Gr-« B-ir.-:«, W J. P. NV.V.i 

BATCRIN. a irra fx;r-*ei I7 S,*!*eB BaHnrr »tvs 
ki-e of P::i3d. »: prwer: f:r=atcJ e= :bp Rnsaiaa prurT't 

li ofTcrH^ a p.rTTrTt*;^* ji-i>7r:;-a re a ti!l, aialB«kiru-l - 
I ?r:t Mi; IT i^e S*j=aL i= she ciiiS rf a heaailiM cxmc-e 
; .rf rountiT »fejrb is K^i.-kaV.:* f;r is *Tt£l-tT. The 'ton = 
. » ssnr-noJrf W a -wCL >-f earth. aaJ --i^taiij* a hands- ■— t 
j POEtcTit, ri3l fhnrb**. a=J ii>:vl I^W mbaliteBIa. T,j- 
frvrr.ni ar«»e-i. eiC;:Tued. Tbe ktI and elimate aw fi- 
wcrtbie to tb* parcJ cr-.-nh <^ the Elbcn. riM, ari m-.;. 
wnr; tr-i ibe tndt of ti>* ?-jtnet. wtich ii jaiwaiHi ' 1 
'■^^i^ b- H in the pltre. drpecis cLietrt ee a g newtt tta ! r--- 
i-M, B»t>:m a-ii i.x sT'CDe tue a ftr-rcrne itaiJeui.^ f 
t!^e A-.a=uts ^ the C.-a^.-^ am— e *h.-a BMe ha» :.- 
q-T*i ffTTi:CTn«,-T-.*tT than lie traitor Matt^^ vb- .. . 

h:=rf'.! to th? S«Mi!*in l"f^ Tbe TTa 11 to Br 3 

tbe tiTT^ tas ieL-;ire«i snwthe TMrlPM. »i ta a anl < ■:■.■: 
n ;= nrTp:ii:B f:i ibe trFacberr'=f Mstnya. hhsi. w- 
Sfi-Q re!^=:i, and »-« »ilii iw deycrJeaoea. iadsdir- -l 
-..'til c:rK r^iHT •.'?* mi:; •ctiS.-nii, frraiitad ^t ; 
E:BF-?fis ELiibetb to Pirnc* IUtiKS:>5stT. «^a^ . .^ 
>o :>di:ts a-T it* p««p=t p r .T rJf V* . Tbe i«lie« ,f t , 
.^■1— itli lad :w cCT ti:;.i--=» rrrcjids are nf?» jc-l_- ; 
\ -'.t Bi;=r.= :,es a«t--i.:»t; Hanel. in 51" 45' N. '.j: . 



Dobk flmran which ire deacribed by the tmveUan who hare 
Tiaitad the foreaU of America tnd India. 

B AUU AN SHOHLE is a lemarkable cuTeni in northern 
Oenaftnr, situated in the aouth-eaitem rangs of the Han, 
not fki from the village of Riibeland, lesi than two railea 
from Elbiofferode. a town of the kiagdoin of Hanover, and 
nearly lin Aom Blankenbnre, a town of the dukedom of 
Braniwiek. Thi» cavern, which is considered one of the 
most remarkable natural phenomena of the Han, is in a 
calcareout rock, and consistB of six distinct largo chambcra, 
beiides a smaller one. These six caverns tien together 
measure in length nearly eoo feet, and their entrance is 1 3G 
flMt above the bed of ths Bode, a small river which runs 
through a narrow valley at the foot of the calcareous rocks. 
The first cBTsrn rises to upwards of 33 feet, end is the 
largest and most striking. The water penetrating through 
Iba rooks which form the roofs of the caverns, brings down 
with it odcareous matter, which hardens and fbrms stalac- 
tites. These stalactites are of great beauty in the third 
otvem, and among them is the sounding column, which 
emit* a krad sound when beaten. This cavern was disco, 
verad in 1B73, by a miner, called Baumann, who entered 
it in hope of Bnding metaUic ores. 

BAUHB,i»'BB AUHE, the name of two towns in France, 
■Dd of several smaller places. The towns wen distinguished 
a* Baume le* Damea, and Baume les Messieurs, or Baume 
les Moines, &om celebrated religious establishments which 
existed there : that in the fbrmer place was for females, and 
that in the latter for men. 

BsATiMB-Lis-DAHat IS sttuDled on the right or N.W. 
hank of the river Doubs, and in the department to whieh 
that river gives name. It is 255 miles E.S.B. of Paris, 
through Besan^jn, from which it is distant IS miles E.N.B. 
47° ar N. lat., 6" 31' E. long. 

The religious establishment to which this town owes its 
designation was of the order of SL Benedict, and of neat 
antiquity. Acootding to some it was formed by two brothers, 
8t Romaui, abbot ^ Condat, and St. Lnpicin, abbot of 
Loucone, (both in Franche Comtf, with part of which tbe 
department of Doubs coiocides.) about the middle of the fifth 
century : and these appointed their own sitter as abbess. Pl- 
ganiolde \%f one (Nouvelle DtteHptionde la Fi-ance, Para, 
1722) says ils origin ii uncertain, and that all (bat is known 
is that it was considerable in the time of Charlemagne, and 
of his son Louis le Dcbonnaire. The nuns were all of noble 
birth, and strict examination into this point was instituted 
when any desired to enter. The abbey however was far 
from rich. There appean to have been also in this town 
OMivent of Capuchins 

This little place has been much injured by the passage 
of troops in time of war ; and, though it is the capital of an 
artondissement, had not in 1833 a greater population than 
8309 for the town, or 3467 for tbe whole commune. " ' 



lars of the high altar of the church attached to the Bene, 
aiciins abbey mentianed above now adorn the Pantheon, 
church of St. OflOevMii-e, at Paris. 

BaumB.Ves-Dame8 contains one or two factories of cotton 
goods, oonsiderahia iron works, with a manulkctory of wire 
and pina, large pottery and glaas works, and a paper-mill. 
There are a lUirary, a eoUi/f* or high school, and au agncut- 
tural sociMf . In tbe environs of the town are quarries of 
marble, gynnm, and slate; aud mines of iron and coal. 
" ' It-Dane* is als« 



> called Baume-les- Nones, and 



BAD 

Baume-sur.Ie-Doubs. The arrondissement of Banme com- 
prehends 633 square miles, or 405,120 acres, and it had in 
1S32 a populatian of 64,684. 

BADMx-LES-MoiNas is a small place, about four or Bve 
miles north-east of Lons-le-Saunier, capital of the depart- 
ment of Jura. The Benedictine convent from which it 
derived ils name was originally a mere celt, when it «u 
raised to the rank of an abbey by Count Bemon, abbot of 
Giny, early in tbe tenth century. Others carry the fouo- 
dation of the abbey higher, and ascribe to Bemon a great 
reformation in the eslablishmenL Pope Eugenius III. re- 
duced the establishment to a simple priory, dependent m 
the abbey of Clugni. in 1147, but the title of abbey was re- 
stored some time after. Proof of nobility was neoessary. in 
order to be received into this establishment as a monk. 

The population of Baume-les-Hoines, as given in the 
Diclionnaire Uaiverttlde la Prance, Paris, 1804, our latest 
authority, was 855. 

BADMOARTEN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB, was 
bom in 1714 at Berlin, where his fsther was presu;her to 
the court of Prussia. He studied at Halle, ana became i 
warm admirer of Wolfs philosophy, though it was at thai 
time considered heretical, and Wolf himself bad in conv- 
quence been obliged to leave Halle. Baumgarten appllod 
himself to the study of logic and of belles lettres, on vbicb 
he afterwards gave lectures at the Orphan institution of 
Halle. Having examined what had been taught till then 
under the name of belles lettres, he endeavoured to reduce 
that branch of study to fixed principles. He invented the 
word atlhelie, which he applied to the theory of taste, or the 
science of the beautiful. Previous writers who had written 



researches to the qualities tbat constitute tbe beautiful a 
general, whether in natural or artificial ol^ects, and to our 
Acuity of perceiving the same. He divided the science of 
Eesthelic into theoretical and practical : he developed hii 
ideas first in his treatise, Diipulatio de nimnullit attPornta 

?eTtinentibm, Halle, 1 735, and afterwards in his jStlhetira. 
rankfhrt on tbe Oder, 1 7SU. iCsthetic has since become 
a distinct science, and is taught as such in the German uni- 
versities. The other works of Baumgarten are MttofAy- 
tiea; jElMca Philotophica ; Initia Phil'i*op/iiix Prartirtr. 
' Ha examined chiefly the general rights of man, with'iul 
reference to civil and political law, or to tbe law of natiun.. 
and, like Wolf, he confounded the ol^eet of natural lav 
with that of morality.' Suoh is Buhles judgment in bu 
HUlory tif Modem PhilotDphy, iv. ch. 8. 

In his metaphysics, Baumgsrten maintained Wolfs prin- 
cipleof the 'sufficient reason,' and also that of tho 'harmonii 

Sneslabilita' of Leibnid, though somewhat modified in bii 
eflnition of it. In 1740 Baumgarten was appointed pni- 
fessOT of philosophy at Frankfurt on the Oder. His cwi- 
stant application undermined his health, and after )ingiT,n; 
in a weak state for several years he died in 1762. He vjs 
a profound thinker, remarkably methodical in the arrans;e- 
roent of his thoughts, and precise in his exposition af them. 
His elder brother, James Sigismund, studied also at Halt; 
and became professor of theology in that university. Wt 
wrote InttTucHoni on Moral Theology, 8vo. 1 738 ; Abnd::- 
meni (jf Ercleiuulical HUtory, 3 vols. 8vo. 1745; Prtm,e 
Lineie Breviarii Aniiquitalum Chrtitianarum, 1 747. and 
other works on ecclesiastical studies. He intnMiuced im- 
portant ameliorations into the study of theobgy at Uatlc. 
He died in 1757. 

Another Baumgarten, Martin of Breitenbach, patriciin 
of Nuremberg, no relation to the preceding, travelled in the 
east in the Inginning of the sixteenth century and left an 
account of hisjoumev, which was published after h'a death 
under tbe title of Peregrinatio in jSgt/plum, Arabiamt, 
PakeMtinam, at Sifriitm./aeta aanit MOT el I5D8. im luctm 
ndita a CrutophoTo Donaver, 4to. Nutemberg, 1994. 

BAUTZEN, or BUDIS8IN (in the Wend luigtia^ 
BDDISHYN), a well-built town near tbe eutem harden 
of the kingdom of Saxony, situated on tbe Spree : it ia ib« 
capital of the circle of Upper Lusatia. BautxMi is known i* 
have existed before the timet of the oelabinted Wiuikind. 
and to hove been defended by a strong eutle, now in ruios. 
It is the teat of a provincial government, a consittoty, and 
other puhUc establishments ; and the raiidenee of a titular 
Roman Catholic bishop. Among other edifiosa of noto, it eon- 
tains a roval palace called the Orlenburg, nowuaed as |intii-e 
offieea (which was bixmed down in 1440, and rvbuttt bj 



Maiiiias. King of I 
a.-jumbly for the il 



r<.>iii«lc<l in 1213, ar i- 

M :'<.'uii or trellis-work ; a Protestant church Tor die Wend 
''■'ii^'re|,'alion; three other churches ; an orphan asylum; 
Ciw husjiitAU ; a mechanics' school. Sic. There ore manu- 
tui'iitrc:! of woollens, cotton> linen, stockings, yarn, gun- 
jiuvi Jor, paper. cop|)er and iron-ware, beet and spirits, ficc, 
ill and about Bnutien ; and it carries on considerable in- 
tirnid trade. It was the birth-place of Mi'issner the poet, 
«]io did in 1H05. In the neighbourhood of Bautzen is 
Klein Wtlke, a Moravian colony with seminaries for boys and 
i^'i I U ; and also the battle-fields of Hochkirch, and Kittlilz 
or U'urschen, the one foii<;ht in 174U, and the other, which 
'.'■at attended by the contlagration of thirty villages, on the 
-^I'lh and 'Jlst of May, 1SI3, between Napoleon and the 
a'ilii;d Uussiuns and Prussians. The town contains about 
liuu houses and 72D0 inhabitants, but with iu suburbs 
ni'.,Ll¥ 13,000. It is in Si" 10' N. lai., 14° 3U' E. long.: 
a'j.,iit 30 miles E.N.E. of Dresden. 

BAVARIA (THE KINGDOM OF) derives iU origin 
fiomoneof the most ancient duchies in modern Europe ; 
the Dame appears to come from the Boii or Boioarii, its 
i:uily inhabitants, and the appellation is retained in the 
iiiuiki-n German name of Baiern. It is composed of the 
L,'i'i.-atcr part of the former circles of Bavaria and Franconia, 
ul' certain districts of Swabia, the priucipalilies of Ansbach 
and Baii'euth, the bishopricsof Bamberg, Wiirzbure, Augs- 
liuri;, Eichstiidt, and Freisingen, and wme parts of those of 
Maui£, Fulda, and Speyer (&iHm). Its extent is at present 
more than one-half greater than in the year 1 777, when the 
elector CharloK Theodore inherited it, and added to it his pa- 
trimony in the Palatinate, comprising 4240 square miles. The 
tkcloratc itself did not previously exceed 16,674 square miles, 
but this accession, and the subsequent acquisition of the 
l><.'u\ Ponts territory in 1799, increased it to 21,550 square 
miles. Above seven-eighths of the territories which now 
compose it lie in the south of Germany, east of the Rhine, 
mid form a compact state, commonly designated the Terri- 



9 B A V 

lory Iff the Danube and Main, which extends from 47° 19* 
to SU-41' N- laL. and fromS'Sl'lo 1,1° 44' E, louK.; iU 
circuit, taken in straight lines, is estimated at nearly 1130 
miles, but followed out in all its eunatures, at upwards of 
1530. This portion of the Bavarian dominions, in which 
seven out of the eight provinces ere comprised, is bounded 
on the south by the Tyrol and Vorarlber);, and at its soutli 
eastern extremity by the Austrian circle of tho Solzach, 
in the province of the Upper Ens ; in the eiut, part of 
the same province and of Bohemia border on it ; its north' 
eastern frontier is skirted by the kingdom of Saxony, and 
its northern and north-western, by the pruicipaliliGs of 
Reuss and the states of ducal Saxony ; and in the west, 
it skirts the dominions of Electoral Ilesse, Hesse-Darni- 
stadt, and Baden, until its borders reach the Tauber, at 
Mergentheim, whence the whole boundary to its snutb- 
western point on Lake Constani is formed by tho king- 
dom of Wiirtembcrg. Tho other portion of the Bavarian 
dominions, the Territory of the Rhine, which is si- 
tual«d on the west bank of that ri\-er, and is completely 
disjoined from the preceding, by the interposition of the 
Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt possessions, extends from 
■la's?' to 49°S0'N.Ial, and from 7° 6' to 8°31'E.long. 
The French departments of the Lower Rhine and Moaella 
bound it on the south, and the Rhine separates it from 
the ^nd duchy of Baden on the east; thu Rhenish do- 
minions of Hesse -Darmstadt are its north-eastern neigh- 
bour ; the Prussian province of the Lower Rhine borders it 
on the north and south-west; and in the north-west and 
west it adjoins the domain of hieissenheim, belonging to 
Ucsse-Homburg, and the principality of Lichtenberg. 

Area and Subdivisions. — In cun sequence of the want of 
official details, considerable dillicully has hitherto attended 
every attempt to estimate the superficial extent of the 
Bavarian territory ; some have reduced it to 2tt, COO square 
mUos, while others have exaggerated it to 37.000 ; anil one 
writer (JacobiJ to nearly 3tj.000. The ducumeuts. how- 
ever, which havD been lately brought before the Bavarian 
legislature enable us to submit the following as a correct 
statement of the total area of the kingdom of Bavaria. Wo 
have availed ourselves of this opportunity to add some other 
details for the purpose of tendering the statement still more 
comprehensive. 



'The Isar, conlainiug 31 districts (Land-gericbtc) capilall 
Miinchen (Munich) . . J 

Lower Danube, 23 districts, capital Passau 
Regen, 27 districts, capital Regensburg (Rallsbon) 
Upper Danube, 46 districts, capital Augsburg 
Retznt, 42 districts, capital Niirnberg or Nuremberg 
Upper Main. 44 districts, capital Baireulh 
Lower Main, 51 dietficla, capital Wiirtburg 



Province of the Rhine, 13 circles (Land- 

sariat) each having from '2 to 4 cantons, capital^ 
Speyer (Spires) 

Total . . . ■ 



28,435 208 41 






FupuLiUoii. 



4S9,4S2 581,923 



2730 
2764 
2370 

1136 



488,442! 
362,0211 
487,840 
361,675 
460,323 
481,312 



£39,039 
407,541 
505,220 
419,949 
523,769 
£42,475 



595,363 
552,028 
432,068 
516,435 
432,172 
547,003 
SG8,337 



I 23.462 3.564.757 4.037.01714,187,390 



Tbi« area of 28,435 square mites is thus distributed ; 
Arabloland . . 8.171,520 acres 

Meadow do. . . 2,325,120 

Vineyards, gardens, dwellings, out- 
buildings. &c. . • 309,120 
Woods and forests . 5.376.000 
Waters, rivers, and takes . 420.080 
Gracing and other land . . I,S96,^G0 

13,198.400 
Bj^ aria is the thirteenth in the list of European states 
ith reuard to extent and amount of population, and ranks 
^■\t 10 France, but immcdiateU* above Austria, with regard 
. density of population : as appears by Von Zedliti's com- 
:>n>tive tables. 
.If 'H«/ai'H*.— The highlands of Bavaria are offsets from 
I creat masses, tlie Alps and Sudcte-Hercynian chain. 

.^ ■ . .L_-.__--__*-i._*T :-ii . ^rU:^i. 



si i-.tchus along the south-eatit of ihc circle 
N». 211. 



throws out its arms into tliat province ; the Artberg moun- 
tains, which enter the circle of the Upper Danube from the 
Tyrol and subside in this province ; the AHgau-Alps, which 
commence neat Kempten in the south of the same prwince. 
and extending north -eastw ant, terminate neat Mindelheim. 
ITic highlands on the north side of the Danube, beginning 
at the northern part of the kingdom, contain the Spessart 
mountains, a finely wooded chain, separated from the Oden- 
wald by the Main. They cover an a;ea of I -1 7 square miles, 
and traverse the circle of the Lower Main from north to 
south; their highest summits, such as the Engelsberg and 
Geitrsberg. do not exceed 2000 feet in eleiatiou. Tho 
Steigerwald, a forest range of inferbr altitude, extends south 
of the Main, along the borders of the circles of the Lower 
and Upper Main and tho Reliat, and alTords a picturesque 
alternation of woods and fruitful valleys. The Rhongebirge. 
a bleak and desolate chain of mountains, with flattened 
summits covered half the year with snow, lie in the circle 
of the Lower Main, to the iiorth of the river Main. Thay 



[THE PENNY CYCL0P.SD1A.] 



B A V 



50 



B AV 



kre attached on the east to the Fichtelgebir^e^ and on the 
west border on the Spessart ; they attain their highest ele- 
vation in the Kreuzberg, which is 4162 feet above the level 
of the sea. Tho Fichtolgebir^e, which is connected with 
the Bohemian forest chain, lies m the north-eastern circle of 
the Upper Main : the chief component parts of this mass are 
granite, gneiss, quartz, and clayslate ; the highest summits 
are the Ochsenkopf, or Ox's Head (5280 feet) and some 
points of the Schneekopf, or Snow-peak, (3502 feet). Of 
the Thiiringerwald, or forest of Thuringen, an inconsider- 
able portion lies within the circle of the Upper Main, where 
it goes by Uie name of the forest of Franconia (Franken- 
wald). <3n the west side of the Rhine, a branch of the Jura, 
the ' Vosgesus Mens,* which loses the name of the * Vosges* 
on entering Rhenish Bavaria, where it is Germanized into 
the Wasgau, stretches in a north-easterly line deep into the 
centre of that province, and terminates in the canton of 
Kirchheim, in which is situated its loftiest summit, the K6- 
nigsstuhl, one of the group of the Donnersberg (Mountain of 
Thunder), 2 1 42 feet nigh. The composition of this chain is 
chiefty old red sandstone, though in some parts, particularly 
on the Donnersberg, which is crowned with a plateau above 
100 acres in area, it contains hornblende and porphyry. 

In these masses of Bavarian highlands the most elevated 
points, not before indicated, are, the Zugspitz of the Noric 
Alps, in the circle of thelsar, 9689 feet, and the Wetter- 
schroffen, 9387; the Hochvogel of the Allgau range, in the 
circle of the Upper Danube, 8476 ; and the Teufelg'siiss, 
in the same circle, 9283 feet. The only Bavarian heights 
which rise into the region of perpetual snow belong to the 
Norio Alps. The Bavarian mountains are generally raw 
nnd inhospitable, but well wooded. The Sudetsh branch of 
the great Hereynian range comprehends -the Bohemian 
forest mountains (Bohmer- Wald-(xebirge) which run along 
the eastern confines of Bavaria to the extreme eastern 
point where Hohenstein, about twenty-three miles north of 
the Danube, is situated, and, separating the kingdom from 
the Austrian dominions east of them, throw out several 
arms into the circles of the Lower Danube and Regen. 
Their highest summits on the Bavarian side are the Arber, 
4824 feet, the Rachel, 4720, and the Dreisesselberg, 4054 

Bavaria is, on the whole, a mountainous country ; not 
only is it walled in hy lofty mountains on the north and 
south, but its interior is intersected in various directions by 
elevated ranges. It contains, however, many wide and 
fertile valleys, and numerous extensive plains, the face of 
which is not unfrequently disfigured by swamps and mo- 
rasses, here called ' Moose* and ' Filze,* fh)m their surface 
being covered with a thick jungle of lichens (iic/ien'muscus) 
and reeds. Of these moors the largest are the Donaumoos, 
eighty miles in area, between Schrobenhausen and Ingol- 
stadt ; the Erdingermoos, in the circle of the Isar, up- 
wards of 100 miles in area ; the Isarmoos, between Isarock 
and the banks of the Danube, thirty-five miles in length 
and about three in breadth ; the Kschenlohermoos, which 
stretches from the banks of the Laisach to Momau ; and 
the Rosenheimermoos on the Inn. These moors, part of 
which have latteriy been drained, have hitherto been entirely 
unprofitable. The greatest extent of plain stretches full 
fifty miles in a soum-eastem direction along the Danube 
from Ratisbon to Osterhofen ; next to this in extent are the 
Konlgswiese (Royal Meadow), or Bockinger Heath, spread- 
ing from Booking to Schiirding ; the Riefs, in the heart of 
which lies Nurdlingen ; the fiats of the Regnitz which en- 
circle Nuremberg; and that portion of the valley of the 
Rhine, on its west bank, which spreads into a dead plain 
round Landau, in Rhenish Bavaria. The most romantic 
parts of Bavaria are the regions on the south-eastern bor- 
ders, where Alpine heights, mountain-torrents, lakes, and 
glaciers, combme to give them the characteristics of the 
Swiss or Tyrolese landscape. 

Rivert, Lakes, <^.— The Rhine forms the eastern bound- 
ary of tb* Rhenish subdivision of Bavaria, from a point 
north-east of Lauterburg to a point a little south of Worms ; 
the principal streams which fall into it on the Bavarian side 
are the Lauter, below Lauterburg; the Klingbach, south of 
fionderaheim; the Queich, close to Germersheim; the 
Bpei er,ne ar the town of Speier or Spires ; the Rehbach, &c. 
Toe breadth of the Rhine above Lauterburg is 1400 feet ; 
ha ikU in this part of its course is estimated at four and a 
half tet in every thrse miles and a quarter, and it flows at 
the rate of about 395 f«et per minute. 
The Otaabe catm the tovth west of Bavaria from the 



Wiiitemberg dommions about two milea south f>f Ubn, and 
in its north-easterly and navigable course through the heart 
of the kingdom as far as Regensburg (Ratisbon) flows past 
Giinxburg, Hochstiidt, Donauworth, Neuburg, and Ingol- 
stadt, between which last town and Ratisbon it has a fall 
of 110 feet. In its course (which is about B.S.E.) from 
Ratisbon to Passau it has on its right bank Straubin^ 
and Vilshofen, and between Ratisbon and Nieder-Altaich, 
a spot five miles below Deckendorf, not far from Passau, 
in the circle of the Lower Danube, a fall of ISO feet 
The course of this tortuous and impetuous river from 
Ulm to Passau is stated by St. Behlen to be fifty-se^ea 
and a half (srerman miles, or about 270 English: the prin- 
cipal streams which are tributary to it along this line are, 
on its right bank, the lller (after the latter has received 
the Bleibach), the Leiba, Miindel, Zusam, and Lech, the 
Isar below Deggendorf (^het it has been joined bj the 
Loisach, Amper, and Wiirm), and the Inn, near Passau 
(after it has been increased by the influx of the AU. Salz- 
ach. Sec.). On its left bank the chief rivers which fall into 
the Daoube are the Womitz near Donauworth, the Altmuhl 
near Kehlheim, which rises not far from Homau in the 
Retjsat circle, the Rohrbach near Bubenheim, the 8ul2 
near Beilingries, tlie Naab, which flows down from the 
Bohmerwald, is increased bv the waters of the Hciduab 
fipom the region of the Fichtel^ebirge, and joins the Danube 
above Ratisbon ; and lastly the Regen, which also comes 
from the Bohmerwald, and uniting with the black, white, 
and lesser Regen, traverses the circle to which it gives iu 
name, and discharges itself into the Danube near 8tadh-am- 
Hof, opposite Ratisbon. During its course through the Ba- 
varian territory the Danube receives no less than thiny- 
eight rivers. 

The Main originates in two streams, the red and white 
Main, the white springing from the vicinity of Neuhau, and 
the red from the Ochsenkopf, part of the rlchtelgebirge in 
the circle of the Upper Danube ; these unite at Steinbausea 
below Kulmbach, and flow in a general western course to a 
point a few miles west of Bamberg. Bamberg is on the Reg- 
nitz, a large stream which joins the Main on the left bank, 
a little below Bamberg. The Main continues a general 
western course to 8chweinfurth, Kitaingen, Wurzbui|^, aod 
Aschaffenborg, whence it passes into the territory cf Hesse. 
It is navigable above Bamberg, and in its course tbroui;b 
the northern circles of the Upper and Lower Main rerei\ci 
the Rodach near Stafielstein, the Franoonian-Saale at 
Gmiinden, the Regnitz (as already mentioned), below Bam- 
berg, and many other smaller streams. There are thtte 
other rivers of note which rise in the Bavarian territury * 
the Eger and Saale, both come from the Fichtelgebirge; 
the former runs eastward in the circle of the Upper Blain 
into Bohemia, and the latter northward horn tne Zetier- 
wald in the same circle into Saxony ; and the Fulda, which 
flows immediately into Electoral Hesse, and after its junc- 
tion with the Werra forms the Weser. 

Bavaria does not yet possess canals of any magnitude. 
There is a canal in the neighbourhood of the Ammer&ee^ 
in the western part of the circle of the Isar, 13,000 feet in 
length, which enables timber-rafU to avoid the hazardous 
navigation of that lake as well as to save a distance of muns 
than five miles. A out was made in 1818 betweeen Wurtii 
and Knitlingen (both on the Rhine), 10,624 feet long and 
sixty-two feet broad, with sluice-gates upon the Rhine at 
each extremity. Another canal was finished in 1 80 7, be- 
tween Rosenheim and Kufstein, which is 7400 feel long and 
thirty-six broad, and by which nearly two square miles uf 
highly fertile land have been brought under cultivatiuu. 
There is also a navigable canal from Frankenthal to tha 
Rhine. In the year 793 the Emperor Charlemagne resolved 
upon uniting the German Ocean witli the BlacJt Sea by a 
canal which would have run from the Altmiihl to the Reg- 
nitz, and thus have established a navigable line between th« 
Danube and the Rhine through the Main ; and there is every 
prospect, from the active exertions of the Bavarian govern- 
ment to forward this great olgect« that this undertaking wA 
now be accomplished/ 

* Th0 uCBeial pitwpectus upon which, u well u upoo a law pa«s«d in J-Jj 
lait (1834), a company is forming for the purpoee, atstei. that 'the Jimci a 
Canal between the Danube and Rhine, by means of the Main* iBclndinc tW 
portioa of the river Altmuhl which i« tu be made naTh|aUe, wiU be a9eM> 
Baratian feet, or twenty- three and a half German nmee in length v al.i« .x 
fi63.900 English feet, or 107 miles). It is to past in the ilixeetiatt uf the iww 
great commercial towns Nuremberg and Fiirth. Ite propoeed diBrasiosi* aie 
a breadth of fifty-four feet at top and thirtv-four feet at Dottom, aiMi a drf ^ 

of five feet Tho width of tho cbaiabon ht Uio slulooi is to be stoKca foec 



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f«iNv ^ bo )ioTv«to^ ««-^if^^ VrYh)ro^ of mvillwm tree* {hm 

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to other public purposes. The remaining tvo^thirds of tlie 
Bavarian woodlands belong to parishes, endowments, and 
priTate individuals. The largest forests are those neer 
Kempten, which cover a surface of 235,143 aeres, and in the 
reipon of the Spessart, which are 91,740 acres in extent 
but in Rhenish Kx'aria both timber and ftiel are compara- 
titely learce. Potashes, tar, turpentine, and juniper berries 
are amonr the other products of the Bavarian foresta. 

Amiman. — Bavaria is full of rivers and streama* the banks 
of which are bordered with excellent pastures; and tbe> 
have been rendered still more productive in the two circles <: f 
the Main and that of the ReUat by artificial irrigation. The 
mountains also abound In pastures, which have been im- 
proved in many parts by careful cultivation. No branch ' f 
grating, bowei^r, is so extensively punued as the rearini^ *>{ 
homed cattle ; and in this respect the circles of the Upi <.t 
Danube and Isar take the lead ; yet tbe whole stock is in- 
adequate to the wants of the inhabitants, and by no mean^ 
commensurate with the capabilities of the oountry. In I b .' I 
the stock amounted to 1,896,687 beads; and scppoaing the 
annual increase to baT« been aft the rate of one in every 
three hundred for the thirteen years sinee elapaed, tbe pr^ 
sent slock may be estimated at needy I •980,000. It may 
be ot* M s \ ed abo that the imports of oxen* hides» and cliee$« 
exceed tbe exports by about 16,000 oocen, SOOOcwt. of hides 
and :25^> tons of cheese. SufficicBt exertions have not \et 
Kn« made to improive the breeds, thoogfa mnefa good has 
SNii done by the estaKsshment of agriadtmal and vetcn- 
nxrr sr^>>U. aai the disthbuticA of pnaes at the mral {e>t:- 
xTtls^ Oifh^fv^ ihe numbeis in 1821 wcve 1*238,103, btA 
H » caVuli:ed that tbey haT« i m eas e d to afaoot I »4u0,i/^ •.■ 
«afe i^it UTse. Tbe ne^Vect of this brandi of agriculture 
i"^-r^ ;j>c *.i>t fcccT years, wh>fi, we behere, is aitbout a 
TULTil^I tr: xr.T ccber Gene&a state, may be infoned from il:^ 
^*rL t^os is i>c v«ar ir$4. wbes tbe Bsiarian doinin:-.~& 
wwreV«l:^f K\' <iquA:v> a Jc& tbe:? docks cvntaiaed 1,04 C ^^1 
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which 8 belong to the crown; SO low^beat furnaceii 17 
sTTielting-works, 332 forges and hammers for beating out 
the metal, &c., 4 steel-works, and 19 wire-mills, the annual 
produce of which is about 1 1,150 tons of raw and cast-iron, 
6990 tons of wrought-iron, 4300 ewt. of steel, 7200 of plate- 
iron, and 4000 cwt. of wire; but as the whole quantity of 
metal raised is not sufficient for the consumption of the 
country, the deficiency is made good by importations* Of 
this native iron, the Isor mines at Neukirchen average 
yearly about 5500 tons, and the Upper Main about 4000. 
Bavaria possesses likewise 136 pits of iron-stone, which is 
raised in all of its eight circles, to the average extent of 
41 ,500 tons a year. The coal-mines are in the districts of 
Stndsteinach and Wundsiedel in the Upper Main, and of 
Kaiserslautern in Rhenish Bavaria ; the number of shafts 
at work in these parts is fifty^ne, of which eight are the 
property of the crown, and the remainder of private indi- 
\idiials. The whole quantity raised is about 35,000 tons 
a year, which might be greatly increased by working 
the rich beds in which other districts of Bavaria are 
known to abound. Black-lead (or graphite) is worked in 
iieveral places, particularly at Obcrnzell, whence much is 
sent to America for the purpose of mak'ng crucibles : the 
w hole number of mines in activity is thirty-tlirec, and the 
quantity produced, about 200 tons per annum. The sulphur 
raised in various parts is not sunicient for the home con- 
sumj)tion. Porcelain-earth is another Bavarian product; 
tlie best is obtained in the justiceship of Wunsicdel in the 
Upper Main, and of a quality said to be the finest in Ger- 
many, if not in Europe. Salt has been a monopoly of the 
crown for several ages ; and in the last century the pans 
and works of Schellenberg alone, from which the govern- 
ment supplied the country, produced 241,000 tons. The 
public salt-works are at prestent seven in number, and are 
•established at Berchtesgadcn, Rosenheim, Reichenhall, and 
1 rauenstein, in the circle of the Isar (average produce about 
'2S,600 tons a year). Orb and Kissingen in the Lower Main 
(average about 3000 tons a year), and Tiirkheim in the 
Upper Danube (average about 420 tons a year). The whole 
supply amounts to between 32,000 and 33,000 tons per an- 
num : the expense is estimated at about two shillings and 
sixpence per ton, and the portion retained for domestic con- 
sinnption at 30,000 tons. On an average of four years, the 
clear annual profit accruing to the state appears to have 
hoen 2,217,375 tlorins (about 2 13,000/.). There are, accord- 
in.; to Stein, three hundred different sorts of marble in the 
circle of the Upper Main alone. Alabaster and rock crjs- 
tal, the agate, jasper, and garnet, cornelians, and asbestos, 
should be added to the list of Bavarian minerals. 

Bavaria is abundantly supplied with mineral waters, but 
few of them are of any note. Among the saponaceous 
s])rinrrs we may instance the well of the Virgin (Marien- 
brunneji) at Mochlingcn ; there are alkaline waters at the 
monastery of Heilsbrunn in the Rctzat, as well as at Bakler 
in the Wiirzburg territory ; muriatic springs at Benedict- 
beuern and Kissingen, and at the Wildbad at Rothenburg ; 
sulphuretted-alkaline waters at Abach; and chalybeate 
sprinirs in various quarters, particularly the Fokberger Baths 
ar.d Alexander Baths in the circle of the Main. 

InhahitanU. — It appears from the tabular statement given 
above that Rhenish Bavaria surpasses every other part of 
the kingdom in density of population, the number of inha> 
bitants to the square mile being 230 ; in the Lower Danube 
it is 18B; in the Upper Main, 171 ; in the Lower Main, 
nearly 183; in the Retzat, 138; in the Upper Danube, 
nearly 132; in the Regen, 123; and in the tsar, although 
tlic capital with a population of 80,000 souls and upwards 
lies within it, not quite 100. The comparative numbers of 
the two sexes are as follow :— 

In the year 1819, 1,788,495 males; 1,908,900 females. 
1825, 1,929,625 »» 2,052,912 
1828, 1,980,278 „ 2,056,739 

From the average of these three years the proportion of 
males to females is 125 of the former to 132 of the latter, or 
1000 to 1056; which is a little less than the proportion 
^ivcn by Malchus, who states the excess of females over 
males as being • not quite b\ per cent.' According to Rud- 
liait s statement in 1826, the number of dwelling-houses 
wa:^ then 019,482, and the number of Aimilies inhabiting 
llicm 787,318; each family averaging between four and 
five iiiiiividuals. The proportion of the jwpulntion in towns 
halving 500 families or upwards is also estimated by him at 



«• 



»• 



19 
M 



one-seventh of the entire number of inhabitants ; and so 
low a proportion cannot be matter of surprise in a state which 
is so pre-eminently agricultural. The average proportion 
of births and deaths for the three years 1819, 1825, ar.d 
1828, is 143,576 of the former to 108,345 of the latter; 
whence we have an average increase, on these three years* 
of 35,231 souls. 

The number of parishes is 8155, and that of public and 
private buildings of all descriptions was, in 1833, 1,271,567, 
the value of which was estimated at 778,908,699 florins 
(about 74,645,4 1 7/.). The number of such buildings insured 
against fire was 1,136,977, and their estimated value was 
551,026,798 florins, or 52,806.730/. 

According to Von Zedlitz, the inhabitants of Bavaria con- 
sist of 4,113,500 Germans, 60,000 Jews, and 6500 French, 
or persons of French extraction, who are mostly scattered 
about Landau and in the circle of the Rhine ; the German 
part of the population is divided into native Bavarians, 
rranconians, Swabians, and Rhinelanders. 

Beligion. — We know of no classification of the inhabitants 
according to their religious tenets of a more recent date than 
that given by Von St. Behlen for the year 1828, at which 
period they were composed of 

2,880,383 Roman Catholics, 
1,094,633 Protestants, 
57,574 Jews, and 
4,427 of other persuasions. 

The 'Edict of Religion' of the 16th May, 1818, does not 
recognize any predominant national church, hut establishes 
full liberty of conscience, and gives both to Roman Catholic 
and Protestant an equality of civil rights ; the privilege of 
private worship is secured to individuals of every persuasion, 
and that of public worship may be granted by the king 
upon the application of a sufHcient number of families. All 
matters connected with tlio temporal concerns of religious 
communities are conducted by the section for ecclesiastical 
affairs in the home department ; but the exercise of judicial 
power in the Catholic Church, with reference to members of 
their own body, is entrusted to the archbishops, bishops, ab- 
bots, and deacons. The king is the temporal head of that 
church, and no laws, ordinances, or other public acts relating 
to it can be promulgated without the royal sanction. 

By the concordat concluded with the Pope, on the 5th 
June, 1817, two archbishoprics, Munich and Bamberg, and 
six bishoprics, "Wlirzhurg, Eichstiidt, and Spires, under the 
former, and Augsburg, Ratisbon, and Passau, under the 
latter, were instituted. The Roman Catholic Church in Ba- 
varia possesses 191 deaneries, and 2512 cures of souls. The 
J.utheran Church, which is most prevalent in the circles of 
the Retzat, Upper Danube, the two Mains, and Rhine, con- 
tains 37 inspections, consisting of 1 036 parishes or ministries, 
under the conduct of the three consistories of Baireutli, 
Ansbach, and Spires, which are subordinate to the * Inde- 
pendent Superior Consistory* of Munich, the latter being 
itself subject, to a certain extent, to the control of the home 
department. We observe that the king of Bavaria does not 
allow his prelates to use the prtefix * Dei gratifi' in their 
titles, considering it a pecuUar attribute of royalty ; but be 
permits them to substitute, as an appendix to their official 
designation, the words * Divind gratia.' The revenues of the 
Roman Catholic Church arise from estates and endowments, 
over which its hierarchs exercise unlimited control : out of 
these revenues the archbishop of Munich receives an annual 
stipend of about 1920/. (20,000 florins), and the archbishop 
of Bamberg, about 1440/. (15,000 florins); the bishops of 
Augsburg, Ratisbon, and Wiirzburg, 960/. (10,000 florins) 
each, and those of Passau, Eichstadt, and Spires, about 
765/. (8000 florins) each. Several monasteries and convents 
have been allowed to spring up again of late years, for the 
professed purpose of instructing young persons in religious 
and worldly knowledge, of assisting in the ministerial ofiice, 
and taking charge of the sick. The present number of reli- 
gious establishments is thirty-four, of which fourteen are very 
recent revivals of suppressed communities. In the veat 
1832 there was not one such establishment in the circle of 
the Retzat ; but there were twelve in the Upper and Lower 
Danube, seven in the Isar, four in the Regen, ten in the 
Upper and I^wer Main, and two in the Rhenish territory. 
The higher orders of the clergy, including deans of chapters, 
•are nominated by the sovereign ; and, on the representation 
of the bishops, the circulation of such books as they may deem 
adverse to * the true faith, good manners, or church disci pUno 
is prohibited. The president of the Lutheran Consistorj 



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I . -. Ti •^^ t' -.jj*^? TTk" -.'^ >»--^* .: T iTtf wi- ■: r .i-'- 
^icr^HrTsi^^-rt .tec. '*n Sfe-njvr i - ■ »_ ei I 
:'v i: '-^ A.; •'i*^. tft. - Tt^-^: •» '-■at ra» J ra^^ j •_"• 













— • B » «• 






% -t.*- V 4. n; ^ >6v •S' i. i.-^ Ufa iiw 







BAY 



56 



BAY 



fttate (national domains and forests, public farms, crown 
manufactures of gloss, molasses, and porcelain, as well as 
the pearl- ftsheries in the Upper Main, Regen^ and Upper 
Danube), 719,007/. (7,502,687 tlorins) ; from national royal- 
ties and establi^ments (mines and salt-works, the post- 
office, lotteries, mint, and the profit on the publication of 
the ' Law and (rovemment Journal) 373,870/. (3,901,252 
florins); ih>m indirect taxes, such as stamps, tolls, &c.» 
892,004/. (9,307,874 florins) ; and from direct taxes, 699,439/. 
(7,298,498 florins). Among the items of expenditure are, 
for the royal household and foreign affairs, 48,560/. (506,705 
florins); education and civilization {bildung) 73,581/. 
(767,811 florins); public worship (viz. Roman Catholic, 
1 00,269/., and Protestant, 27,7 75/.), in all 1 28,044/. ( 1 ,336, 1 1 6 
florins); public safety, 39,675/. (414,000 florins) ; the con- 
struction of highways, bridges, &c., 118,087/. (1,232,216 
florins) ; interest and redemption of the national debt, 
785,255/. (8,193,964 florins) ; civil list, 287,500/. (3,000,000 
florins): and army expenses, 646,250/. (5,700,000 florins), 
independently of the gendarmerie. 

Military Besaurceg.—ThQ Conscription Law of the 29th 
of March, 1812, rendered every male in Bavaria, up to a 
certain age, with the exception of ecclesiastics and the sons 
of noblemen, liable to the ballot ; but a new law of the 1st 
of May, 1829, allows every Bavarian to enlist between the 
ages of eighteen and thirty; and such as have already 
served six years may contract a fresh engagement in the 
service until they reach their fortieth year. Every Bavarian 
IS liable to the Conscription Law after he has completed 
his twenty-flrst year ; and from the first of January suc- 
ceeding the ballot by which he has been drawn, his liability 
to serve in the army, if called upon, continues during the 
two following years : the exemptions are confined to the only 
son of a parent, who has already lost two sons in the service, 
and the snr\'iving sons of every parent who has lost three 
sons ill a similar manner. The period of service is six 
years ; no Bavarian can settle or marry, or receive any 
definitive appointment before he has done all that the law 
requires with regard to his liability to bear arms. Certain 
exemptions are (granted in the case of ecclesiastics and 
students, as well as in the cose of sons, without whose aid 
the subsistence of families would become precarious. 

Bavaria, as a member of the German Confederation, 
furnishes the largest contingent of any exclusively German 
state. It forms the seventh corps of the confederate forces, 
and consists of 35,600 men ; namely, 5068 cavalry, 26,215 
infantry, 1380 sharpbhooters, and 2919 artillery, pioneers, 
&o. ; to which eighteen howitzers, and fifty-four field-pieces 
and cannon are to be added. The real strength of the army, 
however, supposing the present scale of its organization to 
remain, is now, and would, in the event of a war, be as 
follows : 

Peace. War. 
Jnrintry ... 16 rcgt«, of the Hue -i each 2 bnUal. — each i ^ -„<, . , ^^^ 

4b.auL of tharpahnolmj battal. 6 comp. ;«'*'» •*•»» 
... 2 rests. orC*uira»aiers i . « i 

6 «lo. LwhtCaxalry } each 6 «|uadioii« 

... 2 ri'jfts.— eacli S batuL of 6 compt.— each corap.'^ 
U'itu competent to aenre a battery of 8 > 
caunon J 

2 covii. of sapperi, 1 of miucrt, I of ))ODtuoa- 1 
men, anU 1 of artiflcera • . j 



Cavalry 
ArtiUrry 



9316 9360 



3120 3456 



630 



79* 



63,594 63/22i 

The effective strength of the army, however, as laid down 
in tlie details which form the groundwork of the military 
budget for the third financial period (1832 — 1837), is of 
a somewhat different character, for they give as 
Constantly present. Officers and others on ser- 
vice,~including, 1 Field-Marshal, 2 Generals, 
15 Lieut.-Generals, and 26 Major-Generals, the 
civil and medical employes, &c. , . 2119 

Subaltern officers, engineers, &c. • , 4109 

Infantry • • • . 6912 

Cavalry ..... 5032 

Artillery, sappers and miners, &c. • . 1470 



Pment for 1 month only. In all 
Constantly on Furlough. In all 



19,642 
21,224 
17,196 



58,062 

The difference of 2638 men between these numbers and 

those which have been given as the full war complement, 

arises from the omission in the la.st statement of the civil 

aud medical employes, and othcr>, not immediately bearing 



arms. The infantrv and cavalry form four divisions (bead- 
quarters, Munich, Augsburg, Nuremberg, and Wiirzburg, 
respectively), each of which com»ists of two brigades, or four 
regiments of infantry of the line, one battalion of sharp- 
shooters, a brigade of two regiments of cavalry, and tno 
batteries of heavy cannon, and one of field-pieces. The 
artillery, pontoonmen, and artificers, as well as the corps of 
engineers, sappers, and miners, constitute distinct divisions. 

The Landwehr, dt militia, is, under the ordinance of the 
year 1826» composed of all Bavarians, who have not been 
already drafted into the ranks of the active army or baltalLons 
of reserve, are not under nineteen or above sixty years of 
age, and are not noblemen or ecclesiastics. Tho number i» 
determined by the king according to the emergency ; but 
this force has not hitherto been completely organized, 
though there are staffs and head-quarters appointed in every 
circle. On the scale projected it would amount to 250,0ou 
men and upwards, independently of any levies in the 
Rhenish territory. There is a corps of gens-dWmes, also 
consisting of nine companies, one for Munich and one for 
each of the eight circles, and mustering in all about 1700 
men. Bavaria nas a right to pass by a military road through 
the territory of Baden, which gives Bavaria direct access to 
its dominions on the Rhine. 

The expense of the miUtary establishment for the six 
years, 1825-6— 1830-1, was 4 1,719,962 fiorins,which averages 
6,953,327 florins, or 666,366/. per annum. In 1824 the 
moveable property belonging to the Bavarian army was 
estimated at 979,415/. (10,219,987 tlorins), and the immove- 
able at 350,905/. (3,661,627 florins). The property and 
funds for the reliefof widows and orphans, invalids, &c., also 
amounted at that time to 385,233/. (4,019,821 florins). 

The fortified places in Bavaria are— Landau, the strongest 
of its fortresses, in the circle of the Rhine : it is also one 
of the fortresses immediately attached to the German Con- 
federation; Passau, on the Danube, in the circle of the 
Lower Danube ; Wiirzburg, in conjunction with the citadel 
of Marienberg ; Ingolstadt, at the confluence of the Sohiitttr 
and Danube, in the Regen, at this moment in course of 
construction ; and Vorchhcim, in the circle of the Lower 
Main, a place of inconsiderable strength. Bavana oUo 
possesses several mountain strongholds, such as Roscnber;;. 
near Kronach, in the Upper Main ; Rothenberg and AViiU- 
burg, in the Retzat; and WiUibaldsburg, near £ichsiadt» 
in the Regen. 

iVoW/iVy.— The nobility of Bavaria form 2407 families <( 
whom there are not 1000 possessed of landed property ; aiui 
the relative proportion of their property ss compared \%i:h 
that of the remaining subjects of the crown is as one to uim. 
The registered nobles in 1823 consisted of 1 grand duke. iJ 
princes, 154 counts, 422 barons, and 1038 of inferior rank, 
using tho priBfix of • Von.' In all cases where a nobleman 
enters a menial service, or opens and conducts a shop <r 
warehouse, his title of nobility becomes suspended. In ci\il 
and criminal matters he is exempt from the jurisdiction vf 
local courts of judicature, and none but a noble is entitled to 
estabUsh a seignorial tribunal of justice ; but he does n,,; 
enjoy any advantages, with respect to taxation, legislai^e 
pre-eminence, or government appointments, which are not 
common to his fellow subjects. The royal title is simply 

* . by the Grace of God, King of Bavaria.' The ordJi 

of St. Hubert (1444), with 142 members, holds the firfl 
rank : that of St. George, instituted during the Crusade s 
follows next in precedence; the other orders are, that tf 
Maximilian Joseoh (1806). a militar>-, and of the Bavaiiu:: 
crown, a civil order; of St. Michael (1693). and the ordtr 
founded by the present king in 1827 for the faithful div 
change of civil or military duties after a service of fifty years. 

Manu/actures.^ln Bavaria, as in many other Genum 
states, the profits arisinj; from vast establishments, and l':o 
concentration of productive powers, are comparatively un- 
known; manufacturing industry is mostly diffused o\er* 
multitude of adventures on a small scale. Bavaria is alvj 
essentially an agricultural country, and hence the deficient 
supply in many branches of its manufactures. That of 
linens, for instance, which is the chief, is not confined to s 
few large establishments, but is scattered ovfcr the whole 
state, and in many districts the agricultural populaitou 
partly maintain themselves by weaving linen. The ma- 
jority of the articles made are of the coarser descriptions; 
and a large proportion of them are the produce of the Upp* r 
Main (where upwards of 7000 weavers and 1000 apprentice* 
are employed upon thera), and of tlic Upoer and Lov^ct 



B A V 



57 



B A V 



Danube. The finer sorts, |iarticularly damaalc, are inferior 
butli in texture and finish to the Saxon or Silesian ; still the 
quantity exported exceeds the quantity imported by about 
12,000/. a year. Linen-yarn is also spun in some districts, 
but not to any great extent, and cniefly for exportation. 
The manufacture of woollens and worsted hose is carriecl 
on principally in the circles of the Regen, Danubes and 
Mains, the finest being produced in Ansbach, Baireuth, 
Lindau, Munich, and the Upper Palatinate ; but this 
branch of industry is in the hands of individuals, and not 
curried on in large factories. The supply is very inade- 
quate to the consumption of the country, and sometimes the 
excess of imports over exports has amounted to 40,000/. per 
annum. There is a similar deficiency in the domestic sup- 
))ly of manufactured cottons ; the use of improved machinery, 
however, is gradually increasing in many quarters, and ad- 
ditions are constantly making to the number of spinning- 
mills. The districts about Augsburg, Kaufbeueren, and Hof 
are the most important seats of this branch of Bavarian in- 
dustry, and numbers are also employed in hand-spinning. 
The yearly importation of cotton goods is still said to be 
100,000/., and that of cotton yams to be 51,000/. more in 
value than the exportation. The leather manufactoiics are 
of considerable importance, but mostly carried on by num- 
bers of small manufacturers, particularly in the minor towns 
in the cbrclesof the Retzat, Isar, Upper and Lower Danubes, 
and of the Rhine. Bavarian calf-skins are in gi-eat repute 
and largely exported, but sole leathers are not produced in 
sudicient quantity for the home demand. Between the years 
1819 and 1824, the yearly value of the leather exported 
(20,306 cwt.) rose to 58,640/., and that of the same article 
imported (17,133 cwt.) to 49,260/. The supply of paper, of 
which Aschafienburg, Nuremberg, Fiirth, Augsburg, and 
Schwabach furnish many fancy sorts, is beyond the domestic 
consumption ; though the usual descriptions are indifferent, 
there are still about 2800 cwts. exported to the value of about 
7v()0L The number of paper mills is 150, of which 29 are 
in the circle of the Upper Danube, 25 in the I^wer Main, 27 
in the Rhine, and 23 in the Rcgen. Schwcinfurt and 
IMainberg possess large manufactories of paper-hangings, 
which are of excellent quality and in much demand in other 
German states. Straw-platting has increased considerably 
of late years; even in 1824 the exportation amounted to 
3312 cwt. and 16,74 0/. in value ; and there are some districts, 
such as that of Weiler in the Isar, which gain between 
3b 00/. and 4800/. a year by this branch of industry. The 45 
glass-houses in Bavaria, of which there are 13 in each of 
the circles of the Regen and Lower Danube, and 8 in the 
Upper Main, produce window- glass, bottles, and other ordi- 
nary glass-ware to such an amount, that the exports ex- 
coed the imports above 19,000 cwt. and 55,000/. in value. 
In the finer sorts the quality is much inferior to the Eng- 
lish, and tven the French or Bohemian. The number of 
works for grinding and polishing looking-glasses is up- 
wards of 100; they cxjwrt on an average 11,700 cwt. of the 
nrticlo in a finished, and 5100 cwt. in an unfinished state. 
Nuremberg, Fiirth, Bamberg, and Augsburg are the prin- 
cipal scats of this manufacture. The whole value of the 
glass exported is upwards of 100,000/. per annum. No op- 
tical instruments made on the Continent are more highly 
valued than those made by Utzschneider and Frauen- 
hot'er's estabhshment at Munich. The manufacture of 
articles in wood, and the felling, hewing, and general ma- 
nipulation of timber occupy thousands of hands. There 
are nearly 2000 sawing-milis in Bavaria for the preparation 
of boards, deals, and latlis ; and almost as many families 
arc wholly supported in Ammergau and Berchtesgaden by 
the manufacture of articles in canned wood, some of which 
arc very beautiful. There are nine porcelain manufactories at 
w ork ; that at Nymphcnburg. not far from Munich, produces 
china which may bear comparison with the finest in Europe. 
The number of earthenware manufactories is 14, but the 
articles which they make are inferior to the English in 
strength and finish. The Bavarian crucibles are in much 
request; and the potteries employ nearly 2000 master-work- 
men, besides labourers, &c. Of slate-works there are above 
,3.'>0. The working of the metals chiefly consists in exten- 
sive manufactories of iron-ware, especially nails and needles, 
the export of which is considerable. Schwabach alone pro- 
duces annually 140,000,000 sewing, and above 300,000 
knitiinjx needles. There is a manufiictory of arms at Am- 
beru' which supplies the army. The gold and silver-smiths 
of Munich, Wiirzburg, Nuremberg, and Augsburg, are in 



great repute. Fire-arms, fowling-pieces, 8cc., employ 167 
workmen at Burglingienfeld and Ncustadt. Nuremberg is 
celebrated for its brass-wares. Munich and Augsburg pos- 
sess cannon and other foundries. Fiirth contains many 
beaters of ^old and siU'er, &c., and exports leaf-gold and 
silver for gilding and plating to most European markets. 
The brewing of beer, in many respects the most important 
branch of manufacture in Bavaria, employs upwards of 
6000 establishments, or taxed brewers, by whom more 
than 9,300,000 aulms (95,790,000 gallons) of beer are 
made, and more than 980,000 Bavarian bushels (759,500 
quarters) of malt are consumed. A very favourable im- 
pulse has been given to national industry by the institution 
of the Polytechnic Society at Munich in 181G: its mem- 
bers consist of operatives, men of science, and official per- 
sons in all parts of the country ; and its principal object 
is to afibrd instruction, in their nispective branches, to 
mechanics and other work-people. An annual exhibition of 
domestic products and manufactures, and an award of prizes, 
form part of its plan. Similar societies exist in Augs- 
burg, Nuremberg, and other towns. The Bavarian govern- 
ment has likewise established mechanics' schools (Gewerbs- 
Schulen) in most of the larger places ; and there are va- 
rious other institutions in Munich, Bamberg, Augsburg. 
Ralisbon, Fiirth, Passau, Nuremberg, as well as elsewhere, 
for fhe promotion of trade and manufactures. The royal 
decree of the 25th September, 1825, which granted full 
liberty to individual skill and industry, has done much to 
remove the tyranny of corporate monopolies ; but, owing to 
peculiar circumstances, this decree has not hitherto come 
into full operation. 

Trade. — Though Bavaria is an inland country, its trade 
is greatly favoured by its geographical position, which has 
rendered it in some degree a central point between the 
Mediterranean, the Baltic, and the German Ocean, and a 
medium of intercourse between the west and east of Europe. 
This advantage is increased by its natural productiveness, 
and by the navigable lines of the Danube, Rhine, Main, and 
other streams, over which above 1600 larger and smaller 
bridges have been thrown ; as well as by the constant atten- 
tion which the government has paid of late years to the 
thaintenance and multiplication of public roads, the length 
of which is estimated at upwards of 5500 miles. The 
treaties of reciprocity, which have thrown the markets of 
many neighbouring states open to the industry and enter- 
prise of the Bavarians, have also given an additional sti- 
mulus to their commercial activity. Though an agricul- 
tural state, the export of its wrought produce and manu- 
factures exceeds in value that of its raw produce by more 
than one-half; a strong proof, observes Von StBehlen, that 
the mechanical industry of the country is more advanced 
than its agricultural. The system of duties has been placed 
on a liberal footing ; great facilities are given to importation, 
and scarcely any obstacles are thrown in the way of expor 
tations. Salt is the only article the introduction of which 
is wholly prohibited; and most articles imported from 
countries with which commercial treaties have been formed 
are treated on the same terms as native products, with re- 
ference to internal duties or excise imposts. In the list of 
duties, which for the period 1832 — 1837, are taken at a 
yearly average of 178,790/., we may instance foreign wines 
and liqueurs, which pay 10 florins per 100 tons; silks 60 
florins per cwt. ; china 40 florins ; Tegetable oils 10 florins ; 
colfee 1 5 florins ; sugar 12 florins, &c. The transit trade has 
latterly declined, though it is still estimated to leave several 
hundred thousand pounds of profit in the country : the lines 
which it takes are, from Saxony into Switzerland ; from tbe 
northern states of Germany, through Ratisbon, and thence by 
the Danube into Austria; from Strasburg into Saxony; from 
the countries on the Rhine into Italy ; and from Frankfort 
into Austria ; and the places through which it passes are 
Bamberg, Wiirzburg, Ratisbon, Augsburg, Hof, Nurem- 
berg, Marksteft, and some minor towns. The principal 
articles of export are giain, about 380,000 quarters, in value 
about 750,000/. ; salt; timber, of which about 48,000/. from 
the Upper Main alone ; potashes, whereof 1 7 tons to France; 
fruit; liquorice-root, of which the Upper Main exporU 
1 7,000 lbs. to Austria ; seed ; hops ; cattle, the whole export 
of which amounts to 10,000 heads of oxen, and 200,000 
sheep and swine: fish; flax, 500 tons; yarn and coarse 
linens, of which the circle of the Regen supolics to the 
extent of 50.000/. in value; glass; leather; Nuremberg, 
Fiirth, and Berchtesgaden light fabrics, beer, &c. The 



No. 212. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOP/BDIA.] 



Vol. IV -I 



B A V 



SB 



B A V 



imports are prinoipally wines ; oottoD, 430,000 llis. ; eoflee, 
1700 tons; sugar, 80,000 cwt. ; rice, 8000 cwt. ; tobacco, 
10,000 owt; drugs, 5000 cwt; sea-fish, 5200 cwt; copper, 
410 tons; oil, 12,000 cwt; hides and skins, 660,000 lbs.; 
hemp and flax, 750 tons ; silk and silk goods, 230,000/. ; 
woollens, 93,000/. ; lead, 1 75 tons ; furs, honey, and cheese. 
On the whole, the value of the exports is estimated at about 
3,350,000/., and that of the imports at 3,250,000/. With 
respect to the former, the relative proportion of raw native 
produce exported is said to be about 700,000/., and of manu- 
factures, inclusive of salt, 1,150,000/. 

History. — Our accounts of the antient Celtic Boii are few 
and of little importance. If tradition, however, is to be cre- 
dited, they migrated from Gaul and took possession of the 
country between the Upper Danube and the Alps, after 
subduing the native inhabitants, about 600 years before the 
Christian flsra. Shortly before this last epoch the land of the 
BoLi fell under the Roman yoke, and a considerable portion of 
the present territory of Bavaria became a constituent part of 
the Roman empire, under the name of Vindclicia, durine Uie 
following 1 50 years. In the second century, when the North 
poured down its barbarians upon the South, there was no 
country in Germany which felt the pressure more severely 
than the laud of the Boii ; and its inhabitants were long 
kept in a state of wretchedness and slavery by a con3tant 
succession of barbarous invaders, till at last, between the 
middle of the fifth and sixth cen tunes, the Heruli, Marco- 
nianni, Thurinjii, and other tribes, established themselves 
permanently in* Noricum, which constitutes part of the 
Bavaria of the present day, adopted the name of Boioarii, 
and forced the owners of the soil to abandon their native 
language and customs for those of the German race. The 
country received the appellation of Boioaria, which has 
-since been corrupted into Baiern and Bavaria. On the dis- 
solution of the Roman empire, Bavaria became a vassal of 
the Ostrogothic empire, and, at a later date, of that of the 
Franks, whoso yoke however was so easy that the people 
were permitted to elect their own dukes out of the patri- 
cian line of the Agilolfingers. These princes, whose sway 
lasted for more than 250 years, were so little dependent 
upon their foreign masters, that they exercised every prero- 
gative of sovereignty except the right of making laws and 
alienating lands, which were acts that required the sanction 
of a body of legislators, consisting of priests, counts, judges, 
and elders of the people. Thassilo, the last duke of the 
Agilolfingian line, was, in the year 783, compelled to submit 
to Charlemagne after an obstinate resistance, and was con- 
demned to death at the assembly of May in that year, but was 
subsequently pardoned and shut up in a monastery. From 
this time, which was at the close of ;lie eighth century, 
tlie kings of the Franks and Germans governed the country 
by their lieutenants, who were dukes or counts taken from 
various families. In 1070 it passed, by imperial grant into 
the possession of the Guelphs ; and in 1 1 60, upon the ex- 
pulsion of Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, 
it was transferred by the Emperor Frederic to Otho, Count 
of Wittelsbach, a native prince, firom whom the present 
king is descended. One of the most important acqui- 
sitions subsequently made was that of the earldom of the 
Uhetiish Palatinate, with which the Emperor Frederic III. 
invested this family in 1216. Their dominions were after- 
wards divided between contending relatives at various times, 
Until the dukedom of Bavaria was fullv severed from the 
Upper and Rhenish Palatinates in 1329. Several other par- 
titions ensued. In 1507 the right of primogeniture in the 
royal family was introduced, and finally received as the law 
of the land in 1573. The treaty of Westphalia not only re- 
cognised the title of the Bavarian princes to the Upper 
Palatinate, of which they had re-possessed themselves in 
162 J, but confirmed them in the electoral dignity, to which 
they had been raised by the emperor of Germany in 1623. 
Upon the extinction of the direct Wittelbach line in the 
person of Maximilian Joseph III. in 1 777, the Elector Pala- 
tine, Charles Theodore, succeeded to the sovereignty, and 
ceded the districts of the Inn, containing an area of 840 
square miles, to Austria; but by adding his patrimonial 
posvsssions (the Palatinate, and the duchies of Juiiers and 
Berg) to the Bavarian territory, he increased its superficial 
extent to upwards of 21,000 square miles, and its popula- 
tion to 2,384,000. To these acquisitions the treaty of 
Luneville m 18ui added the lands on the left bank of the 
Rhine ; but the re-settlement of Germany, two years after- 
1^ anis. deprived Bavaiia of the palatinate on the right bank, 



to the extent of about 4620 square mites, while it transferred 
to it in exchange 6720 square miles, including the dissolved 
bishoprics of Augsburg, Bamberg, Wiirzburg. and Frei- 
singen, parts of the domains of Eichstiidt and Passau, &r. 
The treaty of Pressburg, which raised the electorate to tL*.- 
rank of a kingdom in 1805, transferred certain possession > 
of Austria to the Bavarian crown, among which were several 
districts in Swabia, the Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Brixen, ami 
Trent, as well as the cities of Augsburg, Lindau, &c. Tiic 
additions thus made were about 12,180 square miles, from 
which, however, a deduction of about 2040 is to be made t\x 
the abandonment of the Wiirzburg territory. 

All these changes and accessions increased the area <-{ 
Bavaria, in 1806, to nearly 3I,5U0 square miles. In tUt 
same year, Bavaria relinquished the duchy of Berg in ex- 
change for the margraviate of Ansbach. became a memUr 
of the Rhenish Confederation, and received the city of 
Nuremberg, and the sovereignty over the mediatised terri- 
tories of several former princes of the empire, as a compen- 
sation for the cession of some inconsiderable districts to 
Wiirtemberg. By the treaty of Vienna in 1809, the Bava- 
rian dominions attained the greatest extent of territ'.n* 
which they ever possessed. One of the consequences d 
this treaty was, that, upon giving up the south of the Tyrul 
to the Italian crown, and certain domains to Wurtem- 
berg and Wiirzburg, Bavaria acquired nearly the whole 
of Salzburg, Berchtesgaden, the Austrian circle of the Inr, 
and part of that of the Hausruck, Baireuth, and Ratisbon. 
by which exchange her possessions were increased to aKiut 
35,700 square miles. In conformity with the treaty of Ntei 
in 1 81 2, tne settlement with Austria on the 1 9th June, 1 8 ! -1. 
and the negotiations concluded with the same power on thj 
14 th of April, 1816, Bavaria restored to Austria the Tyn!. 
Vorarlberg, the districts of the Inn and Hausruck. and 
those portions of Salzburg which lie to the east of tiie 
Salzach and Saale. Bavaria received in return WiirzbuTur. 
and certain parts of Fulda, of the grand duchy of He&»e, of 
Baden, and of the territories of the old palatinate. Spires, hLf. 
(formerly constituting portions of the French departments of 
Donnersberg, Saar, and the Lower Rhine.) 

The following nobles have sei^norial domains within 
the Bavarian dominions, extending over an area of about 
1500 sc^uare miles : — The Princes of Eichstiidt, Schwarzen- 
berg, l<ugger-Babenhausen, Leinin^n-Amorbach, Lowen- 
stein-Rosenberg, Lowenstein-FrcucLenberg, Ottingen-CH- 
tin gen, Ottingen-Wallerstein, Hohenlohe, Schillingsflirst, 
Thum-and-Taxis, and Estcrhazy, besides tlurteen counts. 

The first King of Bavaria was Maximilian Joseph^ wLi 
assumed the royal dignity on the 1st of January, 1806, ai I 
was succeeded by his son Lewis Charles Augustus L, t!:^ 
present king, on the 13th of October, 1825. 

(Rudhardt's Slate of the Kingdom of Bavaria^ /mn 
official sources ; Liechtenstem's History and Staiistirjf of 
Bavaria ; Von St Behlen's History, Statistics, ^-cof rh 
Kingdom of Bavaria; Von Schlieben's Bavaria; Cpui- 
merer ; Hassel ; Stein ; Horschelmann ; Malchus ; Wt si- 
eurieder; Eisenmann, &c.) 

BAVAY, a small town in the department of Nord. in 
France, l)etween Valenciennes and Maubeuge, 134 niile^ 
N.E. of Paris, through St. Quentin and Landrecies, 5'JP \^' 
N. lat., 3°47'E. long. 

This place, though now decayed, was once of considerahle 
importance ; and, under the name Bagacum, was the chief 
town of the Nervii, one of the nations of Gaul, who made dr. 
obstinate resistance to the Romans under Julius Ciesar. It< 
importance is testified by the fact, that the Romans brought 
water to it across the valley of the Sambre by means of an 
aqueduct, from springs in the village of Flor^sies, distant l o 
or 1 1 miles. Bavav is at the j unction of several Roman way» 
which traversed the surrounding country; these roads led 
respectively from Bagacum to Turnacum OToumay), to Ca- 
maracum (Cambray), to Durocortum or Remi (Reims), arU 
to Atuatucaor Tungri (Toneres): another road, known under 
the title of the Cfmush ae Brunehaut (bei»ause impaired 
by Brunehaut, queen of Austrasia), afforded a oommunica- 
tion from Bagacum to the road frcm Samarobrixii (Amiens), 
to Augusta Veromanduorum (St. Quentin) ; and a sixdi led 
from Bagacum, in the direction of Mens and Antwerp. In 
the Encyclop. Methodique^ a seventh road is mentioned, 
leading to Augusta Trevirorum, or Treves, but D^Anville 
does not notice this, nor is it marked in his map ; though 
the existence of a seventh road seems to bo implied by tDe 
seven faces of the stone mentioned below. Bagacum lust 



B A X 



B AX 



liji iinps uT twtii^ n* iiie jzLr-nsvsf u iw f yiiriii Bd. lie re- 1 
«qiiii«ft iiw jsiAsmMOOiL caiOiz* lUAdsr tUr cnsduci vi Mr. ' 
1" nntoi ^mwubs^ % casr}'vaai td Mooe txj/eitritr. wix» ca- | 

mtjm tlulIkU^ llfiliJtflSIKS: XL Hi* rCbCTL* r r » Q T .g. Wi^jC I 

minuitSft tn a I'mfttiiuiua. Ir-nc lit* inaid. lij. Wj(cL«te&d. 
V tn im lurtmifc ic 'smibi. Tut tr-uycl- feUig-Liw ia a va.*, 

)<M«iitjf .' II inr-jjt »ai-i. -rsi* m..:** fit to r.oi •• Ai>'.t ii-u* of 

n*<iutii*H. i:.fc «:^...-» n.-t- k '>v.t:i: i-uti.i. i>f.erlv i»e arst.n 
c tmft Ir.'^ii iii*?a*- Hvix-t L»t v».:.t to L'.^:, Ian. L^fc re- 
itri'^u* V ;'.-**' • 'i* '»*^*' Oi»j>*';*t^»*?d -*} itit v'.*»'-.»iiu of B^'^r-^'* 
J*^*'i'^\ *. ' -t k i?*^^ A'i -ftfi, iii^ oilier ruik* ol l:.*'^ 
i. :rd- Sj"iit i*'.oi>t «JL*':. 1.V r«i.u *:'fr h^ rflurij iij^t'L.m*d 



misaM» be «oan Yransbl a 

^hit ftKcAe^ TAonrti 

icrr »&uien vgoq libe faeatB cd' ill 

cdilmibje. Hit p jfi«]irr> ^ 

Wikererer be veoi, Urre 





to ttH 



t\i^ p- 



.•Lr-t. 'JL- ' i L . » xu : : . d 






i.it 



M p: Jisur Jfj* «- :j«* t :l ;* t tJ 
»;. i* •- b^ a. V.-d t; I 

#Yyn«y>ra.Lf^n. H« a::- rd for wi.r.a:} n t-j liir t*»-hyp of 
W<fr«r*^fcT. arid ---f- :Wi it, tvc.t .tr 'B:'.b a vh kiItl; -I'/r's 
l*cro%«>, a» f-c h-.'i i.r'v.-r.if 1 i:.e iua.-Urr*^..:) oi ll e free 
irrmmfr ar-»CiV''/l at D^o.t-y, juAt l^eii fc;-.:.'k-I h\ hi* fnenl 
M f . YUej of Sur- r br; 1 ire. H c w a * t jr. a i --u 1.1} -! h ree % t : re 
of tee, au'l at U,i» tunc cr.tcna.i.el i.o wrn.;!'-* <.n W)c 
aubject of conffrrnitr, hi"v::./ n'.-'.er c\-i:.: :ed rit.i a'ly 
nicety the pround* of MjW'npt. n. Il:- a:i.'*:i;.-n, h.^e^er, 
was speedily dmvn to iho dcb..t>.*:yic p i:.i» of the c-ntrj- I 
¥cr*y; but, it first, the biUer tune oi ihe No:ic* nform.^ls ! 
gave him an unfavourable i in pre* a ion of ll:«-ir r ha racier. 
though he admired their ferment piety, and their eneri^eiic 
efforts to stem the moral corruption of the times. There 
was much in his own %'iews and temperament uhich cor- 
responded with theirs; but it required tirac and circum- 
stances to develop the tendencies uf his mind. 

At the end of nine months Baxter removed from Dudley 
to Bridgenorth, where be acted as assistant to the clergy- 
man. A release from his school enga<;cments must, to 
such a mind as Baxter's, intent upon pastoral duties, have 
appeared a sutticicnt inducement for the change, but, in the 
then state of hi» feelings, it was of still greater moment to 
him to )je relieved from the prospect of having to renew 
his subscription. Bridgenorth is the centre of a little dis- 
trict comprising six parishes, exempt from all episcopal 
jurisdiction, except a triennial visitation from the arch- 
bishop. Here he expected to perform the humble duties of 
a curate without obstruction, happy in the society of a col- 
league whoso views harmonized with his own, and still 
happier in having a wide field for his exertions. But his 
hopes were soon frustrated by the * et cetera oath/ as it was 
called, which enjoined all who had taken orders to swear 
that they would never consent to any alteration in the cere- 
monial or government of the church by archbishops, bishops, 
deans, archdeacons, &c It does not appear that Mr. Baxter, 
any more tban his brother clerg}man at Bridgenorth, 
thought it necessary to observe the terms of this oath, for 
a complaint was laid agatnst them for non-compliance with 
the ritual in various particulars. 

Baxter left Bridgenorth aAer a residence of one year and 
nine months, on an invitation from a committee of the pa- 
rishioners (1G40) to become the officiating clergyman at the 
parish church in Kidderminster, the vicar having agreed, in 
order to settle disputes, to allow 60/. per annum to a curate 
of their own choosing. The living was afterwards seques- 
tered, the townsmen collected the tithes, paid Baxter and 
Baxter s curate, and gave the vicar 40/. per annum. The 
circumstances under which Baxter settled at Kidderrain- 
ater were favourable to his views; but it was not without 
considerable opposition from one portion of the commu- 
nity, whose vices he publicly reproved, that he carried 
some of hit reforms into effect. Not satisfied with cor- 
wtin^^ the more flagrant offences of tlie inhabitants, 
» Tuited them At their houses, became acquainted with 



~ s 

4 . .. 



Durmg the crril vars U thA Bcnoi Baxter hAa a p>— 

d'jo i<T wiuch be was roczkeriM wuk both the cfpoa/e 
partieJ ia tbe Asite, asd itt «as tbe parting of u^ihtz. 
His altarhiLtnt to monarcbT was weL kBowa. tbocr:- :. « 
aditCTesMse to the rci} aiii;t party aa» uot Mtctitamz wluje t .s 
deep fclreaxi:* of perl ^ jns feeliii^ vhich raa tfarooeh the c- a- 
** er&jiXion of the parli^mentanaxis dimr bi« sympathies to t:: u 
t-jQe. Ttke tmdi&zuised refpert paid by him to the charar:^r 
of feiome of tbe pGri::n<s made hua and many cichers, « i^i 
vere hiixctrtly altar besd to the cnrvn, tbe obwcis of jealccsr 
aii'i per««cui:-.n. A clamcn? vas raised against them, ai.! 
tlic rabl>, -ahsbe excesses had been cbeckfd bj him. vere 
iszzvT eL.'juzli to beocme the trumpelen cf tbe chinr?, 
l>*,^T.z one of iheie ebiilL*^oos of party exdfeasent, Baxtf r 
^'.ttul a ftrsr <la}s in tbe piriiamectaryarmy.aad wa» prvarh 
iL.:: v.i^ir. souifi of the cannon irben the memorable bat: e 
mni ijMii'Lt at EdL*e HilL His fhciidis not oansiderinir it 
safe f .T L::n to return to Ki^Hcrminster, he retired to t.>- 
\eDtry, where he lived ixro 5 cars, preachin* regularif ij 
ibe j.'sriiacsentary ^Lrrison and to the it.i:;;bitant£. Alter 
ihe battle of Naaeby, 111 1643. he pa?»ed a nisfht 00 a\i« t tj 
fc-jajc fr.ends in Cr*>mveli's anuy. a eiminiitanre which 1' i 
It the chapla^n<-y of Colviiei \Vhaht>*s re::imeiit be.* » 
ofienid to hiiQ. mliich, after con^ull:n<; his fneuds atCo\rn- 
try» Le T^rr^i'it-l. In lb:* canarity he «a* present at tl:c 
tak.;r.2 ol Bn'ijewater, l:ie feii*^e& of Kseicr, Bristol. i:»i 
Wurrt'-ter. h\ Cu'.'jiiels Whaliev and Kain>bofo\ He I'M 
no o: •'' r*-.:ii!y rf o.-deraling tbe temper of lite ch:M- 
]/i 111 • !* i.te C' :ri::..»nv.eallh. and of re>Lnunin«; them wiihij 
the Ir.iiu !;» oi retLron ; but a^ it was known that the check 
pioceedeil frjm one who was unfriendly to the alter. or 
objects of il:e party, his interference was coolly received. 
Among the &ol«J.ery be laboured aith unceasing ardour to 
Jifi'i:se a better sprit, and to correct those sectarian em>'-s 
as he couMdcrcd them.— anabaptism, antinomianism, and 
separati^m uu-lusive — \rbich in his view were so productive 
of disputes and aniraoity. 

Afier his n^coverv f/om an illness, which compelled hia 
to leave the army, we find him again at Kiduermin>t». r. 
exerting himself with renewed vigour to moderate contl.ct- 
ing opinions. The conduct of Cromwell at this crisis ex- 
ceedingly perplexed that class of men of whom Baxter mijht 
be regarded as the type. For the sake of peace they yielded 
to an authority which they condemned as a usurpation, 
but nothing could purchase their approbation of the mea- 
sures by which it had bi*en attained and was supported 
In open conference, Baxter did not scruple to denounce 
Cromwell and his adherents as guilty of treason and rebel- 
lion ; though he afterwards doubted if he was right in op- 
posing him so strongly. (See Baxter's Penitent Confetsinnt 
quoted in Onne.) The reputation of Baxter rendered his 
countenance to the new order of things highly desirable, and 
accordingly no pains were spared to ntvcure iL At the 
suggestion of some of his noble frienas, he once preached 
before the Protector, who afterwards invited him to an inter- 
view, and endeavoured to reconcile htm to the political 
changes that had taken place; but the preacher was uncon- 
vinc^ by his arguments, and boldly told him that * the 
honest people of the land took their antient monarchy to be 
a blessing, and not an evil.' The necessity of any altemti* n 
in the government did not come within the scope of ha 
comprehension. He looked with a single eye to thediffusn^a 
of a deeper spirit of religion by means of a purified establish- 
ment, beyond which he was incapable of carrying his ne«s 
or lending his sanction. 

In the disputes which prevailed about this time <» th^ 
subject of episcopal ordination, Baxter took the side of t: c 
Presbyterians in denying its necessity. Witli them, tou, h^ 
agrec<l in matters of discipline and church go^cmment. 
He dissented from them in their condemnation of episcopac> 
OS unlawful. On their great principle, viz. the sufficiency 
of the Scriptures to determine all points of faith and c< n- 
duct» he wavered for some time, but ultimately adopted it t& 



B AX 



02 



BAY 



Johnson afterwards applied to Goldsmitli : ' be has cultivated 
every subject whicb he has handled ;* and Dr. Isaac Barrow 
said, that * his practical writings were never mended, and 
his controversial ones seldom confuted/ Baxter left behind 
him a Narrative qf the most Memorable Passages of his 
lAfe and Dimes, which was published in a folio volume 
after his death (169G) by his intimate friend Mr. Matthew 
Sylvester, under the title Reliquitc BaxieriaruB, It is here 
that we find that review of his reli^ous opinions written in 
the latter part of his life, which Coleridge speaks of as one of 
the most remarkable pieces of writing that have come down 
to us. (See Coleridge's ^to^rapAta Lt/^arf a.) Calamy's 
Life of Baxter is a kind of abridgment of this work, which 
abounds in notices of the men, the transactions, the habits, 
and the opinions of the stirring period in which he lived. 

There are a few poems by Baxter, not long ago published 
in a small volume. His World of Spirits has been lately 
reprinted. 

BAXTERIANS, a name which is applied to those who 
adopt the theological system of Richard Baxter. The name 
is now almost extinct ; but Baxterianism is still the resting 
place of many who do not approve of the extremes of Cal- 
vinism. The Baxterians haidly ever attained the rank of 
a separate denomination, even when they were most nume- 
rous ; and they are now completely scattered among different 
communions. Their writings are most popular among the 
ortliodox dissenters. 

Baxterianism occupies a sort of middle place between 
Arminianism and Calvinism. It is not correct to say that 
it reconciles the two schemes. It only connects them by 
showing that portions from each may be made to harmonize 
with each other. Hence it would be more properly described 
as a system of theology framed out of the systems of Calvin 
and Arminius, and becoming itself the point of union be- 
tween them. Its chief merit is supposed to consist in the 
amalgamation of the Arminian doctrine of free groce with 
the Calvinistic doctrine of election. The Baxterians profess 
to believe that a certain number, determined upon in the 
divine counsels, are elected to salvation without respect to 
their good works. To this extent they receive the doctrine 
of effectual calling. But to make their view of the opera- 
tion and comprehensivenesa of divine favour complete, they 
contend that all to whom the gospel is preached are placed 
in a condition for securing their own salvation. Hence they 
tliink with Calvin that Christ died in a special manner for 
the elect ; and, in a more general sense, for all others who 
oome within the light of the gospel. The Calvinistic tenet 
of reprobation forms no part of their system. 

The grounds on which Baxter contended that the death 
of Christ put all men in a state of salvation are briefly these : 
— 1st, Because Christ assumed the human nature and bore 
the sins of the human race ; 2dly, Because pardon and life 
were offered to all mankind on'condition of acceptance, — 
' Whosoever believeth shall be saved ;* and, 3dl y. Because 
it is not to the elect alone, but to all men, that the benefits 
of the gospel are proclaimed. 

The arguments by which the learned divines of this school 
prove the elect to have a superior interest in the death of 
Christ over the non -elect, are deeply tinctured with that 
met;iphysical subtlety of which Bishop Burnet complains 
as the great blemish of Baxter^s writings. The hypothesis, 
in a few words, may be thus stated : that Christ has made 
a conditional gift of the benefits accruing from his death 
to all mankind ; but to the elect the gift is absolute and 
irreversible ; from which he draws the inference that, not- 
withstanding the positive possession of these advantages 
was decreed to the few, yet conditionally the benefit was 
extended to all. 

The Baxterians are greatly opposed to Antinomianism. 
Faith without works they hold to be an unscriptural and 
dangerous tenet. Several of the minor doctrines of Cal- 
vinism are adopted in a modified sense, among which may 
be mentioned justification and the perseverance of the saints. 
They advocate the certainty of perseverance, but incline to 
the opinion that it may be lost by too weak a degree of 
saving grace. 

In all the Baxterian deviations from the system of Cakin 
there is a decided leaning to more eomptehensive views. 
Baxter wat htmtelf oppo&M to the narrowing of the terms 
of salvation, and dctigned to remove every appearance of 
exclusiTenefts in the operation of divine favour from the 
system which he took so^ paine to adjust and promulgate. 
The imt tminent divinca wIm have embraoed these opinions 



sinoe the death of their author are Watts and Doddridi^e— 
men who have both illustrated in their works and lives the 
candid and amiable spirit of the school to which they be- 
longed. 

(Calamv's Abridgment of Mr, Baxters History of hi* 
Ufe and Timee, 2nd edit. 1713. A second volume coatatns 
an account of other ministers deprived or silenced by the 
Act of 1662. In 1727 two volumes ot Continuation were 
published. Baxter's Catholic Theology; Buck's Theolo- 
gical Dictionary,) 

BAY ibahia, Portuguese, Spanish ; baia, Italian ; 6a/^ 
French ; meerbasen^ German), is a portion of the sea, of 
such a form that it is wider at the part nearest the open 
sea, and narrower the farther it advances into the rnai^ 
land. According to this definition the terra is rightly ap- 
plied to the Bay of Biscay, the Bay of Bengal, Cnei>ape:ik 
Bay, and Botany Bay; but sometimes it is used whi':-.> 
the term gulf would seem to be more appropriate. Th.« 
latter term properly implies an arm of the sea, which, >»i;u- 
out any or with only little diminution in breadth, ente:i 
very deeply into the main land, as the Gulf of Bothnia or 
the Gulf of Finland. Smaller portions of the sea of thit 
description are called, in Scotland, firlhst and in Nomay, 
where they are very numerous, fiords^ in Iceland fiordur*. 
According to this definition we should not say Baffin's Bjv. 
but Baffin's Gulf. To introduce^greater precision into geo- 
graphy, it would still be necessary to distinguish both ba\ a 
and gulfs from chse seas, by which we understand extensive 
parts of the sea, enclosed on every side with land, u:i<l 
united with the ocean only by straits or narrow arms, lue 
the Mediterranean or the Baltic Sea and the Red Sea. Bui 
here, too, the common practice is not exact We say Hu>i- 
son's Bay where we should use the term Hudson's Sea, and 
the same obscn'ation holds good for the Gulf of Mexi< o. 
which as well deserves the name of sea as the Cariblvjn 
Sea. Sometimes also close seas have received the name <.f 
gulfs, as the Persian Gulf. 

BAY SALT. [See Salt.] 

BAY TREE. [See Laurus.] 

BAYADEER (said to be a corruption of Bailadeirj,\ 
Portuguese word, which signifies a dancing woman), a 
name given to the regularly bred dancing girls in India, v^\.^ 
are also the regular prostitutes. Certain women make it 
their business to select the handsomest girls they can ^lA 
among the children of tlie lowest class of people; ai^l 
after having secured their beauty from the ravages of tl o 
small-pox by inoculation, carefully instruct them indancinj. 
singing, and the acting of small comedies, with the little :«vh 
and manners which form the accomplished bayadeer. T. e 
system of training commences at the age of seven or < . . .t 
years, and continues two or three years. From the ena f 
this training to the age of seventeen is the professional \\i: 
of a bayadeer. Towards its termination, their pcn^.i. J 
attractions being considered on the wane, they find it e\>^ 
dient to transfer them to the more contracted sphere [ 
the temples. Some are devoted, under a vow of the \ a- 
rents, to the service of the temples from their birth. Tl.ev 
are brought up in the usual accomplishments, and t;.c 
wages of their exertions and their infamy enter the trea- 
sury of the temple with which they are connected. 

These girls are generally introduced to any party tl...t 
requires their attendance, escorted by a band of musiri.)t.«. 
A native band consists of instruments resembling guitar^ 
and others like clarionets, with cymbals and kettle-dtum^. 
which altogether produce a very wild, but not an un plea ^...;;. 
and a somewhat melancholy harmony. The women clan l' 
and sing ; and when one is desired to dance, she calls for u:(* 
ornaments of her feet, which consist of silver chains, \\\\ a 
she fastens on her ankles. Then, rising from the gruux.l. 
she arranges her dress, which generally consists of ab;ut a 
hundred yards of light muslin, which terminates in innu- 
merable folds at about the swell of the leg ; and of a slia\. I 
which covers part of the head, comes over the ithoulderss at. i 
falls in folds over the petticoat. The hair is seldom omj> 
mented, but is parted in the middle, and kept close down I y 
the aid of the cocoa-nut, which improves its jet and gWv 
but communicates an unpleasant odour. Behind the ears a 
bunch of pearls is worn like a cluster of grapes, and a rivz 
is suspended from one of the nostrils, through which it 43 
inserted. The ornaments, however, are sometimes mora aiid 
sometimes less numerous and costly than this. 

The dancing consists in a certain methodical kicking d 
the right foot, which causes the chains on the ankles to jingle 



BAY 



U 



BAY 



The command-in-chief was intrusted to Bonniv^t, \rhose 
only qualification was ]>crsonal courage. After vaiiouB 
movemcnU and partial successes, Bonn i vet was compelled 
to abandon his strong entrenchments at Biagrosso, and 
move nearer to the Alps, in expectation of reinforcements 
from Switzerland. He was pursued by the imperial forces, 
who attacked his rear with great fury just as he had reached 
the banks of the Scsia. Bonnivet, while displaying much 
valour in rallying his troops, was wounded in the arm by a 
ball from an arqucbuss. He scut to Bayard immediately, 
telling him that the fate of the army was in his hands. 
Bayam. who had in vain throughout llie campaign remon- 
strated with Bonnivet on the course he was pursuing, 
replied, * It is now too late, but I commend my soul to my 
God; my lire belongs to my country.' He then put him- 
self at the head of the men-atarms, and kept the main* 
6ody of the enemy occupied long enough to enable the 
rest of the French forces to make good their retreat. While 
thus engaged he received a mortal wound from a ball, and 
fell from his horse. He was pressed to withdraw from the 
field, but his answer was that be had never turned his 
back upon an enemy. Ho ordered himself to be placed 
with his back against a tree, and his i^ice to the enemy. In 
this situation he was found by Bourbon, who expressed his 
regret at seeing him in this condition. * * Pity not me,' said 
the dying man, ' I die as a mun of honour ought, in the 
discharge of ray duty; they, indeed, are objects of pity 
who fight against their king, tlieir country, and their 
oath.* The Marquis of Pescara, commander of the Spanish 
troops, passing soon after, manifested (wo quote from 
Robertson's Charles K.,book iii.) his admiration of Bayard's 
virtues, as well as his sorrow for his fate, with the gene- 
rosity of a gallant enemy ; and, finding tliat he could not be 
removed with safety from that spot, ordered a tent to be 
pitched there, and appointed proper persons to attend him. 
He died, notwithstanding their care, as his ancestors for 
several generations had done, on the field of battle. Pes- 
cara ordered his body to be embalmed and sent to his rela- 
tions ; and such was the respect paid to his memory that 
the Duke of Savoy commanded it to be received with royal 
honours in all the cities of his dominions. In Dauphine, 
Bayard's native country, the people of all ranks came out 
in a solemn procession to meet it. 

(See Memoir es du Chevalier de Bayard, <$•/;., with notes 
by Theodore Godefroy, and the contemporarv histories ; also 
Brantome's works, and the AUmoires ae Bellay.) 

BAYAZID I., surnamed ILDIRIM, or * the Lightning,' 
in allusion to the rapidity of his military achievements, was 
the son of the sultan of the Osmans, Murad I. He was 
born A. Heg. 748 (a. d. 1347), and came^^to the throne in 
A. Heg. 792 (a. d. 1389), after hi ^ father had been killed 
in an engagement with the Servians near Cossowa. The 
Osman dominions at this epoch extended from the Danube 
to the Euphrates ; and Bayazid at the head of his army was 
almost incessantly moving from one extremity of his em- 
pire to the other, to reduce his Mohammedan neighbours to 
obedience, or to add to his possessions by conquests from 
the Christian powers of Europe. Bnissa and Adrianople 
were respectively the Asiatic and European capitals of nis 
dominions, and the erection of a magniflcent mosque in each 
of them is one of the earliest acts of his reign that we find 
recorded. * This seemingly pious act forms a strong contrast 
with his behaviour to Yacub his only brother, whom he put 
to death almost immediately on ascending the throne, from 
no other motive than an apprehension that the example of 
other Eastern princes might encourage him to rebel, and 
dispute Bayazid*s right to the throne. 

The conquests of the Osmans had, in the beginning of 
the eighth century of the Mohammedan sera (the fourteenth 
after (Christ), put an end to the Seljukide dominion in 
western Asia, and on its ruins several small dynasties had 
sprung upf the principal of which were that of Sinope and 
Castemuni on the northern coast of Asia Minor, and those 
of Aidin, Zarukhan, and Kermiyan. These dynasties 
Bajf azid determined to destroy, and to embody their terri- 
tories in his empire. Within the first year after his ascend- 
A\% the throne he had conquered Zarukhan, Aidin, and part 
of the northern coast of Anatolia: nor did his previous 
marriage (in a. n. 1381) with a daughter of the prince of 
Kcrmivan prevent him from leading an expedition against 
his father-in-law, whom he took prisoner and deprived of 
his territory. Bayaxid ha«l to encounter greater difficulties 
in subduing the principality of Caramania, Timurtash, his 



general, had conquered part of the country, when Ald-edd7a 
the reigning sovereign, defeated him in a battle and took 
him prisoner. When this happened, Bayazid was on the 
banks of the Danube engaged in a war with Stepban, the 
prince of Moldavia, who had been instigated by KcBlurtim 
Bayazid (i. e. 'Bayazid the Lame*), a Musulman chief on 
the borders of the Black Sea, to invade Wallachia and Yis^ 
sarabia. On receiving the news of Timurtash's defeat 
Bayazid hastened from Europe into Asia, and within a ve^y 
short time subdued the whole of Caramania, besides whi' Ji 
he now added to his empire the towns of Konia, AkHltfhr. 
AkseraV, Larenda, Siwas (Sebaste), Tokat, and Kai»a- 
riyah. Soon after he took away the dominions of Kci^tu- 
rum Bayazid on the Black Sea ; and when Kceturura (he-l 
Bayazid allowed his son, Isfendiar, to retain possession or It 
of Sinope. 

The year 1391 is remarkable also for the capture of Phi- 
ladelphia, or Alashehr(i. e. 'The Variegated City'), tlic 
last Greek town in Asia Minor that continued faithfiil to tLe 
Byzantine empire. Its Greek commander made a vi<;orou» 
resistance to the besieging forces of Bayazid, and rejoctf.i 
his invitation to surrender the fortress : while the Em per >r 
Joannes and his son Manuel, then the confederates ol tl::- 
sultan, were actually assisting in the siege. 

In 1393 Bayazid undertook another expedition into 
Europe, in which he took possession of the towns of Saloi.iVi 
and Yenishehr (LArissa), and for the first time liesieji. i 
Constantinople. He compelled the emperor to give up b . 
plan of adding to the strength of the capital by new fortif- 
cations, and to assign a separate suburb to the l^urks wtih a 
mosque and a kadhit or judge, of their own. Bayazid at 
the same time built the fort of Guzelje, or Anatolihissar, c n 
the eastern side of the Bosporus, which secured to liim xLc 
command of that channel. 

In 1396 Bayazid gained an important victory ncnr 
Nicopolis on the Danube over an army of a hundreJ thou- 
sand Christians, including many of the bravest knights of 
Franco and Crermany, who had assembled under the stan- 
dard of Sigismond, the king of Hungary, to check the fai tiu : 
progress of the Mohammedan power in Europe. The great, r 

Eart of the Christian forces were slain or driven into tl.e 
>anube. Sigismond escaped to Constantinople. Sixtv 
thoiisand Turks are stated to have fallen in the same liatt'e. 
and when Bayazid became aware of the extent of his l.'>^>, 
he gave orders to put to death all the prisoners with t: c 
exception of twenty-four nobles, who were subsequently ran- 
somed. This great \ictory was soon followed by further con- 
quests in Greece. The Morea was taken, and in I3.'r 
(according to the oriental authorities quoted by M. v n 
Hammer, Gesch. des Osman-Reiche, i. 252) Athens ft!! 
into the power of the Osmans. 

The dominions of Bayazid and those of the Tartar con- 
queror Timur now touched each other in the neighbourho^ 
of Erzcrum and on the banks of the Euphrates. With 
donbtful limits between the two empires, which had never 
been defined by treaty, a cause for war between two jealou< 
sovereigns could not long be wanting. Timur had taken 
possession of Siwas (the antient Sebaste), on the Ha1y<, 
then one of the strongest and most flourishing ciue* 
of Western Asia, and had treated its inhabitants with great 
cruelty. Bayazid was then engaged in his European do- 
minions, which praventcd him from resenting this violation 
of his territory. About the same time two Musulman 
princes, Ahmed Jelair and Kara Yussuf, whom Timur had 
depri%*ed of their possessions, fled for protection first to 
Seifeddin Barkuk, the Sultan of Egypt, and subsequently 
to Bayazid, who received them with kindness, and mam«*i 
his son, Mustafa Chelebi, to a sister of Ahmed Jelair. Timor 
sent two embassies for the purpose of demanding the stir- 
render of the princes ; but Bayazid refused to comply, and, 
instigated by the advice of the princes, took pos$«*s$)<«ft 
of Erzinjan, a town situated on the Euphrates within t'i«> 
dominions of Timur. Timur, who now determined to ct.r/- 
mence an open war against Bavazid, begun the campais.- 
by taking Halcb, Antakia, and other Syrian towns th t 
were subject to the Osmans. He was nt Siwas when I ? 
received m formation of the approach of Bayazid firom it.e 
west The two sovereigns at the hchd of ilseir nnr.-.*- 
met in the plains of Angora, the capital of the ant:«.. t 
Galatia. A decisive battle took place (according to M. ^i / 
Hammer's calculations on the 19th of Zolhaj, A. Hir 
804, i. e. the 20th of July, a.d. 1401), in which the Chm..: 
were totally defeated, and Bayazid became a prisoi^r a 



BAY 



BAT 



«i4 th9 D»mU), IB Bavww, a U72. He CoOovad tbe 
prolWM«/m of M adfoeaU at Ao^fburi?, wbciv be died io 
1626, limviog hied e bachelor fifty-tbree yean. He waaan 
MUrtfWMUtr, and a diligeiit iiu|uifer into aotiqaiiy. The 
precediriK panieulara are (or were) sUted in bia epiudb. ia 
Ute church of St I>omtnic at Auipiborg. (See Sdiiller* 
(7tf/i«m $UUatum Chrutianum, Aug. Vind. 1627 ; or Ka*t- 
Dcr. 6V«rA. £<^ Maih. yoI. iv. p. 94.) Of hia hfo we can 
And no account, except in the Biographie UniveruUe^ 
which feUtci that he was a miniaier of the coapd, whose seal 
frji him into trouble, but who waa withal to good an astro- 
nurnvr, that he waa ennobled by the Emperor Leopold in 
Utfi'i, With whom he baa been confounded in thin strange 
niuttike w« cannot tell, but he himM!lf« in the prelhce to his 
chartn. jiittiDtts him»clf for employing hia time in raathc' 
lUtttM's. ho being a lawyer. There waa a John Buyer who 
ptihiinhfxl various wurks between ICO 2 and 1667, one of 
which, Chtium vel Airium Naiura, 4^- might have con- 
tdinifd astruuoinv. Perhaps Ihts one may have been con- 
iwutidud with John B«iycr of Augnburg. 

Bayer hua iuifnortaUr««?d his name, as Delambre remarka, 
at a very choap rate. He published charts of the atars in 
1C03, in whii'li. for the first time, he distinguished one from 
onoth(*r by aflUing letters. When Flamsteed and others 
ailopttHl this practice, which has since become universal, the 
letters of Bayer wero followed, which has made his maps valu- 
able ; otherwise they are not so good aa those of Hevelius. 

The first edition of Bayer's maps waa published at Auga- 
burg in Seplemberi 1603, with the following title : Johonnia 
Baiori Khainaui, J. C. Uranometria^fmimum oiterigmorum 
continem ickemata novd methodo delineator areit iaminis 
iTpretia, The title given bv Lalande (Bibiio^r. Astr,) ia 
incorrect Ho had obtained the constellations visible in the 
northern hemisphora from the catalogue of Tycho Brah^, 
and those about the south pole from Americus Vesputius 
and others. (Kepler, Tab, RudMi, cited by Kaatner.) It 
is not known whether he obaervea himself, but Ricciolt* in 
the wonb *suis vigiliis astronomlcis aucta et emendate,* 
implies that he did ; and Bartschius iPlaniiph, in Pre/, ad 
LecL) alHrms that Bayer waa not in possession of the more 
reoent observations of Tycho BrahA, and that his placea were 
erroneous in oonaequence." There are fifty-one maps by 
Bayer, namely, two of the homispherei, one of nine oonatel- 
lations about the south pole, and forty-eight of single con- 
atoUations. The Greek letters are employed to denote the 
stars, and where the Greek alphabet enda, the Roman small 
letters are used. 

The following is the list of Bayer'a oonstellations, after 
each of which is placed the letter with which the reckoning 
ends; so that by looking at the numbering of the two 
alphabets annexed, the number of stars reckoned by him 
may bo seen. In applying the letters he seems to have ar- 
ranged the stars in order of brilliancy : thus a is the largest 
star in a constellation, that ia, the largest in the opinion of 
Bayer, observing with the naked eye. in and about 1600. 
Bayer's names and spollinga are retained. The constella- 
tions are all in Ptolemy. 



1. e 8. IS. 

a. 9. I 16. w 

9. Y 10. c 17. p 
4. 9 II. X 18. e 
6. f li. ^ 19. r 

6. I IS. V 90. V 

7. e W. I 91. f 

1. Ursa Minor, 8 
9. Ursa Migor, h 

3. Draco, i 

4. Cepheus,p 
y Bootee^ k 

6. Corona, e 

7. IleieuletiS 

8. L> ra, r 

8. V\ gnua. f 

10. {'a«jki>p#fJ» a 
1 1 > I'vrsvua, o 
19 Aungo,^ 

13. S«rp«ntariua» f 

14. Serpens, • 

15. Sagttta, 8 
18. Aquila, K 

AnhmomJ " 



99. X 

93. $ 

94. m 

96. b 
27. c 
98. d 



99. e 

30. f 

31. g 
39. h 

33. i 

34. k 
36. I 



36. m 

37. n 

38. 

39. p 

40. q 

41. r 

42. 8 



43. t 

44. u 

45. w 

46. X 

47. y 

48. I 



17. Delphinus, c 

18. Equus Minor, ^ 

1 9. Pogosus, ^ 

90. Andromedut^ 

91. Triangulum, c 

92. Aries, r 

93. Taurus, u 
24. Gemini* g 

95. Cancer, d 

96. I<eo, p 

97. Virgo, q 

98. lJbca,o 

99. $<x>rpio,o 
90. Sagittarius, h 
3 1 . Capricomua, o 

92. Aquaritta, i 

93. Pisoea, 1 



94.Cetetf.^ 

35* Orion, p 

36. Erjdanna, d 

37. Lepiia, r 

38. Cania Major* • 

39. Cania ^liiior, « 

40. Navis* % 

41. Ceotanmatq 

42. Crater, X 

43. Conms, i| 

44. H)dra, b 

45. Lupus,* 

46. Ara^O 

47. Corona meridionaUa, V 

48. Pisds Notitts, ;i 



49 



^Pa^w 
X 
Gma 



If 



)ns 



Hydraa 
C 

Apia 

Apia Indica 

Triangulum AustraVe 

Indua 

50. Bynopsia Csli Super 
Borem 

51. Synopsia Cceli Iiiieriurii 
Anstio 

In Delambre s list {HiMt. de XAst. Mod,)^ in Cania Major. 
for X — o read a— o. The title of the last map is presumed 
by us, aa the only copy of the first edition we know of does 
not contain it, and the succeeding editions have no letter- 
press. The constellations in Italica are those of which a 
front Tiew is presented, of which we ahall presently speak. 

In this first edition, the letter-presa ia on the back of the 
platea. It containa, in addition to what has been noticed, 
the varioua namea of the conatellationa and aingle stars, 
together with the planeta with which they were supposed to 
have astrological affinities. 

In order to restore, aa he supposed, the anhere of Ptolemy, 
Bayer haa inverted many of the constellatkma, and made 
them turn their backa ; and thia he has done upon an ecliptic 
and equator so disposed aa to place the spectator innde. 
The atate of the question is thv it is pretty clear either 
that Ptolemy imagined himself on the outside of the globe, 
looking on the backs of the constellations, or in the inside, 
looking on the fronts ; for neither of the two remaining sup- 
positions will place thoae staia on the right or left arms, &r.. 
which Ptolemy placea there. The ^tematiTe might be 
easily settled by remarking whether the stara in the body 
are placed in the front or back ; but, unfortunately, Ptolemy 
generally refers them to some part of the dress or arms 
which haa both back and front, such as the belt of Orion ; 
but in the few instances which are tests, Ptolemy alwnys 
names the back, the only exception we know of being a stir 
in Virgo, which is said to be in the firont face iwp6omirov\ 
which may be reconciled with die rest by auppoaing the 
back of a figure with the face turned sideways. Therefore, 
to represent Ptolemy completely, an outside of a sphere, or 
part of a sphere* must be drawn ; and on an insioa sphere 
there is only the choice of changing left into right, and rtn» 
vered, by drawing backs, or backs into fronts, and vice versa, 
by drawing fronts. Bayer has chosen the first, with the 
exceptions noted in italics in the preceding list, for which he 
has been blamed by Schickard, Bartsch, Heveliua, Flam- 
steed, and others * but, singularly enough, he has not car- 
ried his own system through ; for Andromeda, of which he 
has represented the face, is precisely one of those signs in 
which a crucial word is found in Ptolemy, who places one 
star between the shoulders (iv rif fttrafpivi^). Flamsteed 
cuts the knot bv assuring us that v&rop and /uraff^wv, 
which vulgar scholars imagine to mean 'the back,* and 
' the part of the back between the shoulders,* sometimes 
mean * the front' and *the chest,* in proof of which be 
brings his own conviction, that £(pmer and others must in 
some places have adopted these sen^. Montucla, with 
great probabihty, conjectures that Bayer intended to draw a 
convex sphere, hut overlooked, or was ignorant of. the 
proper method of inverting the figures on the copper. 

Circumstances which we ahall have to mentbn in Flam 
STKiD make it worth while to give the preceding details 
The rest of the history of Bayer's work is aa follows :~Ir 
1697, Julius Schiller published at Augsburg his Catimn 
Siellatum Christianwn, &c. eodali operd J, Ba^eri^ &r. 
Uranomeiriam novam jpriore aceuratiorem loeypl^i*>' 
remque euppeditantie. This was an attempt to change the 
names of the constellationa into others derived from the 
Scnpturea ; aa, for instance, calling the twelve aigna of the 
lodiao after the apoatles, &c. The nor^m oonatellationa 
were taken ftom the New Testament and the aoathem from 
the Old. SchiUer'a account ia aa followa : that Bayer, having 
laid down the positions of the stars, left all the rest to Sch^ler. 
but died before the whok» (and Ursa Minor in particular) 
was completed, and without having tioM to ftniahaone as* 
tronomkal/Wt^goaieiia; that tbo now Unnonetiy of Bayer 



BAY 



67 



BAY 



(linfi^rod from the old in the number and positions of the 
stars, which he had altered, as well fron) many nights* ob- 
servations of his own (whether of positions or of magnitudes 
IS not stated), as from various books which he had found ; 
and til at, for this reason, he (Bayer) was anxious that the 
oM Uranoraetry should never be republished. These maps 
also represented the convex side of the sphere, that men 
ni ii^ht sec the fronts of these Christian constellations, it being 
judged indecorous that the apostles should turn their backs. 
Thus we see that Bayer committed a mistake again, as far 
as Ptolenoy's sphere is concerned. He should have drawn 
the inside or concave of the sphere, in turning the fronts 
towards the spectator. This work of Schiller's is also men- 
tioned by Gassendi as follows: 'Coelum Christianum a 
J. Bayero affectum, et a Julio Schillero confectum.' (Gass. 
Jit. Pcir, in ann. 1628.) It is remarkable that, in this edi- 
tion, Bayer has abandoned his letters and taken numbers, 
either of his own or from Ptolemy. The plates are remark- 
ably well executed for the period, and the grouping of the 
constellations is strikingly beautiful, but the stars are almost 
lost in the shading. 

Schiller states, that a surreptitious edition of Bayer was 
ofllred for sale at Frankfort Fair in autumn, 1624; which, 
by means of the words nova methodo delineata^ was made 
to pass for the expected edition of 1627, that is Schiller's 
own ; but it was struck from the same plates as that of 
1GU3, and therefore probably could not be distinguished 
from the subsequent editions. 

Tlie second edition of the Uranometria (plates only, and 
without letter-press) was printed at Ulm in 1648, and the 
third (plates only) at Ulm in 1666. In the meanwhile, the 
letterpress of the first edition, with additions, had been 
printed under the following clumsy title : ETvlicatio Cha- 
rarterum ceneis Uranometrias Imaginum Taoulis insculp- 
tarum addita. First edition, Strasburg, 1624 ; second, Ulm, 
ir»40; third, Augsburg, 1654; fourth, Ulm, 1697. 

BAYER.G0TTL1EB(THE0PHILUS) SIEGFRIED, 
jirandson of John Bayer the astronomer, was born at 
Koinij^sberg in 1694. He applied zealously to the study 
of the Oriental languages under the tuition of Abraham 
AVulf, and of some learned Rabbis : he also took a peculiar 
interest in the study of the Chinese language. After tra- 
velling in various parts of Germany for his improvement, 
lie returned to Kcenigsherg in 1717, when he was appointed 
librarian to the University. In 1726 he was called to 
Petersburg to fill the chair of Greek and Roman Antiqui- 
ties, and was there much noticed by the minister, Count 
Qstermann, and by the Bishop of Novogorod. His health 
heeanie mu^'h impaired by intense study, and he died in 
February, 1738. He wrote numerous works, some of 
whieh are printed separately; others are inserted in the 
Mfmoirs of the Academy qf Petersburg and in the Acta 
Kruditorum ; and some were left at his death in MS. Of 
tho^e that have been published separately the principal are: 
I. Museum Sinicum, 2 vols. 8vo. Petersburg. 1730. The 
tTJ eater part of the first volume is occupied by an interesting 
j)ietare, in which the author recapitulates the labours of 
those who preceded him in the field of Chinese literature ; 
thii is followed by a general Chinese grammar; and by a 
;_'rammar of the popular Chinese dialect of the province of 
Chin Cheu, which, he says, differs but little from the lan- 
^^uai^e of the learned or mandarins. This is followed by a 
letter from some missionaries at Tranquebar, concerning 
the Tamul language. The second volume contains a Chi- 
nese Lexicon, extracts from several Chinese works, a com- 
mentary on the Siao ul lun, or Origines Sinica», a treatise 
on Chinese chronology ; and another on the weights and 
measures of the Chinese. The plates of the Chinese cha- 
racters in this work are said (aiographie Universelle) to 
In* badly executed. 2. De Horis Sinicis et Cyclo Horario 
CnmmentationeSy 4to. Petersburpj, 1735. 3. Historia Os- 
r/vH'fia ei Edesseita ex numis ill ust rata, 4to. 1734, Biog. 
C'/iiv. This work, which he dedicated to Joseph Simonius 
A^semani, is much esteemed. 4. Historia Regni Greccorum 
Jfiiririaui, \73H. [See Bactria.] 5. De Nummis Bomanis 
in iiirro Prussico repertis. 6. De Eclipsi Sinica liber sin- 
i^ufaris^ in which he examines and confutes the Chinese 
a.eiunt of a total eclipse, which a Jesuit asserted to have 
o(Muin;d at the time of our Saviour's death. (See Weidler, 
y. 17 1.) Of his scattered dissertations, some are on the 
\' r,:_r)l, Tangutian, and Brahnuinic languages: one is 
fh K'ruipntis Calmuciris ; another on some books in an 
u.iUuo-.vn language, found near the banks of the Caspian 



Sea; one is a translation firom Confiicins; and another, 
De Imcriptionibus ludceorum Chrcecis et Latinis, &c. He 
wrote also Historia Congregationis Cardinalium de Pro- 
vaganda fide\ 4 to., 1721, giving an account of that cele- 
Drated institution, in whicn, however, he displayed some* 
what of a prejudiced spirit and sectarian intolerance. He 
himself afterwards, writing to Lacroze, said that he was not 
altogether satisfied with his work, and that he intended to 
make more accurate researches on the subject. His Oput" 
cula, which treat of several topics of erudition, were pub- 
lished by Iflotz, 8vo., Halle, 1770, with a biopraphy of 
Bayer. There is also a life of Bayer in the Pibliotheque 
Germaniquet vol. 1., from which ChaufepiS has taken his 
account of that writer in the Nouveau Dictionnaire HiS' 
torique. 

BAYEUX, a town in the department of Calvados, in 
France, 1 7 miles W. by N. of Caen, the capital of the de- 
partment, and 151 miles in the same direction from Paris, 
49® 1 V N. lat., 0° 44' W. long. It is on the little river Aure, 
and only about 5 or 6 miles from the coast. 

In the earliest times this place was a chief seat of the 
Druids. After the Roman conquest, if not before, it appears 
to have home thenameof Arse genus, and subsequently that 
of Baiocasses (from the people whose capital it was), and 
by contraction, Baiocss, and Baiocas. From these latter 
forms, Bayeux, its modern name, has sorung. Roman relics, 
vases, statues, and medals, have been dug up in considerable 
numbers. Under the kings of France, of the Merovingian 
and Carlovingian races, the town was of considerable import- 
ance, and it had a mint. Bayeux was destroyed by the 
Normans, and rebuilt and peopled by them. The dukes of 
Normandy regarded it as the second place in their duchy, 
and had a palace here. It was however pillaged and burned 
by Henry I. of England, in the beginmng of his reign. It 
suffered severely in the invasions of France by Edward III, 
and Henry V., as well as in the religious wars of the sixteenth 
century. The bishopric was erected in the fourth century, as 
it is believed ; and the bishops claimed, on account of the an- 
tiquity of the see, superiority over the other bishops of the 
ecclesiastical province of Neustria, or Normandy : but the 
popes, to whom, in 1581, the question was referred, did not 
allow their superiority ; without however, so far as appears, 
disputing the fact (the early origin of the see) on which 
the claim was grounded. 

The town is old, and ill built, ^ith the exception of one 
good street. The houses are chiefly of wood and plaster, but 
some are of stone. The antient cathedral is the oldest place 
of worship in Normandy. It is in the form of a cross, with 
pointed arches and two spire-crowned towers of unequal 
height at the western end, and a central tower, which is infe- 
rior to the two western towers in height. These towers are of 
inferior architecture. • The end spires,' says Dr. Dibdin, • are 
rather lofty than elegant ; in truth they are, in respect to 
form and ornament, about as sorry performances as can be 
seen.' There are five porches at the western end, the central 
one rather large, the two on each side comparatively small. 
They were formerly covered with sculptured figures, but the 
Calvinists in the sixteenth century, &nd the Revolutionists 
in the eighteenth, have much mutilated and defaced them. 
The interior of the cathedral is plain, solid, and rather bare 
of ornament. Dr. Ducarel, who visited it in 1 752, says that it 
was not adorned with any statues or other ornaments, and 
that the pictures and painted glass were very indifferent. 
The walls and chapels of the choir were once covered with 
large fresco paintings, now nearly obliterated. In each side 
of the nave are ridily-orn amen ted arches, springing from 
massive single pillars. The choir is rather fine, and the 
flying buttresses of the exterior of the nave are admirable. 
The lead was stripped from part of the roof during the 
revolution for the purpose of making bullets, and the build- 
ing in consequence exhibits indications of decay. There 
is a crypt or subterraneous chapel, the walls of which are 
covered with paintings, some probably of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and some still older. The extreme length of the 
interior is about 31 5 English feet by 81 feet high, and about 
1 05 feet wide. The transepts are about 120 feet long, by 35 
feet wide. The cathedral, after being twice or thrice rebuilt 
by the Normans, was erected in its present form (except 
one of the western towers, and some other parts evidently of 
later origin) by Philip de Harcourt, who held the see in the 
middle of the twelfth century : but it seems doubtful whether 
some part does not belong to the earlier edifice erected by 
bishop Odo, brother of William the Conqueror. The chapter- 



BAY 



es 



B A V 



librtrf codbwU of 5000 voluiiiei,<Uhe remains of a much 
larger coUection, whioli, bavin p[ been kept shut up in the 
cbapter-houM for ten yean during the revolution, was in a 
great degree spoiled by the wet, which penetrated to them 
after the roof of the chapter-house had been stripped of its 
lead. There are now four churches ; before the revolution, 
there were in Baveux and its suburbs fourteen, or, accord- 
ing to others, eighteen parish churches, two priories, three 
eonvents for men, and four for women : the oishopric was 
very rich. 

The chief articles of trade at Bayeux are cloth, linen, 
aerge, hosierv, and other woven fabrics, grain, hemp, cider, 
and especially butter and lace ; the best butter is made 
during winter and spring, nut up into small pots, and car- 
ried in large panniers to the admcent parts of the country, 
and even to Paris, It is shipped also in large Quantities to 
the French colonies. About three thousand females are 
constantly employed in the manufacture of lace. Hats, 
stout muslins, and especially porcelain, are also manufac- 
tured here. The population, in 1832, was 9934 for the 
town, or I0i303 for the whole commune. 

Bayeux possesses a collejfe or high school, of considerable 
reputation ; there is a tribunal de commerce : a building 
formerly occupied by the Lazarists as a 'seminary for the 
clergy, is now used as a barrack. Bayeux is the capital of an 
arrondissement containing 390 square miles, or 249,600 
acres; the population, in 1832, was 80,414. There are se- 
veral paper-mills in the arrondissement. 

Bayeux was, according to some, the native place of Alain 
Chartier, one of the old French poets, who lived early in the 
fifteenth century. 

The oountry of Bessin, of which Bayeux was the capital, 
was a subdivision of Normandy. It is productive in apples, 
IVom which the inhabitants make a great quantity of cider, 
partly for home consumption, partly to be sent to Rouen 
and raris. Towards the sea there is some rich pasture 
land ; but the district generally is not fertile. Slate is quar- 
ried in several places ; paultry and game, especially ouails 
and red-legged partridges, are plentiful ; and butter forms 
a considerable article of trade, as already noticed. Fish is 
also abundant, and the shad, the sole, and the oysters of 
the river Vire, are in good repute. The forest of Cerisy, the 
largest in the territory, shelters the wild boar, and nume- 
rous foxes. The churches of the district are remarkable for 
their handsome steeples* 

BAYBUX TAPESTRY, a web or loU of Unen cloth or 
eanvass, preser^'ed at Bayeux in Normandy, upon which a 
continuous representation of the events connected with the 
iavasioa and oonauest of England by the Normans is 
worked in woollen thread of different colours, in the form of 
a sampler. It is twenty inches wide, and two hundred and 
fourteen foet long ; and is divided into seventy-two com- 
partments, each bearing a superscriptioQ in Latin which indi- 
eates its subject* or the person or persons represented. It is 
edged on iu upper.as well as its lower part, by a bolder le- 
prvsenting chiedy quadrupeds, birds, sphinxes, minotaurs, 
and other similar subjects. 

AtlentioQ was first diracted to thb singular monument by 
M. Lancelot, in a memoir presented to Uie Academy of In- 
arriptk^kQs and Belles LeUivs. in 1724, in consequence of his 
dtsco%enng an illuminated drawing from a portion of it, 
aoMog the manuscripts in the hlunry of H. roucault, who 
bad bem Inteodant of Normandy. At the time of finding 
it he d^d not know what it actually represented ; whether 
the enpnal was a sculpture round the choir of a church, 
g^pQO A tomb* or on a fhrxe ; whether it was a painting in 
fresco, or on glass; or, lastlv, whether it might not be a 
tepeorr. He uv that it w»s histoncsl. and that it leUted to 
VI uliam IXike of Nonnai^T and the eooquea of England ; 
and be wi>9Ce to Caca Rapectme it, but got no infonnatioa. 
F^iw Mc^lTaucoq. upon mdiDg Lannlot's memoir, saw 
the va2ue ot this cui>jus ivpreaenUtMo. and left do rtooe ' 
vitoroed tUl be Lsd d^Korered the or^zinaL He wrote 1 
la Caea and Bsfeux. aikd seat a copy of the dimvinft for 
inip i us i. wheOL at last, the cukids of Bayewx recognised 
it as % pcmcin of tlw tipesm lu their possesaoo, which ■ 
tndAx.>Q s«a1 hsd beiea worked br, oc Gn«kr the super- | 
tnteodeore oC Max.«ijw the Cooioeror's queen, which she 
badhe nelf r.^^ to ibe cstbedral, of whjch Oda» the Coo- ■ 
5?jr* * hA U-brx her. «%i heshopi, and « hx-h they, the eaiwiis I 
m Barn^ wvte acr^uacoed to exhiba to the mhabuants ef 
IT. m tbe AAiY <d thctf chnich, at a partjaslsr 
9eaL at i »t^^^\^ • _ , ^_ 



at that time traditionally called la Taileiie de Due Guil- 
laume. Montfauoon sent an able artist, of the name of An- 
toine Benoit, to copy it; and at the opening of the second 
volume of his Monumene de la Monarihie Franpoieet pub- 
lished in 1730, engraved the whole in a reduced form, ac- 
companied with a oommentanr upon the Latin inscriptions, 
which, throughout, explain tne intention of the figtues re- 
presented in the different compartments. 

M. Lancelot, upon the publication of the tapeatiy by Mont- 
faucon, sent a second memoir to the Academy of Inscrip- 
tions and Belles Lettres (as has been just mentioned), which 
was read in 1730, and published in the same year, in the 
eighth volume of their transactions, in which he states that 
the earliest mention of this tapestiy among the archives of 
the cathedral is in an inventory of jewels and ornaments 
belonging to the church, taken in 1476, where it is called 
' une tente tris longue et ^troite de telle & broderie de 
ymages et eserpteauU faisans representation du conquest 
d*Angleterre, laquelle est tendue environ la nef de TEglise 
le jour et par les octaves des reliques.' 

Dr. Ducarel is the next who gives us an account of this 
tapestrv, in the appendix to his Anglo-Norman AntiquiUet 
(folio, London, 1767), where he has printed an eUborate 
description of it, which had been dnwn up some years 
before, during a residence in Normandy, by Smart Le- 
thieullier, Bsq., an able English antiquary. Ducarel tells us 
that when he was in Normandy it was annually hung up oi 
St. John s day, and went exactly round the nave of the 
church, where it continued eight days. At all other times 
it was carefully kept locked up in a strong wainscot press in 
a ohapel on the south side of the cathedral. 

From this time till the autumn of 1803, it received but 
little further notice, when Bonaparte, then First Consul of 
France, contemplating the immediate invasion of England, 
ordered it to be brou^t from Bayeux to the National U a- 
seum at Paris, where it was deposited during some months 
for public inspection. The First Consul himself went to see 
it, and affected to be struck with that particular part which 
represents Harold on his throne at the moment when be was 
alarmed at the appearance of a taneteor whioh presaged hu 
defeat : affording an opportunity for the inference that the 
meteor which had then been lately seen in the south ot 
France was the presage of a aimilar event iGenUewmM$ 
Magazine^ 1830, voL IxiiL, pt iL p. 1136.) The exhibition 
was popular: so much so, thai a small dramatic piece was 
got up at the Theatre du Vaudeville, entitled La Tapieeene 
de la •vine Maihilde^ in whkb Matilda, who had retired to 
her undo Roger during the contest, was represented passing 
her time with her women in embroidering the exploits of 
her husband, never leaving their work, except to not up 
prayers for his success. (Idillin, Magazim Eneydopidiqme, 
1803, tom. iv. p. 541.) After having been exhioited in 
Paris, and in one or two large towns, the tapestry was re- 
turned to Bayeux, and lodgM with the municipality. Mr. 
Dawson Turner, in bis Toiir tn AbmimM^, written in 18I&, 
saya, the bishop and chapter of Bayeux had then recently 




applied to the government for the ti^iestry to be restored to 
their cathedral, but without effect. (7Wr in NormandM, 
8VO. Lood. 1820, vol. iL p. 849.) 

It was most fortunate that this euriotts monument escaped 
destruction during the Revolution. Its surrender at that 
time was demanded for the purpose of covering the gnns : 
a priest, however, soooeeded in ^^^''■^liTig and preMrring it 
from destruction. 

The new degree of pubUdty giren to thetapeatry by its 
exposure in the Frend& caoital, again made it a subject of 
discussion; and the Abb^ de la Rue, ptofeseor of history u 
the Academv of Caen, endeavoured, in a memoir, afterwards 
translated by Francis Douce, Esq. and priiUed in the seven- 
teenth volume of the ilrdkM^'a of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, to show that a mist^ bad been committed by 
tradition in the selection of the Matilda, and that its ortgia 
ought not to have been ascribed to Matilda the Conqnetor s 
queen, but to Matilda the anpreai. the danghler of King 
Henry L 

The next memoir cnthiB cnms'salvectis coBpffsed in a 
short Idler firam Mr. Hndaon Gomer. printed in the 

cfghteenth volume of the ilfdUeofagio/wbo saw the tapestir 
at Bayeux in 1814, where it then went by dm anndlation of 
Um rotle^Sf.Jban,wbichiaexplaiBedbywhuDMi«lhas 
said, that it was fotmeriy oxhibitod npon 8L Johns dav. 
Lancelot. Montfoueon. Dwarsl, airi Dts la Rna, anMor ^ 
to hm csMkfcd the tapvtiy « nMwnMt aCtha Ooft- 



BAT 



"20 



BAY 



wUim diM upon their MMm. Odo leatod at a taUe, 
with William on hi* ngfat band, bertowi hta benedietion 
on the viands: 'xt hic kpiscopts cibtm xt pottm 
BsifBDiciT/ William, with Odo and Robert Earl of 
Mortaigne, are leated under a canopj : ' ooo SFiscopTe. 
wiLLBLM. BOTBBRTTs.' A figure carrying a pennon then a]H 
peari giving orden that the army sbonld encamp at Hastings : 

' I STB lySflT TT rODBBXTTB CASTBLLTM AT BB9TBKOA«* 

The camp forming : ' cb abtra.* William appears directing 
the building of a castle. The news is then brought to 
William that Harold is advancing to oppose the Normans ; 
William on a raised seat: 'hic ifYSfTiATTM bst willbl- 
Mo DB HABOLD.' Two Normaus letting fire to a house ; 
a woman and child escaping from it : ' hic dokys iNCBft- 
oittb/ The loldiers of William leave Hastings to meet 
Harold in the field ; and the duke now, for the first time 
since his arrival, appears in armour : the march of the horse- 
men : ' HIC MII.ITBS XXIERVNT DB BBSTBN OA BT TBIf BBTlfT 

AD PRBLIYM coRTBA HAKOLDTic RBOBM.* Odo is repre- 
sented bearing a mace, but preceded by William on horse- 
back with a club, who interrogates Vitalis, an individual of 
his army, also on horseback, whether he has seen Harold's 
ibroes : willblm ovx nrrsBROOAT tital. si vidissbt 
BXKRCiTTM nAROLDi/ Harold also receives information 
relative to William's force: 'istb irvifTiAT haroldvm ob 
BXBRCiTV wiLLKLMi DTCis.* William then addresses his 
soldiers, who are proceeding onward to the battle: hic wil- 
lblm DVX ALLOQVITVR SVIS MIL1TIRTS VT PRBPARARXNT 
SB VIRl LITER BT MAPIBNTBR AD PRBLIYM CONTRA ANOLO- 

RVM bxbrcitvm/ The Normans approach, mostly on 
horseback, but intermixed with archeri on foot The 
battle now ensues, in which the Saxons are chiefly on foot, 
their shields distinguished from those of the Normans by 
being usually round with a boss in the centre. Lewine 
and Gyrth, the brothers of Harold, are slam : * hic cbcidb- 

RVNT LBWINB BT OYRTH FRATRBS HAROLOI RBOIS.* The 

obstinacy of the contest is next represented : ' hic cbcidb- 

B.VNT 8IHVL ANQLI BT FRANCI IN PRBLIO.* Odo is DOW 

represented charging full speed and striking at a horseman 
with a club or mace : ' hic odd bpiscopvs bactlvm tb- 
NBNS CONFORTAT PYBRos.* Thls probably means that 
Odo had to encourage the troops, upon a report that Wil- 
liam was slain. The battle continues : * hic bit willblm 
SYx.* The duke appears showing himself and giving 
orders : ' hic franci pyokant bt cbcidbrynt qyi brant 
c vm raroldo/ The death of Harold, the standard carried 
before whom appears to be a dragon. We have then the dis- 
comfiture and flight of the Saxons. Here the tapestry ends 
with figures of persons retreating in great haste ; not com- 
plete in iu ornamental work, but, in all probability, complete 
in its history. 

This extraordinary piece of needle-work, for such it is, 
though called tapestry, is now preserved in the hotel of the 
prefecture at Bayeux, coiled round a machine, like that 
which lets down the buckets of a well, and is exhibited by 
being drawn out at leisure over a table. The plates of 
it, published bv the Society of Antiquaries, in the fourth 
volume of the Ketusta Monumenta, will enable any one to 
form a very accurate notion of its actual appearance, 
riutes i, to xvL represent the whole, one-fourth size of the 
orif^inal. The xviiih plate gives a portion of the true size. 
Dibdin, in his Bibliographical Tbwr, vol. i. p. 377, has 
engraved a view of it upon its machine. 

It was long since decided by the French antiquaries, that 
this work is of the age of the Conquest The Abb^ de la 
Rue, alone, still maintains that it was executed in the time 
of our Hciu7 the First. Those persons, however, among the 
English antiquaries, whose particular learning and know- 
ledge render them competent judges of the authenticity of 
this Upestry, unite in the conviction that ito own internal 
evidence corrolwrates the antient tradition which the 
French antiquaries adopted. It represents the minutest 
manners and customs of the earliest Norman times in Eng- 
land ; and was evidently designed while the particulars of the 
contest were known and fresh in recollection. It embraces 
several events of which no other record now exists : amongst 
which rosy be noticed the taking of Dinant, and the war be- 
tween the Duke of Normandy and Conan Earl of Bretagne. 
>^ot d(»s anv other notice exist of the service rendered by 
Harold to duke Williani, during his war in Britany. It is 
not a little remarkable too, that in the compartment which 
reorosents the funeral procession of Edwarcl thp Confessor, 
figure u portrayed placing a weathercock upon the spire 1 



of Westminster abbey, indicating that the Voildtn^ 
scarcely finished at the time of his oeoeaae. Ducarel. as we 
have already mentioned, says, that this tapestry, when exhi- 
bited at Bayeuz, went exactly round the nave of the church. 

Odo, it it to be remarked, makes the most conspicuous ap- 
pearance, next to Duke WiOiam, of anj Norman persona^ 
represented in the tapestry ; and tfiree figures, Wadani, 
T\irM^ and Vitals appanmtiy unimportant persoiia<;e«, 
were really among the chief of those whom Ooo brought 
into the field. W^rd and Vitalis, with the son of a per^n 
named Tnrold, are recorded, twenty yean after the conquest, 
among the under-tenants of Odo, as penons rewarded with 
lands, in the Domesday Survey. Wadard held property 
under the bishop in no fewer than six counties ; \ italis 
held lands under Odo in Kent ; and the son of Torold in 
Essex. (Ellis's Introduction and Indices to Domesday^ 
vol. ii. p. 403.) These cirenmstanoes cannot but appear 
convincing, not only Uiat the tapestry is of the ase assigned 
to it by tradition, and was worked expressly for me bishop's 
cathedral ; but that, in all probability, it was a present l^om 
Matilda the conqueror s oueen, as a gratefhl memorial of 
the effective service which Odo had rendered in the conquest. 

6AYLE, PETER, an eminent critic and controversial 
writer of the seventeenth century, was bom at Cariat, No- 
vember 18, 1647, in the Comt£ de Foix, in France. Of his 
earlv life we shall only state, that he displayed great aptitude 
for learning, and an uncommon passion Ibr reading, and 
that his education was commenced under the care of his 
father, the Protestant minister of Cariat, continued at the 
Protestant University of Puylaurens, where he studied from 
February, 1666, to Februai^, 1669, and concluded at the 
Catholic University of Toulouse. He had not been there 
more than a month when he made public profession of the 
Roman Catholic religion, to which, it is said, he was ctiu- 
verted by the free perusal of controversial divinity at Pu>- 
laurens. It would seem that his creed was lightly taken up, 
for, during his short residence at Toulouse, he was recon- 
verted to Protestantism by the conversation of his Protestant 
connexions. Perhaps this facility of belief in early life mar 
have had some efiect in producing the scepticism of his 
latter years. 

In August, 1670, he made a secret aljuration of CathoU- 
cism, and immediately went to Geneva, where he formed an 
acquaintance with many eminent men, and especially con- 
tracted a close friendship with James Basnage and Minutoli. 
At (jreneva and in the Pays de Vaud he lived four years, sup- 
porting himself by private tuition. In 1674 he removed 
first to Rouen, and soon after to Paris. The treasure^ of 
the public libraries, and the easy access to Uterary socictv, 
rendered that city agreeable to him above all other plaot-^. 
He corresponded freely on literary subjects with his friend 
Basnage, then studying theology in the Protestant Univer- 
sity of Sedan, who showed the letters to the theological 
professor, M. Jurieu. By these, and by the recommenda- 
tions of Basnage, Jurieu was induced to pro{K>se their author 
as a proper person to fill the then vacant chair of philosophy, 
to which, after a public disputation, Bayle was elected, No- 
vember 2, 1675. For five years he seems to have been 
almost entirely occupied by the duties of his office. In the 
spring of 1681, however, he found time to write his cele- 
brated letter on comets, in consequence of the appearance 
of the remarkable comet of 1680, which had excited great 
alarm among the superstitious and vulgar. But the license 
for its publication bemg refused, it was not published till the 
following year, after the author^s removal to Rotterdam. 

In July, 1681, the University of Sedan, contrary to the 
faith of treaties, was arbitrarily disfranchised by a decree of 
Louis XIV. Thus deprived of empbyment, Bayle fortu> 
nately obtained, through the agency of one of his pupils, a 
pension from the magistracy of Rotterdam, who were ftirther 
induced to form a new establishment for education, in which 
Bayle was appointed professor of history and philosophy, 
and Jurieu of theology. Bayle delivered his first lecture in 
December, 1661. In the following spring the letter on 
comets was anonvmously printed ; but its author was so(m 
discovered, and obtained a considerable increase of reputa- 
tion. The reader will readily gather from the title {Lettre 
, . , , ou il e9t prouvS par plusieurs raiiont tiries de la 
Philotophie et Tneologie, que ten Comiles ne iont potni If 
prisage daucun malheur. Avee pltuieurs rSJtexions mo- 
rales et politiques, et plusieure obeervatione hiitoriquee^ ft 
la ri/utation de quelquee erreure populairee) that it was 
composed quite a» much for the sake of tiie digresiiooa and 



BAY 



12 



BAY 



!Dipcttl vrMt ftaoM^ Jarquelot To this diaeussion the 
«ivwi «mi (huU YotaoMs of the Reponse* aux Questions, 
«f»\« t "V^* wi»f» deTotiNl. Controversy seems to have been 
B^^^«i » p4«MUttnr: and it is probable that the attacks made 
«i Ji^ woriLs SDvie no impression on his tranquillity ; but 
hts iramnitf^ boU nearly done him a serious injury by en- 
tittttmurtoit to procure his banishment from Holland in 
l"'jt». !>y rvvivin^ the accusation that he was a secret agent 
dt" F^uoee. It appears probable that the Enelish ministry, 
poiiiM'jMeii witli this beUe( would have demanded his banish- 
■wac had it not been for the Karl of Shaftesburv, who had 
kaonpii Bay!e in Holland, and who interfered in his behalf. At 
ittmL tune a« was sulSering from an aflection of the chest, for 
whiciu bttiievin^ it tj be hefeditarj and moital, he refused to 
enil ji me^iicai aaautance. His last works were a fourth 
wslume ii ue S^'ptjnser^ and Emiretiens de Maxime ei The^ 
■■arx^v :n ans^rcr ui Le Clerc, and a second book under the 
nme ctcits» ui answer to JacqueloL The last was not quite 
flkn&aed . htt was working oo it the evening before his death, 
vQicn aLMk place Dwembcr id« 1706, in the 60th year of his 



Bmr'e s jfe and habits^ in the relations of man to man, 
iimniks. fleqipgrattf, and moral. Without a cynical 
V vSerus't nntrmpC Qe di:$played a truly philosophical in- 
ildarenre *d -veo^ra : ami he lived independently, in virtue 
if ~ae iinitKncoa af his wants, yet not im providently, for 
3e j^ a .e'rury af I a. 000 ttorins to his niece. The worst 
ntaru 'n:irz*i iriu^tit ii^^inst kim is that of literary dupli- 
niv inci >i 'ai9 ae had no rl^ht to complain : for a man 
-n*i a cin'on m Tinceai hia aataorship under the thickest 
iiji2:^:aps if ii*ae names, &ke dates* and false prefaces, 
3crrt lilt v>iniU*r J' 3iui!ti which cannot be proved is believed 
11 w» ujL T'.ie 4am« *n\nt of concealment attended him in 
rR.ji n ir rneiaer he waa Atheist, Epirorean, or Chris- 
oan. t It ^ jiajic pretty clear from his writings that he 
•nTi«;i -ir.t lar^ ig^n it neart a member of the strict church 

'.V ar-^iWiiii «ir4 if Ba^lii, * A writer whose strength and 
<^r%r';«**» if -p»n>nnmij «in ?>e entiaUed only by the gaiety, 
<«»««r.«-^A, ir.ii i*»iii'acy if h\9 wit: who, pervading human 
.lAjjLT** 9 t\i \ x!.inrj», utrifilL into the province of /wmttox 
-m VI »'X**rr'»** 'ur •?U4 jwfcr.ena vignar of his mind: who, with 
a « /.I .'.'>^fir -ii 'h** inao«it afiark.* of fortune, and a heart 
}t-t^is.^n tM '.u» j^^t ^tuu»Hf,rytij, nad nrjt yet enough of real 
/ir»aT :*»i« 'o \r*»r''nm*t t4iaf u^t f«vhu» of lup^nrjr geniuses, — 
'J .J* '.*'.«'»'-♦: r,n ^f a*>nonr, wh:«rtt the ai^adetntc exercise of 
■^ r « vi-yrtnng^^i rA •>rngr trt its po4^eMnr»/ (Divine Le^ 
^tt*.'f$ ^^M ^t*r ♦, vr-^ I. p. 11, %vo. eriition, 1733.) 

T .*• *»i^ ' './> vt»'-^n« .f ?;i >«/;?/r/</5fi/iry are comprised 
m '' nr '. ,m#^ 7 .rt •.i-,';»»rm«*nt hy the Abb^ Chaufepi^ 
-^in./,*-* *;»ii' ni»«» it'»- .*► « .n.«r^v.a.A^*',««« work.% of which 
1. r / • .»i wv* '.-..n*/ »»XA a *fr,rA*i(^A lj*t, fill fotir 



#«• 



.-.' 



»r» 



< ' 






^• 



>^ 



^ -r- 



^ ••" 



/ ^ 



\ a 



were conveyed to France, bat the men were placed in hultf , 
where they remained some years, until, driven todespai-, 
the few who had survived the miseries of their confinement 
cut the cables of their prison ships, and, abandoning them 
selves to the mercy of the winds, were saved by their coun- 
trymen then besieging Cadiz. This victory, the fir»t ob- 
tained in the peninsula over the French, cost the Spanianl) 
978 men in killed and wounded. The loss on the side uf 
the French was 2600 men in killed and wounded, araoi)]^ 
which latter was General Dupont himsell (Bulletin *f 
(General Casiamot.) 

BAYNE, ALEXANDER, of Hires, first professor of 
the municipal law of Scotland. The only biographic:.! 
notice of this learned person we have yet met with is tiiat 
by Bower (Hist, of the University of Edinburgh^ vol. ii. 
p. 197), and in tlie ' very little information concerning him ' 
which it contains, there are doubts to be removed and errors 
to be corrected. 

He was son of John Bayne of Logie in the county of Fife, 
who was descended from the old Fifeshire family Bayr.e 
of Tulloch, to whom he was served heir in general on t! e 
8th of October, 1700. (Inqm's. Retom, Abwrev.^ On the 
10th of July, 1714, he passed advocate at the Scottish \^-^t 
(Pac, Rec), but does not appear ever to have had much 
practice. In January, 1722, the faculty appointed him 
senior curator of their Ubrary (jpbc. Rec), and on the 28th (jf 
November, same year, he was constituted by the toun- 
council of Edinburgh professor of Scots law in the univers:ry 
of that city. The late settlement of this the eaiiiest chair 
of Scots law is not a little remarkable, and can be accounted 
for only by a reference to the actual law and practice of the 
Scots courts, to which, therefore, we shall here for a mo- 
ment advert. 

The common law of Scotland was substantially the same 
with that of England till the erection of the Court of Sts- 
sion in the beginning of the sixteenth century, when, m 
consequence of the peculiar constitution of that court, the 
old common law was superseded by the principles of tie 
civil and canon laws, which thereupon became, in fact, as in 
legal acceptation, the common law. The members of t}vj 
Court of Session were, from its first institution, aasoctateil 
together under the name of the college of justice ; but U 
does not appear that they ever adopted a collegiate mode -'f 
life, or that any domestic school of law was ever erecrt-d 
among them. The consequence was, that till tbe begtnn ir ? 
of the last century, when, as we shall immediately sk t\ 
the sources of the Scottish law ceased to be sought in the Ro- 
man code, preparation was generally made for the Scottish bar 
at some one of the foreign colleges, of which those of Pmnre 
and Italv were the most firequented, till the lustre of the Cu- 
Jacian School in the Low Countries, aiding the connex:?n 
which arose between Scotland and them at the Reform i- 
tion, drew the student thither. On the erection of the Un:- 
vernty of Edinburgh, however, attempts were made by tl.e 
bench and bar to remedy the inconvenience of foreien stu<^y. 
but as the object of those attempts was to establish a chutr 
of civil law, they were long baffled by the want of means >( 
preparatory instruction in the language of that law. The 
only method of attaining a practical knowledge of the pr>- 
,'airt ^^\AiUt*t»A z*'A ^.<km<vkAa. Th« j t^ftion in those times was attendance on some lawyer nf 
)r.^iy<>»4 i»j\n%. (tut^ Ml ar.d w.ru^, ' reputation ; and, accordingly, we not only find such ind.- 
l.« «. «..'t'/'«\/>^ Tui fAfva UI wk^,ntioMA tn ' Tuiuals as Sir Thomas Hope and others wlwroee to relebr.ry 
\^ ^.'- • li^ *- / .1 .» ^,«Mt'.ir/ If *r^*»f\%^^ pun-^h I at the bar passing their early years in the capad^ of clerk. 
.. ," > ^r.f ^ .».•.«• \ v**t*i*^ vHAn J. '.gr to ^be f>iont ' or, as it was then, in French phrase, called •servitor' to an 
.*, ' 'v'^i ,« ti wnut r^A .v^*w«- Tms inha- ' advocate, but these servitors were privileged by the court to 
« ■ ,„./.. 9 s, ',tu<. t^^ *ni >•/•.« -»*1 .n agrrufiiltiire, ' art behind the bar, a station and privilege which their de- 
'-*'.#'''/ • /• «»^. v-^u.*, */.»t #»r,rr.»/i« f:\rAn. «<endants. the * ad vocates first derks,' enjoy to this day. In 
,r ^ • «t jj. yj^mi^ ^yt aiu.«, axui ^jroMt scap the end of the seventeenth century nrivaCe lecCnres on the 

I law befran to be given in Edinbmgn by members of the 

/ » * - 'n> 'kA *-i^«T*'*n'^t V/A ^X'kTtt 6ralty, and at length, in 1707, a chair of publie law was 

i'-fi f'jv\fy\ «r*ni«r« t-vt frrrj^r founded ; and, in 1709, the chair of civil law. By this time, 

^•. . /,« '\^ i^ti^r -v? f>n«era. £>^ however, the natural working of an independent judicmturp. 

^. .v-^' ^'' «^ A- ^t"*^ '^ "/tr/a in ttwi ' and. still more, the operation of the union with England, by 

^ r .f. \t r\ 9 m •iM#^/.A<t * ra er^-ial wh ch the Scots courts were subjected to an appellate jun»- 

. '^ If ' I u^n v*w^ ':iA ^f«nra jr^«ral diction common to both parts of the island, carved out a s%s- 

« ..•.■.- • . n rt« vr-»^»^ ^'W ny wn;rh tem of law in many respects different from that of Rome, 

, «i f/ «* I :.«ri' •r 114 fi '^^ ^^'*i\ sxul to and renuinng a separate chair lor its elocidatiDD. Bat with 

f ., ,m »• : j» ^.-.^f<.-a rA'^err.'u^r.C On the predilections which habit and associations bad given to 

/ ,» ./ ,• *r,./'.^-' *^*\ t^Ji -v^'V*** ^/** ^i-januiii the ScuUish lawyer, the ciWl law was clung to as tlM^ fm^it 

, ^ ^ ^xtA *'../V4 t-"it V *.*^ m.-'Ary of the courts, and several cucumstances imp ie ss oswith the 

^ ^ .•/«.w^^/t '*><,tf<.3i R.- ia4',«^x- ir'^ea. that the chair of Scots law to which Bayne was inducted 

, *, ^^ f ' wvf v*— nf«^ »• exact wm regarded wiih contempt by the learned foculty where* f 
^ ««i^ /^< / lu» '«*'«<«^-A&«4». 7fl<e eOeera ^ he was n member. The foadty Records eontain bo aUu 






u-ii'A^ !\o £>>a }fi\i2fAnx^ prefixed 
•.M &..m..ri rtATT/LA ^ B.«TT;r/>N, a 

./1.tJi.«al I ft 



I* 



' .«t i^v«' ni»^ '^f J*^n, ^»< ^ N. lat^ 
r*.iiti*^ v* X ar.*tvf'^ *<^^v..r#«, cr>m- 
>».«m w'lirii M. v\t>n*<4w( vft th* nrtrth. 



*• ^ 



^ »'. 






^ • 



JI ;»^ , 



mm 



9 / 



BAT 



73 



BAY 



ftion to hii appointment The only record of it which we have 
is in the CouTicil Eeffister^wheie, under date 28th Novem- 
ber 1 72*2, there is this entry : — 

' Mr. Alexander Bayne having represented how much it 
wuuld be for the interest of the nation and of this city, to 
)iave a professor of the law of Scotland placed in the uni- 
versity of this city, not only for teaching the Scots law but 
also for qualifying of writers to liis Majesty's sigpiet; and 
being fully appris^ of the fitness and qualifications of Mr. 
Alexander Bayne of Rires, advocate, to discharge such a 
province — ^therefore the council elect him to be professor 
of the law of Scotland in the university of this city, for 
teaching the Soots law and qualifying writers to his Majesty's 
8i<;nct.' (Bower s HUt ut Bupra,) We have not been able 
distinctly to ascertain the estimation in which Bayne was 
held by his learned compeers, any more than the true source 
of the neglect with which bis little works on the law have 
been hitherto regarded: but only a year elapsed when his 
despised chair began to work a change on the course of ex- 
amination for the bar, and on the system of legal study. In 
January, 1724, Mr. Dundas of Amiston, D.F., proposed to 
the faculty, that all Intrants should, previous to their ad- 
mission, undergo a trial, not only in the civil law, as hereto- 
fore, but also in the municipal law of Scotland (Foe. Rec.) ; 
and though this was long resisted, it was at length deter- 
mined by Act of Sederunt, 28th February, 1750. We ap- 
prehend it is to Bayne, also, we ought to concede the im- 
pulse given at this time to investigate the sources of the 
Scottish antient common law. 

In the beginning of 1726, the usual period of remaining 
senior curator of the advocates* library having expired, 
Bayne retired fit>m the office, and the same year he pub- 
lished the first edition of Sir Thomas Hope's Minor rrac- 
iic/is—9, work which, though deUvered by the author to his 
son orally, it is said, at his morning s toilet, is remarkable 
for its legal learning, the breadth and boldness of its views, 
the acuteness of its observations» and the subtlety of its 
distinctions, but which had lain near a century m MS. 
To this work Bayne now added a Discourse on the Rue 
and Progress of the Law of Scotland^ and the Method of 
studying it. In 1731 he published a small volume of Notes, 
fur the use of the students of the municipal law in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. These Notes were framed out of the 
lectures delivered from the chair, and impress us with a 
very favourable opinion of the author's acquaintance not 
only with the Roman jurisprudence, but also with the antient 
common law. About the same time he published another 
small volume, which he entitled Institutions of the Criminal 
Law of Scotland, for the use of his students. The author 
of such works, distinguished for their modesty not less than 
for their learning, could not but exercise a salutary influence 
on the youth by whom he was surrounded ; and his career, 
thou<^h short, was sufficient to prove his talent and dili- 
gence, and to make his chair an object of no inconsiderable 
ambition. 

In June, 1737, Bayne*s death was intimated to the faculty 

by the magistrates of Edinburgh {Fae, Rec.) ; and in the 

following month a leet of two advocates (Mr. Erskine and 

Mr. Balfour) was delivered by the faculty to the magistrates 

or their election of a successor. 

Bayne married Mary, a younger daughter of Anne, only 
surviving child of Sir William Bruce of Kinross^ by her 
second husband. Sir John Carstairs of Kilconquhar, and by 
her he had three sons and two daughters. 

BAYONET. [See Arms.] 

B A YO'NNE, a considerable town in the south of France, 
in the departments of Basses Pyrenees (Lower Pyrenees) 
and Landes, 43° 30' N. lat., 1° 3(K W. long. It is 531 miles 
S S.W. of Paris, through Orleans, Chdteauroux, Limoges, 
Bordeaux, and Mont-de- Marsan. There is an old road 
IV.im Bordeaux to Bayonne more direct than that through 
Mont (le Marsan, by which a considerable distance may be 
sa\e(l. This road leads through the pine forests of the 
Laudea ; but the deep sandy soil renders travelling very 
incommodious* which is probably the cause why this route 
his been laid aside for one more circuitous but more con- 
venient. 

Bayonne is a town of considerable trade, for which it is 
favourably situated, being at the junction of two navigable 
rivers, the Adour and the Nive, whose united streams fall 
into the Bay of Biscay two or tiiree miles below Bayonne. 
By these two rivers Bayonne is divided into three parts. 
That part situated on the left» or south-west bank of the 



Nive, is called Great Bayonne* that between the two nvers 
is called Little Bayonne, and that on the north or right 
bank of the Adour is called the suburb of St. Esprit {i.e. of 
the Holy Ghost.) The latter is in the department of Landes, 
the two former in that of Basses Pyrenees. The entrance 
of the port is narrow, and a very dangerous bar crosses it^ 
on which, in westerly winds, there is a violent surf. The 
harbour is however safe, the bar affording it' shelter sea- 
ward, and it is well frequented. The name Bayonne is a 
compound of two Basoue words, ' Baia* and ' Ona,* signi- 
fying good bav or gooa port, and indicates the estimation in 
which the harlx>ur was formerly held. 

Bayonne is fortified, and is in the first class of strong 
places. Each part of it is surrounded on the land side by 
an ancient wall, outside of which are the modem works. 
Great Bayonne has a castle flanked by four round towers, 
called the Old Castle ; Little Bayonne has the New Castle, 
flanked by four bastions ; and adjoining to the suburb St. 
Esprit is a citadel, the work of Vauban, which has been 
strengthened by works recently added. 

Bayonne is a handsome place. The houses are well built 
of stone, the streets are wide, and the places (open spaces) 
adorned with good buildings. The different parts of the 
town communicate by several bridges, two over the Nive, 
and one handsome wooden bridge over the Adour. The 
numerous vessels, large and small, by which the rivers are 
covered, give animation to the scene. The public prome- 
nade is also very beautiful. Of the public buildings the 
Cathedral of Notre Dame may be mentioned, although there 
is nothing in its architecture which calls for particular 
notice. The Mint is also one of the principal edifices in 
Bayonne. The town has a school of navigation and also a 
theatre. 

The manufactures of Bavonne are not important ; that of 
glass bottles is the chief. The town is famous for hams, 
tor the liqueur which bears the name of the village of 
Andaye, and for chocolate. In the preparation of the liqueur 
Bayonne is considered to rival Andaye itself. Shipbuilding 
is carried on with advantage, as the neighbourhooa supplies 
the materials. The trade of the town is very considerable ; 
drugs, wines (those of the neighbourhood are accounted 
excellent), brandies, and fir timber, are among its exports ; 
also masts, which are floated down from the forests of the 
Pyrenees by the Nive and Adour, or their branches, and 
sent to Brest and other ports. Of the imports Spanish 
wool is the principal ; the quantity brought in yearly is 
said to be about 20,000 bales. Bullion is also brought in 
from Spain. The coasting trade employs the greater part 
of the vessels which enter or leave the port of Bayonne ; 
a few ships are engaged in the cod fishery, but there is no 
trade with the French colonies. The population of the 
town, in 1832, was as follows : — 

Bayonne town 13,008 whole commune 14,773 
St. Esprit . 4,108 „ 5,895 

Together . . 17,116 ,, 20,668 

When Expilly published his Dictionnaire des Gauies 
(in 1762), above half the population of St Esprit were 
Jews, viz. 3500 out of 5800. 

Before the Revolution Bayonne had only one parish 
church, the cathedral ; for though there was in the suburb 
of St. Esprit a collegiate church, it was not parochial, as 
the suburb was in tl^e parish of St Etienne, the church of 
which is at some distance to the northward. There were in 
Great and Little Bayonne eight religious houses (of which 
three were for females), and in St. Esprit a Commandery 
of the Order of Malta, and a convent of Ursuline nuns^ 
An abbey of Cistertian nuns was situated without the walls 
of that suburb. 

Bayonne is the capital of an arrondissement, compre- 
hending 491 SGuare miles, or 314,240 acres, and containing, 
in 1 832, a population of 78,4 11. It is also the see of a bishop, 
whose diocese includes the department of Basses Pyr^n^es, 
and who is a suffiugan of the Archbishop of Auch. 

D'Anville considers Bayonne to be toe Lapurdum men- 
tioned in the NoHtia Imperii ; but the correctness of his 
opinion is disputed or doubted by some. The origin of the 
see cannot be traced higher than the tenth century. The 
bishops of Bayonne bore the title Episcopi Lapurdenses, 
but this title, it is contended, only implies that they were 
bishops of the territory of Labour. Their diocese included 
some parts of Spain, but they were severed from it by the 
Pope at the inttigatioa of Philip IL« King of Spain* in th* 



No. 214. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPiBDIA.} 



you IT.-'L 



B AZ 



74 



B AZ 



i Wilig y, iBd iteed under the contiol of tbe 
Bnboy of PMUpAnnm as the pope's Twar. 

In tbe iBTaaon of FbiDoe by the allies under the Dake 
€f WelliiistaB, in 1 814, the citaidel of Bayonne was invested 
hy a focce nnder Lieutenant-Genetal Sir Jdhn Hope. On 
the morning of the 14th April, sevend days after hosti- 
lities in the north of France — the then great scene of war- 
&re — had been terminated by the abdication of Napoleon, 
a sortie took place from tbe entrenched camp formed by the 
French in front of the citadeL The attack, though repulsed, 
eansod a arrece loss (800 oftcers and men killed, wounded, 
or taken) to tbe besiegers^ Sir John Hope was taken 
prisoner, and Major-General Hay, the general commanding 
the line of outposts, was killed. 

Bayonne was tbe scene of an tntemew, in 1564, betweeu 
Catherine de* Mediri and the Duke of Alba, one of the 
chief officers of Philip II. df Spain, at which it has been 
supposed the massacie of tbe Huguenots or Protestants was 
devKed. though not executed till seven years after, on the 
day of 8t Bartholomew. When the massacre took place, 
however, DOrthcz, commandant of Bayonne, refused to 
execute tbe onlers of the court He replied to the king's 
order in these words :—' I have found. Sire, in Bayonne, 
only good citixens and brave soldiers, but not one execu- 
tioner/ B jyon ne was the scene of the arrest of Charles 1 V. 
and Ferdinand VII. of Spain in 1808. 

BAYS WATER, one of the suburbs of London, deno- 
minated a hamlet, and situated three miles and a half west 
of St« PauVs. Like most of tbe other suburbs of the me- 
tropolis which retain their old denominations of villages 
and hamlets, Bayswater has of late years been much en- 
larged by the addition of new streets and houses. At the 
eastern extremity of Bayswater is the Queen's Lying-in- 
Hospital, a retired building surrounded by an extensive gar- 
den. The charity was originally established at Uxbridge in 
1752, but was removed hither in 1791 ; it is supported by 
nnnnal subscriptions, and affords assistance to poor pregnant 
wtMnen at their own houses, if within a limited distance, or 
receives them into die hospital. The tea-gardens in Bays- 
water occupy the site of the house aiSd b^anieal garden of 
Sir Joseph Hill, whose various writings and higb-soundinff 
nostmms were popular in their day. In the neighbourhood 
IS one of the conduits formerly used for supplying the city 
with water. It belongs to tbe City of London, and still 
serves to convey water by brick drains to some western 
parts of the metropolis. *There is also a reservoir of some 
magnitude belonging to the Grand Junction Water Com- 
pany at Bayswater. The population is not stated separately 
from that of the parish of Paddington, to which it belongs. 
(Lvions's Environs of London ; Brewer s Middlesex, &c.) 

BA'ZA, the Roman Basti, a city of Andalusia, in the 
kingdom of Granada, 37' 30' N. lat., 2"* SO' W. long. It is 
situated near the river Guadalquiton in a valley in the 
Sierra de Baxa, which, according to some geographers, is 
a branch of the Sierra Nevada. The hoya or valley of 
Baxa is very productive in grain, fmit, hemp, and flax. 
The city, which is of ^-ery old construction, was taken from 
the Moors by Fernando the Catholic, in 1489, afler a seven 
months' siege. Baxa is a bishop^s see, has a cathedral, 
three parishes, six convents, an ecclesiastical seminary, an 
hospital, and six inns. The population amounts to li,486 
mhabitants. At the distance of two miles from the city 
several interesting antiqnities of the Augustan age, belong- 
ing to the city of Basti, have been dug up by the farmers. 
These monuments, on which a curious antiquarian would 
•et a hiffh value, are only dug fVom the earth to be buried 
in the house of some obscure farmer. 

Baxa is the canital of the district which bears its name, 
and compriitvs Any- four townn and villu^^es and three cities, 
besidrai tbe rajiital, vix., Purchena, Vera, and Mujacar. 
The Sierra de Busa abounds in trees, which supply the in- 
habitants with timber and flro-wuod : it proiluros also lead 
in grvat abundance, as well as marble, ttin nioMt cclc brat eel 
of vrhirh is that of Maoael. Six miles from Do/u is a hot 
•ptinut, railed Los Biitliisde HenKnlcroiidliUif ultima's iMitbs), 
the lanipvraturu of whirh is 30^ R^nutnur. The mhabitants 
•f tho dtstriot are exclusively employcNl in Bf(riruUure. 

BAZAAR. Tlie word btigttar in l*eniisn, and its primary 
meaninic is a mnrkfl, a/hrum. In Turkey, Kuypt, Pi^rniii. 
and India this tsrm Hutingui«hf*s those purls of towns wliiuh 
are etrhisively ippMprUtml to Iriide. In thU exclimive ap* 
propnation they resombis nur markets ; but in other ri*snurts 
^^iniato more iksaily to our retail shops. We hftve 



interpreted &e word hi its large tense ; Ibri&lKn^ die tern 
baxaar is in this country eommonly understood to mean an 
assemblage of shops or stolls under eover, yet in Ihet it eq uaJU y 
applies to open places in whksh bulky commodities are oflerfl 
for sale. Sudi places sometimes occur in eastern towns, an i 
are used chiefly in the early morning, at least in summer, 
for the sale of vegetables and cattle. If a place m tbe ope.: 
ground outside a town be commonly applied to this use. it 
will be called a bazaar, and will be distingnbhed, as in lil 
other cases, by joining to the word ' bajEaar the linnie ih 
the commodity sold. In large towns, however, such markets 
are generally near or in the midst of the regular ocyrert^i 
bazaars ; except the market for cattle, which is always imjt- 
side or at the extremity of the town. In some places bazaim 
are rather extensive squares, the sides of which are liof^: 
with shops under arcades. In a few eases the covered 
ways branch off with some regularity from these squares 
as from a centre: and in one dT the best speeimens of ti.e 
open market, at Kermanshah in Persia, the palace of the 
prince-governor occupies one of its sides. When, however, 
as in this and some other instances, tbe principal open arva 
in the city is thus appropriated, its distinctive appellation L>f 
the Afaidan, or square, is retained. 

Tbe regular bazaars consist of a connected series of street* 
and lanes, and, when of a superior description, they are 
vaulted with high brick roo&. The domes or cup-v-ii$ 
which surmount the vaulting admit a subdued' daylight: 
and as all direct rays of the sun are excluded, a cc»tb- 
paratively low temperature is obtained. The description Ot 
a good bazaar in Persia is a description of a good bazaar in 
Turkey or India. Nevertheless, the Persian hazsafs are 
rather more light and lively than those ofTurkey. Tbev 
are painted in many places, and sometimes decorated, partt- 
eularly under the domes, with portraits of the heroes of tbe 
country, with representations of battles or hunts, with figures 
of real or fkbulous animals, and with other subjects. Tbe 
approaches to the bazaars are commonly lined with low 
shops, in which commodities of little value are exposed for 
sale. These approaches are sometimes open to the skv : 
but they are more generally covered in a rude manner with 
branches of trees, and leaves laid upon beams. In manf 
of the provincial towns of Turkey and Persia, the bazaar, l3 
a whole, would answer to this last description ; and in othen 
it is nothing more than a mud |datform continued alon? tbe 
way side, about two feet above the footpath, on which little 
covered shops are raised, that are mere boxes, scarreir 
affording room for the vendor to sit down on a bit of carpet 
or felt in the midst of his scanty stock. 

In the best specimens of the vaulted bazaar the passa^f^ 
are lined on each side with a uniform series of shop^, the 
floor of which is a platform raised from two to three fe«t 
above the level of the ground, and faced with brick. As 
the vault springs from the front of the Hne of shops, tbrv 
seem Uke a series of recesses, and the pattition-walls be- 
tween them appear Uke piers supporting the aroh. Tl.e<« 
recesses are entirely open in front, in all their height aul 
breadth ; they are scarcely more than very small clostts, 
seldom exceeding six feet in breadth, rarely so deep a? 
wide, but generally from eight to ten feet in height, and 
occasionally more. But in the more respectable parts (»f 
large bazaars there is generally a little ooor in the baiK 
wall which conducts to another small and dark closet, whfch 
serves the purpose of a store-room. The fVont cell is the 
shop, on the floor of which the master sits with his goods at) 
around him, the articles most in demand being placed so 
within his reach that he has seldom occasion to rise, whsch* 
if he is a Turk, he rarely does without manifest reluctan«^e. 
Such a dealer offers a very singular contrast to our i<ir is 
of a shopkeeper, being tbe very personification of luxurwiis 
repose as be sits smoking his pipe ; or, if in vrinter, wlten 
these berths are clMlly and uncomfortable, bending over s 
brazier of burning charroal. Tbe neighbouring shopkecp»-s 
have much communication with one another, and gonerallr 
exhibit as much alacrity in promoting the interest of s 
neighbour as can be compatible with attention to their ox^n. 
Indeed, a stranger might be disposed to imagine that all t: .« 
tradesmen in the same line of business are in a general 
partnership, so little anxiety does any one exhibit to obtain 
a preference, and so willingly does he inform a custt roer 
where he may obtain an article more exactly suited to h:f 
wants than he can himself supply. This is more apparent 
in Turkey than in Persia. Persian, Armenian, and Jewish 
shopkeepers are in general more civil and- ^obliging. thaa 



i B A Z 

French wntar (ilL Aubert de Vttiy) mjti, ' It u not nwe>> 

sarj to offer a Turk lesg than two-thirdg of the price he de- 
mands; to a shopkeeper of an; other nation one-half may 
be Bafcly ofTored ; and in the case of the Jewi tliere i» no 
limit lo the abatement.' This is perfectly true; and no 
stranger in the Enat could have a betler rule foi his guidtnce 




Bosineis commence* and terminates with daylight in 
orieiilal baiaais. No traiie or handicraft employment ia in 
L--iietal carried on in the East by candle-light. None of 
the nhupkeepers or artizang reside in the baiaars. When it 
•^vla dork, every one shuts up his shop and goes home. 
'I'lie fastenings uf Ibe shops are very slight ; but the bazaars 
nie in general well watched, and frequently secured ^cith 
himng gates. In very warm countries it is usual for the 
ri;ijurity of the shopkeepers to close their shops at mid-day, 
and go homo to have Uieir lunch and G^joy a siesta. The 
l>:i7.^arB have then a very deserted appearance. Larcenies 
ill the bazaars are Ecarcely known in Turkey ; hence the 
sliopkcepers da not hesitate to leave their shops quite open, 
V iiliuut any one in ohari^e, during their occasional absences ; 
but nhea a rather long n^jsence is intended, and the goods 
zee of great value, a net, like a cabbage-net, is sometimes 
biiiij; up in front, or laid over the goods. 

The peculiar principle of oriental bazaars is that all the 
shupn of a city aie there collected, instead of being dis- 
persed in diSerent streets a« in Europe, and that in this 
collected form the difTemnt trades and occupations are 
severally usociated in different parts of the bazaar, instead 
of being indiscriminately mingled as in otu: streets. Thus 
one pa«wge of the bouu viU Ire vzcluuvely occupied 



Kg) pi,] 



by drapers, another hy tailors, another hy oap-mskera, 
another by saddlers, and so on. In the haiaani of Persia, 
and, although less usually, in those of Turkey, the shoM 
of provisions for immediate use form an exceptian to tns 
rule. The shops of cooks and bakers are dispersed in dif- 
ferent ports of the bazaar; the preparations in the former 
seldom exicud beyond soups, and a sort of sausage wilhout 
skin, called Ao/raoA, a higbly-sca.'oned and mveurv article, 
which is raurh relished both in Turkey and Persia. Not 
only are trades carried on. but handicraft employments 
are exercised in the bazaars of the East ; and thus whila 
one part is very quiet, another resounds with the hnmmei* 
of carpenters, siUiths, and F^hoe-makers. The stocks of thft 
individual dealers are seldom of much value. It voulil 
be difficult to And a shop which contains a greater itock 
than tbat of a small retail, tradesman in London ; but an 
imposing effect is produced by the exhibition of the several 
stocks in a connected form, so that the whole of a poi- 
ticuler street in a bazaar will appear as one great shoip 
for the article in which it deals. This is the cause of th« 
reported splendour and rtclies of an oriental bazaar. OT 
this kind of effect the buzaar for ladies' slippers in Con- 
stantinople is a very remarkable inslanue : such an exten- 
sive display on each tide, through a long covered street, 
hi 



B A 2 



10 



6 A Z 



«t viiiMitt Mirperm r««ut«ncUnt with gold and lilTer em* 
Vvv'^JK^rv^ umi »UH» nnu coloured itonen, conireyi ui im- 
V<«^«ii»KH\ (MT wmIUii luxury, and populoutness which ten 
t^^t^ft lK# mimWr ofuhopii In a di«pcned form would not 
y^\^ Whi^i^Mlc dtmlori navo no open ihopt in the hezaart, 
Wit tWv havfi warehoused in it or in itn vicinity, to which 
|Im» ivladert retort an they have occasion. These ware- 
h^Hisiesk aM» fHH^uently in a large house or khan, occupied in 
<\MMinon by te%*eral wholesale dealers. The khans also, to 
wKk'K the itinerant merchants resort until they have dia- 
yK>rt^ of their f(oods. are generally in or near the bazaars ; 
and they Arequi^ntly make use of the same building with the 
9latiiMiarr merchants. The principle of association for faci- 
tiy «f reference is the true principle of a bazaar ; the vaulted 
cv't^vring ia merely a circumstance of climate. Therefore 
Pat^noeter^row with its books. Monmouth-street with its 
sIk¥(^ uid HolywelUstreet with its old clothes, are more 
|«vi|per)y baiaaia than the miscellaneous shops assembled 
ttiMwr eorer. which are in London designated oy the name. 
Beeidee the regular businesa conducted in the bazaars by 
the profisBaional shopkeepers, there is an under-current of 
irfefular limde, hishl^ enaracteristio of oriental manners. 
If a person not in business, or a stranger, has an article of 
whicli be wishes to dispose, he employs a crier, who takes it 
tftumsgh the bazaar, proclaiming, at the top of his voice, its 
piaitscs and its price. Many poor people also endeavour in 
the saone manner, without the services of the crier, to dia- 
pose of sttch articles of their property, or produce of their 
iadmrr, as they desire to sell. These are mostly persons 
vho inaiqEine they shall be able to obtain a better price from 
tbe pnrrhaaers or idlers in the bazaar than they have found 
the shopkeepers willing to give. There is also a class of 
sellers vho exhibit a httle stock of wares upon stools, in 
baskets* or on doths spread on the ground. They generally 
deal in bttt one commodity, which they profess to sell on 
k«er tenns than the shopkeepers will take. It would seem 
that in respectable towns a preference is given to this mode 
of selling some one particular commodity. Much tobacco, 
and nest of the little snnff that is used, are sold in this way 
at Bagdad; modi opium is thus disposed of every morning 
at Tabreez in Feisia ; and at Constantinople many women 
post themadres in the bazaars, displaymg embroidered 
handkerchiefit and other needlework, often wrought by the 
kands of ladies of quality, who are enabled by the produce 
to make a prirate puise fcnr themselves, and purchase some 
bttle indnlgenoes which they might not otherwise obtain. 
If the troth be tdd, at Constantinople no small portion of 
this supply to the bazaars of that metropolis is contributed 
by the ladies of the imperial seraglio. 

' In hot weather, eciental bazaars are traversed by men 
U>ien with a skin or pitcher, from which they deal out to 
th« tharstr a dimn^ht of excellently filtered water. Some- 

the fourth of a fiurthing. 




K cxpcroed : bet frvqoently the men are employed to dis- 
fr-.'r^^ wvier fratmtcMulT, by pious individuals, who oon- 
mutr %mmMt o^ehszWr SMDeepCahle to Allah. 

the deserted ^pearance of the 
sai town and the thronged state of the 
The women, except those of 
abroad ; and of the men, the idle 
^3.^jr% w Qu$^ *Ti nnr 4or amnaeeaent or coufefiation ; and 
^'.«» w jrt. v^ 3«ic "^ genenlly havw aonie bosiness there in 
zit "rtMvrvt ^i ^£« day, which odleets the viable population 
nuin ji*ix ^a« part of the town, nntii dieapptoatA of even- 
a aiArw cqnal distiibatioii. The bazaar is not 
was. -vi izsoMdiale traffic, linl of all eommercial 
'.sg^^ ^ pubbc Merrantilr, and psivale news dr- 
txui tie?* rclr fhee dzsmasion can be carried on, 

of tiie emissaries of power who 

the bazaar the timid 

Pnbtic measnres a« 

voire is often hmdly 

It ?i«^ <wr« vL fTJteeg m mmvSen if they 

dsL TInnBgh the 



JT « 






ITUSL 1» 



iui 



>^i--»fn#»* v^-ii. mid ti 



-r^.«* ft 




•^ 




• :«. «r^«j'i' vt 

^^ . ", t m L nJ'rJi; 

■ ■ ■ ■ 







The varioas eharacteiistie displays of OTieotal iiiann«« 
which the bazaars furnish, the nature of the goods exposed 
for sale, and the splendid appearance they sometimes m^ke, 
the manner in which the artizans conduct their various 
labours, the endless variety of picturesque costumes which 
meet the eye, uid the babel-like confusion of tongues. 
all combine to form a scene of unequalled singularity and 
interest. No traveller who doea not, in some orientid cos- 
tume, sedulously frequent the bazaars and make many 
little purchases for himself, ought to feel assured that be 
understands the people, or has materials for fairly esti- 
mating their condition. The remarks here made are the 
result of the writer's intimate personal acquaintance with 
the bazaars of the East. 

BA2AS, a town in France, in the department of Gironde, 
41 miles S.E. of Bordeaux, and 419 miles S.S.W. of Paris^ 
It is on a rivulet which flows into the Garonne* a few miles 
to the N. of the town, 44^ 27' N. lat, 0° 13 W. long. 

Under the name of Cossio it existed in the Roman times, 
and is mentioned by Ptolemy ; but in the latter period of 
the Roman empire, the name of the people whose metro- 
polis it was, the Vatates (called also Vasarii), prevailed over 
the older designation : we read in Ammianus Maroellinus, 
of VasatsD, as a place of some consequence- in Novempo- 
pulana; and in other authorities of Uivitas Vasatms ukl 
Civitas Vasatica. 

Bazas early attained the rank of a bishopric, which how- 
ever it has now lost. A bishop of Bazas sat in the ooandl 
of Agde in 506, and at the council of Orleans in 51 1. The 
bishop of Bazas was, during part of the tenth and elevemh 
centuries, the only bishop in Gascony, the towns having been 
destroyed, by the Normans, and the cathedral being without 
clergy. During this interval he took the title of bishop of 
Gascony, Vasconenns Episcopus; but when the churches 
were again supplied with clergy, he shrunk into bishop of 
Bazas, 

The town is situated on a rock, and has little in it that is re- 
markable except the cathedral, a fine edifice of the fourteenth 
century. In firont of the cathedral is a place (or an open 
space), surrounded by a piazza. The wails of the town are 
in ruins. Among the manufactures are druggets, leather, 
glass, pottery, white wax, and wax-candles. Ine trade car- 
ried on is in the above mentioned goods, wood of all kinds, 
including timber for ship-building, and saltpetre. The 
population in 1832 was 2165 for the town, and 4255 for the 
whole commune. 

The arrondissement of Bazas comprehends 697 square 
miles, or 446,080 acres. It had, in 1 832, a population of 53»802. 

The district of Bazadois was a subdivision of Guienne. 
{Dictionnaire Universel de la Prance; Piganiolde la Force, 
NouveUe Description de la France, ^,) 

BAZOIS, the name of a small district in France, forming, 
under the old division of that country, the eastern part of 
Nivemois, now included in the department of Nidvre. It 
comprehended several valleys, and was bounded on the 
N.E. by the mountains of Morvan. It is watered by several 
small streams, the Airon, Aron, or Avron,. a tributary of 
the Loire, being the principal. It produces littie com, but 
there is abundance of good pasturage and wood. Coal is dug. 
The chief town of the district is Moulins in Gilbert. The 
dimensions are usually given as nine or ten leagues, or about 
twenty-seven to twenty-eight miles long, and as many broad. 

B AZTA'N, or BASTA'N, a valley in the Pvienees to the 
north of Pamplona, extending twenty-three miles from north 
to south, and two firom east to west : but authorities differ 
considerably as to the width of the vaUey ; Miiiauo stales it to 
be fifteen miles wide, and the dictionary of the Academy only 
two. The truth probably lies between them. It is bounded 
on the north and east by France, and on the south and west 
by the valleys of Ulzama and Basaburua Menor. It is sur- 
rounded on the north and east by the heights of Otamburdi, 
Otsondo, Auza, Ariete, Izpegui, and Urrichiquia, end on 
the south by those of Emazal>al, Arcesia, Velate, and Oc- 
InmendL Several streams descend from these mountains, 
and form in the valley a river, which b called by the in- 
habitants Baztan-zubi. This river, aft«r it leaves the Talley, 
reeeives the name of Bidassoa. The valley produces Indian 
eam» wheat, pulse, and flax. The meadows and Ibrests are 
held in common. Every man is bound by law to plant a 
eertsjn number of trees every year. 

Bastan is the sixth partado or district of the merindad or 
of Pamplona. It is governed fay its paitacalar 
or ptivifeges which irwa coQeeCMi in % body of nnml 




1^ D & 



•rt 



fi E A 



.a\vs called Ordenanzas del valle (laws or statutes of the 
valley), approved by the supreme council of Navarra in 
1 G<J6. The inhabitants, in a junta-general held every three 
years, appoint three individuals, out of whom the viceroy 
of Nuvarra chooses one to hold the office of Alcalde. This 
otlicer is the civil and military chief of the valley, and also 
the judge in minor offences. He is also the president of the 
coiK'cjo, or common council of the capital. Every man in the 
valley is a soldier, and is bound to provide himself with arms 
and ammunition. It is the alcalde*s duty to instruct the 
rncn in the management of arms, and every three years he 
holds a general review, on which occasion every man is 
ohlif^ed to appear with a musket in good condition, half a 
pound of gimpowder, and twelve bullets. In a privilege 
granted by Alonso I. of Aragon, to the town of San- 
^tiesa, in 1132, he is entitled king of Aragon and Baztan. 
The Baztanese, afterwards, on the separation of Aragon 
from Navarra, became subjects of the kings of Navarra. 
At the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa they fought so gal- 
lantly that their king, Sancho VI., granted them a privilege 
in 4 'i 1 2, by which every native of Baztan was declared an 
bidaliro or gentleman. Any Spaniard from another pro- 
vince, who can prove a noble origin, is admitted to the 
rights of citizenship in the valley. The letters of citizen- 
ship are granted by the junta- general of the valley. The 
population of the valley amounts to 7065 inhabitants, dis- 
trihuted into fourteen towns and villages. The capital, 
Elizondo, is situated on the banksof the Baztanzuhi, which 
divides it into two parts. According to Miiiano it con- 
tains 1111 inhabitants. The principal buildings are the 
town-house, where the junta- general is held, and the Casa 
de Misericordia, or charity house, in which the poor and 
<lestitute of the village receive support and employment. 
This benevolent institution has ceased to exist for want of 
f u nds . The house was inhabited by some poor families of the 
town, and ha^ been of late changed into a fortified place by 
the Carlists : but it is at present occupied by the troops of the 
queen (1835). The front of the town-house is ornamented 
Avith the names of the illustrious persons who at different 
epochs have made themselves conspicuous for their valour, 
or for other eminent services. These names are written 
on wooden scutcheons carved into the shape of a crowned 
ea<;le with two heads. The Baztanese speak the Basque 
lunji^uage. 

(See Academia de la Historia, Diccionario Geogrdflco 
Ilisinriao de Espc^a ; Minano.) 

B DE'LLIUM, commonly called a gum, but in reality a 
^um resin, the origin of which is a subject of doubt. It 
would appear that there are two, if not more kinds, of bdel- 
lium, the source of one of which seems to be ascertained ; the 
others are matters of controversy. The bdellium of the an- 
lients, said by Pliny (book xii. chap. 9) to be brought from 
l^actria and other parts of Asia, still comes from Asia. Adan- 
son iitates that he saw in Africa the substance exude from a 
thorny species of amyris, called by the natives niouttoutt. 
From its resemblance to myrrh, the analogy is in favour of its 
hQ'ir\» obtained from an amyris or balsamodendron. Indeed, 
according to the recent statement of Mr. Royle, bdellium 
would appear to be the produce of a species of amyris, or rather 
bnlsamo<lendron, a native of India, called by Dr. Roxburgh 
Amyris Commiphora {Ft. Ind. ii. p. 244), Amyris Asallocha 
( Citlrutta Catalogue, p. 28), the native name of which b^goo- 
srn/. ( Royle, Illustrations of the Flora of the Himalayah, part 
VI. p. 1 76.) The opinion of its being obtained from a palm, 
either the Lontarus domestica (Gaertn.), or the Borassus 
jlnbelliformist is very improbable. This substance occurs in 
masses of variable size and shape, sometimes aa large as a 
walnut, in oblong or angular pieces of a yellow, red, or 
brownish colour. The clearest pieces are transparent ; the 
odour is weak and peculiar ; the taste bitter, badsamic, and 
resembling myrrh or Venice turpentine. It is tolerably 
brittle at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere, but 
with a slight increase of heat the finer kinds may be 
kneaded between the fingers. Its specific gravity is 1*37 U 
In i)otass it is completely soluble. Analysed by Pelletier, 
lOU parts yielded 

Resin • • » • • 59 

Gum 9-2 

Bassorin 30*6 

Volatile oil and loss . . . 12 

100 
John found also w>utchouc, sulphates, muriates, and phos- 



phates of potass, and lime with salts of magnesia, but pro* 
bably he examined a different sort from that of Pelletier. 

Resembling myrrh in appearance, it also resembles it in 
its effects upon the human system, and is often fraudulently 
substituted for it ; it is, however, weaker, while it is more 
disagreeable and acrid. [See Balsamodendron.] It was 
formerly used in many compounds and plasters, such as 
diachylon. It is now disused in Britain ; but is to be found 
intermixed with gum Arabic. 

The Sicilian bdellium is produced by the Daucus Hispa" 
nicus (Decand.), the D. gummifer of Lamarck, or perhaps 
the D, gingidium (Linn.), according to Boccone iMuseo di 
Piante rare della Sicilia, ^c. torn, xx.), which grows on the 
islands and shores of the Mediterranean. 

The Egyptian bdellium is conjectured to be produced by 
the Borasaus flabeUiformis (Linn.), the Chamterops humilist 
or the Hyph€ene cudphera (Pers.) 

The bdellium mentioned in the second chapter of Genesis 
is obviously a mineral, and has no reference to the substances 
above-mentioned. It is supposed to mean pearls. 

BEACHY HEAD, in Sussex, is a high bluff chalk 
cliff, forming a remarkable headland in the British Channel, 
which may always be known by seven conspicuous white 
cliffs to the westward of it. There is a telegraph and sta- 
tion-house on the top ; and a little farther to the westward, 
on that portion of the Head called Bell tout Cliff, a tempo- 
rary lighthouse was erected in 1828, which has been found 
so serviceable, that it has been replaced by a more durable 
one of stone. The lights, like the old one, revolve alter- 
nately bright and dark at intervals of two minutes : their 
elevation above the sea is 285 feet. 

Caverns near Beachy Head* — ^There are six caverns, 
with entrances three feet wide, and flights of steps twenty 
feet in height, terminating in an apartment eight feet 
square, now cut in the cliffs, between Beachy Head and 
Cuckmere. A place called Derby Cave has also been re- 
paired, by which means mariners, who mav be unfortunately 
wrecked on that part of the coast, can fina a place of refuge 
from the sea. There is no danger a quarter of a mile imme- 
diately off the Cape, but six miles to the eastward of it there 
are some dangerous rocks, on which the Royal Sovereign, 
a first-rate, once struck. {British Channel Pilot, p. 51.) 

BEACON, a si^n or token ordinarily raised upon some 
foreland or high ground as a sea mark. It is also used for 
the fire-signal which was formerly set up to alarm the in- 
terior of the country upon the approach of a foreign enemy. 
The word, as used in England, is derived from the Anglo- 
Saxon beacen or beacn, a sign or signal, whence bycnian, to 
show or point out. Beae or dec is Uie real root, which we 
still have in bec/t, beckon. 

Fires by night, as signak, to convey the notice of im- 
pending danger to distant places with the greatest expe- 
dition, have been used in almost all countries. They are 
mentioned in the prophecies of Jeremiah, who (chap. vi. 
V. 1) says, ' Set up a sign of fire in Beth-haccerem, for evil 
appeareth out of the nor^h, and great destruction.' In the 
treatise De Mundo, attributed to Aristotle, we are told 
(edit 12ma Glasg. 1745, p. 35), that fire-signals were so 
disposed on watch-towers through the King of Persia's do- 
minions that, within the space of a day, he could receive 
intelligence of any disturbances plotted or undertaken in 
the most distant part of his dominions ; but this is evidently 
an exaggerated statement, ^schylus, in his play of the 
Agamemnon, represents the intelligence of the capture of 
Troy as conveyed to the Peloponnesus by fire-beacons. 
During the Peloponnesian war we find fire-beacons (^pvcroi) 
employed. (Thucyd. iii. 22.) Pliny distinguishes this sort 
of signal from the Phari, or light-houses placed upon the 
coasts for the direction of ships, by the name of ' Ignes 
prronuntiatin,* notice-giving fires (Plin. Hist. Nat., edit. 
Harduin, lib. ii. sect. 73), these being occasional only, the 
phari constant. 

Lord Coke, in his Fourth Institute, chap, xxv., speaking 
of our own beacons, says, * Before the reig:n of Edward 111. 
they were but stacks of wood set up on high places, which 
were fired when the coming of enemies was descried ; but 
in his reign pitch-boxes, as now they be, were, instead of 
those stacks, set up ; and this properly is a beacon.* These 
beacons had watches regularly kept at them, and horsemen 
called hobbelars were stationed by most of them to give 
notice in day-time of an enemy's approach, when the fire 
would not be seen. (Camd. Brtt. in Hampshire^ edit 1789 
vol. Lp. 173.) 



B B A 



78 



B E A 



' Stoir«, in bis Arnioltp tinder tbe yem 1326, mentions, 
among the precautions vbich Edward IL took when pre- 
muing against the return of tbe queen and Mortimer to 
England, that 'be ordained bikenmgs or beacons to be set 
up. that tbe same being fired might be seen far off, and 
thereby the people to be raised/ 

Tbe CottoniauMS. in tbe British Museum, Augustus I. 
Tol. L art. 31, nreserves a plan of the harbours of Poole, 
Purbeck, &c., followed, art. 33, by a chart of the coast of 
Dorsetshire from Lyme to Weymouth, both exhibiting the 
beacons which were erected on the Dorsetshire coast against 
tbe Spanish invasion in 158S. Art. 58 preserves a similar 
chart of tbe coast of SutTulk from Orwell Haven to Gorl- 
ston, near Yarmouth, with tbe several forts and beacons 
erected on that coast. 

The power of erecting beacons was originally in the king, 
and was usually delegated to the I>ord High Admiral. In 
the eighth of Elizabeth an act passed touching sea marks 
and mariners (chap 1 3), by which the corporation of the 
Trinity House of Deplfurd Strond were empowered to erect 
beacons and sea marks on the shores, forelands, &c., of the 
country according to their discretion, and to continue and 
renew the same at the cost of the corporation. 

Professor Ward, in his ' Observations on the Antiquity 
and Use of Beacons in England' (Arc/upologia, vol. i. p. 4), 
says, the money due or payable for the maintenance of 
beacons was called Beconagium, and was levied by the 
sheriff of the county upon each hundred, as appears by an 
ordinance in manuscript for the county of Norfolk, issued 
to Robert de Monte and Thomas dc &ardolfe, who sat in 
parliament as barons, 14th Edward II. 

The manner of watching the beacons, particularly upon 
the coa.st, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, may be gathered 
from the instructions of two contemporary manuscripts 
printed in the Archcpolngia, vol. viii. pp. 100, 183. The 
surprise of those by the sea-side was usually a matter of 
policy with an invading enemy, to prevent the alarm of an 
arrival from being spread. 

An iron beacon or fire-pot may still be seen standing 
upon the tower of Hadley Church in Middlesex. Gougb, 
in his edition of Camden, fol. 1789, vol. iii. p. 281, says, at 
Ingleborough, in Yorkshire, on the we^t edge, are remains 
of a beacon, ascended to by a flight of steps, and ruins of 
a watch-house. Collinson, in his History of SomerseUhire^ 
4 to. 17*J1» vol. ii. p. 5. describes the fire-hearths of four 
large beacons as remaining in bis time upon a hill called 
Dunkery, Beacon in that county. He also mentions the 
remains of a watch-house for a beacon at Dundry (vol. ii. 
p. 105). Beacon-hills occur in some part or other of most 
counties of England which have elevated ground. The 
Herefordshire beacon is well known. Gough, in his addi- 
tions to Camden, ut supr. vol. i. p. 394, mentions a beacon hill 
at Harescombe in Gloucestershire, inclosed by a transverse 
vallaiion fifty feet deep. Salmon, in his History of Hert- 
fordshire, p. 349, says, at Therfield, on a hillwest of the 
church, stood one of the four beacons of this county. 

BEACON SFIELD, a small market-town of Bucking- 
hamshire, in the hundred and deanery of Burnham, twenty- 
ijur miles W. by N. of London, and thirty-one S.S.E. of 
Burking iiam. It is situated upon high ground, whence it 
La.s been supposed that its name is derived from a beacon 
x'lAi formerly occupied the spot. The town consists of four 
i^iret-^s ii>e pnnripal of which, forming part of the road from 
V: - u:k t> High Wycombe, is nearly three quarters of a 
::. .'. :. «ea;;t.i. The substratum on which the town stands 
i» • •-J^ •; . rr*.el. and the houses are built with flints or brick. 
T:.", 'L-" .. d,i«-ued to All Saints, is built of flint and 
fc;-i-''- f v:,- V a.'-l cor.^iaU of a nave, chancel, and side 
u -*cfc. ti IL a I, --r at the we*t end. The remains of Ed- 
I!. -•. 3 h^E.*u •».'./ fK^.Atd and died at Grcgories in this 
p-.'*--. aT: c y*-/.-^. :i ti f; church ; and the churchyard 
•••/.:•.» a » ', > iLiur'.a laV.e montitnt-nt in honour of 
^\ M-i— I. »:..j[, :-* tua:,j€ t^.oriaerl. a* u s\\\\ does to bis 
im:«c.>m '\^'.\, i; ... C --r:. tl- p pe;* s fa'f* \y mansion, is still 
11- ♦•*.*. .r;,. »., 1 *■ ':, .:'!». i.» Weil a<« ti.r; manor, was for- 
Uiwii. ai.„ • .*; V, B-r- .* ••a Pr» r\. Tr.c ItMug is a rectory 
II. iii« 0" ,*.:*. ,^..-, .f l;^- ,.• . :. i '\. r^^jc of Lincoln, valued 

: ,^.i ^.h'vl,\ t..r &'h jW!Non belongs 

O;. •] m:. b ; •.jrf*..a>ed it a*i>out the 

•• '* '•• ' ..-• L""''it a'lvanta^'e from its 

rj I>/i:'Jon ajid Oxford ; 

»..«; <A rx\\\*i \% done mt its 



\\> M *;.".»u«5i f. 

\ear 1 7i*j. B« u« i. '.. 

Mtuatiuii tftt \\\K t. v'* ; 



It. 



ttud iutfi. Ti*.. pr^:..ui.i) ^ U.^U Wycwnbo and 



Uxbridge is, however, said to have rendered tbe marltet of 

less relative importance now than in former times. T:.c 
market-day is Wednesday, and the fairs are held on i-'e- 
bruary 13th and Holy Thursday, tlie latter being for caiile. 
The number of houses in the parish was 341, aocorditur \ . 
the returns of 1831, when the population consisted of ITti 
persons, of whom 891 were females. 

(Lysons's Magna Britannia; Beauiiet of England and 
Wales.) 

BEAD MOULDING. [See Moulding.] 

BEAD TREE. [See Mslia and EukocaspusJ 

BEADLE, the messenger or apparitor of a court, whc 
cites persons to appear to what is alleged against tbem. Ii 
is probably in this sense that we are to understand tL« 
beaellif or under-bailiffs of manors mentioned in sexcrAl 
parts of tbe Domesday Survey, Spelman, Somner, ai.J 
Watts, all agree in the derivation of beadle from tbe Sav .>3 
bvbel, a cryer, and that from bib, to publish, as in biddir.z 
the banns of matrimony. The bedelli of manors probaL.t 
acted as criers in the lord's court. The beadle of a fore^^i. 
as Lord Coke informs us in his Fourth Listitute, vas i;« 
ofiicer who not only warned tbe forest courts and execute! 
process, but made all proclamations. 

Bishop Kennett, in the Glossary Xohiii Parochial An tiqtU" 
ties of Oxfordshire, says that rural deans bad furaivr;* 
their beadles to cite the clergy and church officers to \ iMta- 
tions and execute the orders of tbe court Christian. Pa- 
rochial and church beadles were probably in their ong:u 
persons of this description, though now employed in m. re 
menial services. 

Bedel, or beadle, is also the name of an officer in t\.> 
English universities, who in processions, &c.y precedes xl: 
chancellor or vice-chancellor, bearing a mace. In Oxfonl 
there are three esquire and three yeomen bedels, each at- 
tacbed to tbe respective faculties of divinity, medicine a/.i 
arts, and law. In Cambridge there are three esquire bed* '« 
and one yeoman bedel. The esquire bedels in the latu-r 
university, beside attending the vice-chancellor on puuur 
solemnities, attend also the professors and re^xmdeuts 
collect fines and penalties, and summon to the cbancvllor * 
court all members of the senate. (See Ducangc's OVo4c. :a 
voce Bedellus; Kennett, Paroch. Antiq. vol. ii. Gloss. ; Gfn. 
In trod, to Domesday Book, 8vo. edit. vol. i. p. 247 ; CumU, 
and Oxf. Univ. Calendars.) 

BEADS (Rosary Beads) are made of horn, ebony, ivon, 
glass, box-wood, and other materials, and are strung in ciia^ 
lets used by the Roman Catholics for the purpose of counties 
their prayers. The Rosary is a series of prayers said Ij 
have been first instituted by St. Dominic about the )c^ 
1200, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and as an invocation to 
her for spiritual assistance. It consists of a repetition of the 
Ave Maria and the Paternoster or Lord's Prayer, both m 
Latin. It is divided into decads of ten Ave Marias, each 
decad being preceded by the Lord's Prayer, and terminaLu^ 
with the Gloria Patri. Thq full or great rosary consi^u ut 
fifteen decads, but the common rosarv, which is recited ge- 
nerally in the evening by pious Catholics, consists of i>uly 
five decads. At the end of the five decads they rec:u^ 
the Creed, or Symbol of the Apostles, and aTlerwardA 
(in Italy at least) the Litany of the Virgin, which i» 
different from tbe Litany of the Liturgy. The rosary i» a 
daily family evening prayer : the head of the family san 
the first part of each Ave Maria, and the other mem be » 
repeat in chorus the remaining part. [See Avk Maria.] 
* The original rosary of St. Dominic is a recitation of fiiUii 
decads of Ave Marias, preceded each by a Pater, each decad 
being devoted to the meditation of one of the mysteries vf 
the life of our Saviour. The first five mysteries are tho^e 
of the incarnation, nativity, &c., and are styled joyful mas- 
teries. The next five are those of the passion and death, 
and are styled sorrowful. The remaining five are tbuft<e Jl 
the resurrection, ascension, assumption of the Virgin, &c^ 
and are termed glorious.' (Touron, Vie de St, Dominie; 
Quindecim Mysteria Rosarii Beatte Maritt Vireimis^ a R. 
Schiaminosso delin. atquc incisa, Rome, 1 609.) The comm .'u 
chaplet is called Corona, * a crown,' in honour of the Virguu 

The beads are distinguis)ied bv the\^ size and shaf''\ 
those marking tlie Lord's Prayer being. larger than tbt.>»e 
for the Ave Marias. Itosaries of very small glass beads ar< 
worn by pious Catholics round their necks. The ot^jcct of 
St. Dominic was probably, while doing honour to the Virgin, 
to fix at the same time the attention of the pious on the 
contemplation of the principal eventi of the Saviour s life. 



SBS '. 

ly allowing a certun time, marlted by the recitation often 
Ave Marins. to the medilBtion apon each event or mystery. 
The name of rosarv is flgurativB: it means a chaplet of 
Epirituni roses, dirtded into ihree sets, white, red, and da- 
mask roses, corresponding to the joyftil, sorTowAil, and 
glorious mysteries. Such are the alleRory and its ciptana- 
lion. (The Riisarie n/nur Ladie othervisi called our Ladie'i 
PtalleT, Antvrerp, 1600. 1 

The Turks and olhei' eastern nations have also chaplets 
of beads made of amber or other materials, which they turn 
throuf^h their fingers while sitting in a listless mood, but 
not, as it seeins, for en^ purpose of prayer. The Turkish 
chaplet is called ■ Combolo'io.' 

BEAGLE, a small we 11 -proportioned hound, slow but 
«ure, having an excellent nose and most enduring diligence, 
formerly munh in fashion for hunting the hare, but now 
fomparatively neglected, its place being occupied, where 
bare-buntingis patronized, by the harrier. [See Harrikr.] 



These were the little hounds to maeh priied by 'the 
good oid Enghsh gentleman ;' for, at a trilling expenM. 
and greatly to the delight of the neighbouring nutioa who 
fbllowed on foot, he could keep his ten or eleven eouple, 
not more thau so many inches high individually, and, 
mounted on bis easy pad, would generally make certain of 
killing his hare, though it ftequently cost him two or three 
hours to perform the feat. During this protracted cha«e 
he had ample leisure for enjoying the sight of his admi- 
rably matched pack, running so well together that • they 
might have been covered with a sheet,' and for graUfying 
his ears with their tunable cry. 

The hare distanced them immeasurably at Brat, and, in 
the course of the run. she might be observed to ait and 
listen ' sad on some little eminence,' but 

—• In touder p«li. the Iculid vindi 

Brovihl on Um g>tl»ilii| lUXB'— 
and, after exhausting all her speed, shifts, and doublings, 
she almost always fell a victim to their persevering and de- 
structive instinct. 



A well-bred beagle of the proper size, which should n( 
jKceed that above-mentioned, is a very pretty and Mir 
raeiricul variety. ITiis symmetry (the term is used i 



relation to the purposes for which the dog is emplojed) 
tbo rcbult of much care among amateurs, who spared no 
efTorls to bring it to what they considered the standard of 
perfection. 

Some prided themselves on the diminutive but still 
e(f«cllve si«e of their packs, Daniel and others have not 
forgotten to commemorate Colonel Hardy's ' cry of beagles.' 
They amounted to ten or eleven couple, and were always 
carried to and from the field in a pair of panniers upon a 
horde's back. Small as they were, they rarely failed, though 
they could never get near enough to press the hare in the 
early part of the run, to stick lo hor and worry her lo death 
at last. ^ , ^ 

Such diminutive hounds are sometimes called 'lap^og 
beagles' nud ' rabbit beagles.' 

The fairy pack above alluded to had a little bam fcr their 
kennel, where also their panniers were kept. The door was 
one night brbken open, and every hound, panniers and all, 
stolen ; nor could the disconsolate owner ever discover either 
the thieves or their booty. 

BEAMINSTER, or BEMINSTER FORUM, a mar- 
ket-town in Donetshire, in the Bridport division of tfav 



i BEX 

hundred of BeaminsleT,123 mites W:S.W. of London, txA 
1 4^ W.N. W. of Dorchester. It is situated on the river Bir( 
which issues from several springs running from the hills 
with which the town is aurrourided. Beaminsler is of consi* 
derabte antiquity. In Domesday Book, Bwnin^tre is clnsscd 
among the lands belonging to the bishopric of Sarum. 
Begeminster iras given by Bishop Onnund, in 1091, tO 
augment two of the prebends of his catheilral. The parish 
consists of Ihree manors, Beaminsler Prima, Beaminstst 
Secunda, and Benminster Parsonatus, all of which are held 
by lease by the present lords under the church of Salisbury. 
Leland thus describes Beam in ster in his time: — *lt is a 
praty market town, and usilli much housbandry, and lyilk 
in one street from N. to 6., and in onother from W. to B. 
There is a faire chopetle of ease in this town, Netherby 
[Netlierbury] is the paroch chirch lo it, and Beminstre is a 
prebend to the cliifcli of Saresbyri.' The town was almost 
entirely destroyed by Are in 16-14, while Prince Maurice 
was in quarters there. It was re-built by the assistance of 
parliament, but in I6B4 was again consumed ; and. Bnally, 
in 1 7BI , upwards of fifty houses, besides bams, stables, and 
other buildings, were reduced lo ruins. To these flret> 
however, the town is indebted for its present very respectable 
appearance, most of the houses being ymoA modem build- 
ings, lie streets have lately been paved by a subscription 
of the inhabitants, and the shops and some of the houses are 
now lighted with gna. The church and IVee-sohool are the 
principal buildings of the town. The church is dedicated 
to the nativity of the Blessctl Virgin, and although only b 
chapel of ease to the vicarage of Netherbury, is a lafge 
handsome structure, standing on an eminence on the wutk 
side of the town. It is supporteil in the inside by Golhib 
arehes and pillars of Ham-hill stone. The tower is nearly 
too feet high, and is tlecorated with sculptures, illustralivB 
of the woollen trade, for which the town was famous at ihe 
time they were executed r tliere are also figures of one or 
two of the kings, and a number of roses, of which traditioii 
states that the figures are those of kings who reigned at the 
times that repairs were done to the church, and that the 
roses nammetflorate the union between the houses of York 
and Lancaster. The town has a commodious workhousd, 
trhich is maintained partly by the rents of a small estate, 
and partly by the poor-rates. There is' also an ahnahouse, 
built about 1627 by Sir John Strode, and afterwards en- 
dowed by him and his daughter. Lady Joan Tuberrille, for 
the maintenance of six poor women. The free-achool was 
founded in or about the year 1684 by Mrs. Frances Tucker, 
for the educition of twenty of the poorest boys in Bcamin- 
Ster, three or four of whom are to be apprenticed to the sea 
service. The estate with which this school is endowed was 
let in the year 1707, at 65/. a year, which is now increased 
to 16oi. ; the surplus has been employed in increasing the 
number of boys at the school from SO to 100, and in 
providing fuel, which is sold to the poor at a reduced rale 
during tne winter. The Rev. Samuel Hood, the ftlher 
of Lords Hood and Bridport, was master of this school In 
1715. The number of houses in Beamin ster was S67 in 
1831, when the population amounted to 2988 persons, of 
whom 1373 were females. During the year 1B34, the town 
was visited with an e^ctraordinary mortality, owing princi- 
pally to the small-pos and measles, which raited the pro- 
portion of deaths to one in twenty-six on the whole number 
of inhabitants. The inhabitants are chiefly engs^ed in 
the manufacture of sail-cloth, of iron, tin, and copper wares. 
The market is held on Thursday, and there are fairs on 
April 14, September 19, and October 9. The qoarter- 
scEsions were held here in the reign of Elizabeth and the 
seven first years of Charles I„ but they were afterwards 
remoi-ed to Bridport. (Hutcbins's Hitlory and Antiquitiei 
of the Countiet of Dortel ; Heoutiei nf England and 
irale^ ; Communicatioti nf a Correspondent, ^c.) 
BEAMS, [See Materials, Strbmoth or.] 
BEAN. [See Faba, Pbasholus, and Doe-ichO"!,] 
BEAN, a leguminous plant, extensively cultivated m the 
garden and in the field, classed by Linnieus in the DiadeU 
phia Decandria, and by Jussieu among the LtBUminota. 
There are two distinct kinds of beans cultivated ; the one 
is called the fiiia vulgarit or Vicia Faba, which is our 
common garden and field bean ; the other is the P/taseolut 
vuigarit, the French bean, haricot, or kidney-bean. Wa 
here consider them only in an agricultural point of view. 

The common bean, of which there are several vsrieties, 
bears a pod containing several oblong rounded seeds, wbieh 



B E A 



80 



B B A 



ti« med in Uie toft young itate ibr the table, and in the 
bacd dr^ stale for domestic snimals chiefly, either whole or 
ground mto meal. In some places bean-meal is mixed with 
other meal in making coarse bread ; or the beans are boiled 
into a mess with fat meat, in which state they are very 
lialatable and nutritions. The bean came origmally from 
the east, and was cultivated in Egypt and Be^ary in the 
earliest ages of which we have any records. It spread 
titence into Spain and Portugal, fit>m whence some of the 
best varieties have been introduced into this country. The 
most common varieties of garden beans are the Windsor, 
the Toker, tiie long-pod, and the Magazan, all productive 
and well tasted. £i the field the tick bean, the comniou 
bone bean, and the small Dutch, or Heligoland bean, are 
preferred, being hardy as well as productive. The long-pod 
IS occasionally sown in the fieldy the Magazan and broad 
Windsor bean seldom. 

There is no plant in which the transformation of the 
cotyledons into leed leaves is more readily traced than in 
the bean. The Windsor bean, in particular, from the size 
of its lobes and distinctness of its vessels, is admirably 
adapted for observation, the parts being readily distin- 
guished by the naked eye. If a bean is planted in moist 
earth or soaked in water, in a moderate temperature, the 
cotyledons will swell and soon burst the skin which enve- 
lopes them, separating into two lobes, which open like the 
shells of an oyster. In the part which forms the joint an 
oblong body will appear, which is the embryo stem of the 
plant This increases rapidly in the earth, and pushes a 
root downwards, and a stem upwards, which latter carries 
the lobes with it till they rise above the ground, when 
they expand, and are transformed into seed leaves. It is 
curious to observe the force of vegetation in the young bean 
when it is, as it were, imprisoned in a strong soil hardened 
at the surface, as may be seen when a path crosses a field 
of beans newly planted ; the cotyledons, under these cir- 
cumstances, are drawn into the crevices made by the young 
stem, where they often remain held fast till the first shower 
releases them. The change in the cotyledons deserves 
particular attention. As soon as the seed swells by imbibing 
mobture, the oxygen, which is always present in the at- 
mosphere and in water, acts upon the farinaceous substanro 
in the seed, and takes a portion of carbon from it producing 
carbonic acid, which is absorbed by the surrounding plants, 
or flies off in the state of gas : by this loss the remaining 
substance becomes a mild fluid emulsion, analogous to the 
milk of animals* which, being taken up by the minute 
vessels of the radicle, nourishes and increases them. It 
is this slone which produces the first growth ; the earth is 
the mere cradle to protect the young plant and to keep it 
moist, by preventing the too rapid evaporation which the heat 
and light of the sun would otherwise produce : when the 
ground is entirely deprived of moisture, vegetation necessarily 
ceases. The cotyledons are the reservoirs of nature to sup- 
ply proper food for the plant in its in&nt state, as the 
mother's milk does in animals of the class of mammalia, 
and the yolk of the egg in birds and oviparous animals. 
In proportion as the &rina in the lobes is gradually ex- 
hanstea new vessels appear through the substance of the 
kbes, conveying the newly formed juice from every part of 
them into the root and stem, and, at last, the cotyledons are 
transformed into seed leaves. The fibres of the roots are by 
this time completely formed, and their extremities, called 
fpongioie$* from their appearance when minutely examined, 
have acquired the power of absorbing nourishment (rom 
the aoiL The plant may now be said to be weaned. The 
stem is then considerably advanced in growth, having put 
forth new leaves of a diflerent form firom the seed leaves : 
tfaeM last, havinr now performed their part, wither and 
lOon fall off; if tbey are removed before this period, the 
plant, having lost its nurM, langmshes and dies. 

The bean at this stage of iu growth requires particular 
attention. If tbesoil is ridi and well prepared, it will grow 
vapidly and loxoriamly, and be soon out of reach of insects 
^ Weeds, and capable of resisting the varying influences of 
^ auiiotpbero; but if the soil is poor andparched, and 
the supply of nntritive juices is scanty, the pUnt will soon 

* ^^*<<«' at iW mUmmitm* mt Uw Mulk«( iwiSolaau of Om raote 
mmj ^ Mrm.117 Mcaa of kijrb mtfuMm, tSAJ! haOaet, «bkh lerai to be 



^•rj: 




teorj 



' »w la Um* jfiif*; Iff vhicli 
tm • «iul fewer, by wbkb 
amd mn bf WMe Ihpmght 



show weakness and disease, and the only way to firewBt a 
total faOure of the crop, is to supply by art the deneieficr o*' 
nature. In very poor soils manure maybe applied in a 
liquid staie^ or as a top-dressing: in theme whieh are not 
exhausted, tillage alone will enable the roots to spread, and 
give them a wider range to seek their food in. The wet^^ 
being destroyed, the whole powers of the soil are reaenvl 
for the crop ; and the air charged with fertilizing vnpoor^ 
being allow^ to penetrate the smfaee, and being retained 
in the interstices of the soil, greatly assists in invi<r^- 
rating the vegetation. These are the principles on winch 
is founded the whole culture of leguminous plants, 
whether in the garden or the field. Where labour is not 
spared and the produce is valuable, as where vegetables 
are raised as a kind of luxury for the tables of the rich. 
the greatest attention is paid to the eidtivation of bean«. 
so as to have them early and in regular succession durif£ 
the whole summer. They are even occasionally rai«ed 
by artificial heat. In general they are sown or planted, 
at various times, from the beginning of wmter to the 
middle of summer, but they must be protected from 
troti in the first case, and from too great heat and drought 
in the latter. They are set in rows with wide interval, 
which are kept du^ and clean, and in which lesaer vegeta- 
bles are advancing in growth, to be sheltered by the bear.«. 
and to succeed them when removed. In order to strengthi^D 
the pods already formed, as soon as those which arc noar 
the bottom of we stem are filled, the tops of the plants 
are cut off, and the beans are gathered when the seed his 
acquired sufficient consistency to be taken from the shells 
before they have acquired .'any farinaceous qualities. Ot}^ 
crop is made to succeed another by regulating the time$ ; f 
sowing ; and thus beans are gathered for the table ttmn M^j 
to November, or till the fros^ nights check the growth of tb« 
plant. The cultivation of the field bean is only as perfvtt 
an imitation of the garden culture as circumstances v;:! 
permit. As only one crop is required, and that in a per- 
fectly ripe state, when the seeds are fully formed and hard, 
the/ are sown at one particular season, so as to avoid thd 
danger from frosts and ungenial weather in spring, and at 
the same time to have the crop ripe in good time to be har- 
vested before the cold and wet season sets in. The usual 
mode is to drill them by a machme, at the distance of from 
twenty to thirty inches, according to the richness of the 
soil, or to dibble them by hand, either singly or by puttifs: 
fbur or five beans in each hole, increasing the distance uf 
the holes fh)m six to twelve inches. Beans are tolerablj 
hardy, and will bear moderate dry frosts ; but they sufff:: 
much from alternate frosts and thaws, which in this d- 
mate are so common in February. The end of February, 
or the beginning of March, is therefore generally preferrvd 
for bean-sowing. When the season is remarkably mild, as 
was the case in 1834, early sowing is a great advantar*. 
The writer of this article planted a field of beans on the l>: 
January 1834, in a soil duly prepared ; thenr were rcap«t! 
in August, and produced a vei^ good crop : his neighboLrv 
who planted their beans in March, had not half the quor.- 
tity on equally good land, owing to the dryness of the sum- 
mer. But this was an experiment which succeeded : h^ 
severe weather come on in February, the whole crop mi^Lt 
have been lost. As a general rule, beans may be sovn 
from the middle of February to the middle of March. Thi 
sorts usually cultivated in the fields are the tick beic. 
the horse bean, and the small Dutch or Heliogdiand bean. 
In some situations the Magazan and the long-pod ba\e 
produced good crops in the field : the first three are ho«r. 
ever best suited for general cultivation. There are several 
varieties of these, which differ but little in their appear- 
ance; experience is the best guide in choosing the !«T^i 
which suits particular soils and situations. The smji": 
round regular-shaped beans are generally prefecred, as ob- 
taining the best prices in the markets, especudly in Ur^t 
towns, where there is a great consumption odT beans b\ 
hard-workins^ horses. 

The soil best adapted for beans is a rich strong Ijar:, 
such as produces good wheat. In such a soil the product; b 
sometimes fifty or sixty bushels per acre» but an averii:*. 
crop, on moderate land, is about half that quantity. Uc 
very rich land beans have produced extraordinary citips, U 
being sown broad-cast and very thick, the stems being dra« I 
up to a great height in favourable seasons. A small fit!: 
of very nch land, in the county of Sussex, waa sown i:: 
the year 1832 with fi)ur bushels of the smafi tick ben. 



B E A 



81 



B £ A 



which came up so thick, that the proprietor thought of 
thinning out the plants hy hoeing; hut he was advised to see 
uhat the produce would he, and when they were threshed 
out» there were ten quarters and one hushel of heans. 
He had the ground accurately measured, and it was found 
to he one acre and twentv-nine perches, which makes the 
crop ahove sixty-eight hushels per acre. They completely 
smothered all weeds, and the subsequent crop of wheat 
produced five (juarters to the acre; but this particular 
example of sowmg beans broad-cast we do not hold up for 
general imitation. By cultivating the beans in rows, and 
by carcful hoeing and manuring, alternate crops of wheat 
and beans may be raised for many years, witliout inter- 
mission, or any necessity for change or fallow : this has 
Ik'uu long the practice in the richest part of Kent. In 
this case the beans must be drilled or set in rows, with 
intervals of from twenty-four to thirty inches between 
ihii rows; and the intervals must be repeatedly stirred 
and hoed with proper instruments, so as to prevent the 
^ro^\'th of weeds and keep the soil in a perfectly clean 
and mellow state; the weeds which rise in the rows are 
removed bv hand. Immediately after bean harvest the land 
is scarified, or skimmed over with a plough having a very 
broad share, whence the operation is sometimes called broad- 
fihtiririg. All roots of weeds and the remains of bean-halm 
are collected and burned, or put in a heap with quicklime, to be 
converted into manure. The ground is then ploughed once 
or several times, according to circumstances, and wheat is 
sown about the month of October, either broadcast or by 
means of a drilling machine, in rows ten or twelve inches 
asunder, which gives greater facility for hoeing and weeding 
the crop when necessary. The wheat which Ibllows beans is 
UT'Mierally good and heavy, and seldom runs to straw. After 
wheat-harvest the stubble is ploughed up and turned in 
v^iih a very deep furrow; the land is harrowed flat, and a 
\zooi\ coating of manure is put on in a moderately rotten 
state, and this is covered with a shallow ploughing: the land 
is well water-furrowed and left so till spring, when the beans 
are drilled in the mellow surface produced by the winter's 
frost. This is the most approved practice ; but many e;ipc- 
rienred farmers vary it according to the varieties of soil, or 
according to difference of opinion. Some put on manure for 
the beans in spring, and some drill the beans in every second 
or ttnrd furrow after the plough ; but all good farmers agree 
in manuring the land for the beans and carefully hoeing 
them. It is evident that a different method is required in 
<lillercnt soils, varied according to their texture and situ- 
ation. Alternate crops of wheat and beans can only succeed, 
for any length of time, on soils peculiarly favoured. In 
proneral, a change of crops and occasional fallows, will be 
indispensable to keep the land perfectly clean and in good 
heart. 

In cold wet soils beans require great care to ensure good 
crop;*. Although they will grow well and seem to flourish in 
t lie stifl^est and most unsubdued clays, they will seldom pro- 
'luce much at harvest, unless the land has been well pre- 
jmred and the cultivation managed with skill. There is 
no better criterion of the experience and industry of the far- 
mer of cold, wet clays than the appearance of his beans at 
harvest ; and he may be judged by this crop, as the farmer 
ol y\j\\iy sandy soils may be judged by his turnips. The 
ruUivation of these two opposite kinds of inferior soils will, 
in general, be profitable or otherwise in proportion to the 
{>i'.>duce of the beans in the one and the turnips in the 
other: tho first being a substitute for clean fallow, and the 
1 ittcr the foundation of all the succeeding crops. The bean, 
hy its strong and penetrating root, opens the stiff soil to 
the influence of the atmosphere, by which the surface is 
(iried and at the same time mellowed. Althou<^h tlie nu- 
iritiou.s matter in a good crop of beans is great, and almost 
rquul to that obtained from a crop of wheat, it exhausts the 
sol) much less : its succulent stems and leaves absorb much 
:inurishrnent from the atmosphere, and the latter fulling off 
and decaying, restore carbon and mucilage to the soil, and 
make \ip for the inferior quantity of manure produced by the 
he an -halm in comparison with wheat straw. There is per- 
liaps no crop, bearing seed, which gives so great a return 
w ith so small an expenditure of the nutritive juices of the 
c.(.il ; and certainly none that repays manure better, or 
1 <^:i\ es the land in a better condition for wheat or oats. It is a 
\ ery common practice to plough a stiff soil in spring only once, 
atter it has borne clover, grasses, or wheat, and to drill 
b'.^ans in the furrows immediately after the plough, by hand 



or by an instrument ; in this case it is best to deposit the 
beans as near the angle of the furrow as possible, and in 
every second furrow only, that they may rise regularly at a 
proper distance. In spite of the tough slues which the plough 
turns over in a mass, the force of vegetation in the bean 
makes it pierce through them, and, under favourable cir- 
cumstances, a tolerable crop is sometimes obtained ; while 
the more industrious neighbour, who has tilled his land 
in autumn and again in spring, by repeated ploughings, 
and made it fine and mellow, may be disappointed in 
his crop by untoward variations of weather. The slovenly 
farmer then laughs at the more perfect system of the othen 
pretending that it is wrong to work strong soils so much and 
make them too fine^ as the term is. Thus the progress of a 
whole district in rational and improved culture is arrested 
or checked by the apparent evil of frequent ploughing. But 
the conclusion is founded in error. There can be no rule 
better confirmed by experience than that adhesive soils should 
be stirred and divided as much as possible ; but this ra\ist be 
done with due regard to circumstances and seasons, and 
the differences in soils : chalking, marling, or manuring^ 
are necessary, in order to prevent the divided soil ft-om 
setting into a hard compact mass. Light coloured clays 
which consist of siliceous sand and argillaceous earth 
only, without any intermixture of other substances, set the 
harder in drying the more they arc stirred ; atler being 
ploughed they soon have the appearance of stripes of un-> 
burned brick ; and if a heavy sliower has fallen after the 
land has been harrowed, thcv become hard like a barn 
floor. It is of no use to pulverise such land, until its texture 
is altered by chalk, marl, dung, or ashes ; and the safest 
way is not to stir it too much, as no good crop can be ex- 
pected, at all events, till it be ameliorated. To prepare a 
middling stiff soil for beans, it should be ploughed into 
high and narrow lands in autumn, with numerous and deep 
water* furrows, so that no water may lie on any part of it, 
and, if possible, it should be manured with long dun^ before it 
is ploughed. In spring, if there has been some frost, the 
surface will be loose and mellow ; in this tl«; beans should 
be drilled or dibbled by hand, and a time should be chosen 
for hoeing them, when the ground is ^either wet nor dry, 
so that the hoe, whether hand-hoe or horse-hoe, may pene- 
trate two or three inches below the surface to open the soil 
and destroy tho weeds. The hoeing of the beans is a most 
essential part of the culture, and according as it is well or ill 
executed the land will produce more or fewer crops after it 
without its being necessary to have recourse to a fallow. 
Objections have been made to the use of the horse-hoe and 
scarifier between the rows in stiff soils, because, when the 
ground is dry and caked, the hoe raises large clods and 
lays the roots bare, sometimes even destroying the plants. 
But there are means of preventing this : if the ground is 
repeatedly hoed when not quite dry, it will not bind into 
a hard crust or rise in clods; and should a sudden dry 
wind, after much rain, bake the surface in spite of every 
attention to it, a spiky roller, of such dimensions as to work 
between tlie rows, will effectually loosen the soil, so that 
hoes and grubbers may follow without inconvenience. We 
give a drawing of such an instrument, which has been found 
very effective. 

The cylinder may be used with or without the spikes, or 
may be removed entirely ; the instrument then becomes a 
scarifier or grubber, according to the shape of the coulters 
which are fixed to it. The front wheel is of use to move 
the whole instrument upon, by lifting the stilts or handles 
in the manner of a wheelbarrow, at the end of the rows, 
when the horse turns out of one row into another. The 
cross bar on the frame before the roller is to fix hoes or 
coulters on, when the roller is taken away. 

When the beans have pushed their stems, and the proper 
leaves appear above the seed leaves, the intervals should 
be carefully hoed, and, where it is practicable, three or four 
bushels of gypsum per acre may be sown, if the soil does 
not already contain this substance, audit will greatly stimu- 
late the growth. The mode of its operation is not exactly 
known, but experience has proved its utility. [See Manurk 
and Gypsum.] A very small quantity of gypsum seems to 
stimulate the growth of all leguminous plants and clovers, 
but if this quantity be already present in the soil no additional 
quantity seems to have any effect. It has been recommended 
to cut off the tops of the plants when the lower pods are set, as 
is frequently done in garden culture, to accelerate the filling 
of them» and to prevent useless blossoms from drawing the 



No. 215. 



[THB PENNY CYCLOPiBDIA.] 



Vol. IV.-M 



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82 



B E A 




[Roller viih SpikM.] 



noumhnient to the top. The veason for doing this in gar- 
dens is, that when a plant has borne pods a certain time it 
is most advantageous to reraore it, and the top blossoms, of 
course, never come to perfection. In the field this is not the 
case, there being no succession of plants ; and, unless the 
top blossoms are very late, or the black dolphin (aphis) be- 
gins to appear, which is shown by the honey-dew on the 
top shoots, no advantage is gained by topping the plants, 
and ihe labour is thrown away. When the leaves of the 
beans begin to lose their green colour, and the pods to turn 
black, the crop should be reaped with the sickle, and made 
into small sheaves, tied with straw bands or Ur twine, and 
set up in the field to dry. In some places pease are sown 
mixed with the beans, or the headlands are sown with pease, 
the halm of which is used to tie the beans with ; but pease 
chng round the bean stalks and impede the setting of the 
pods ; they also interfere with the hoeing and weeding, so 
that the practi^ is not to be reoommended. Pease require a 
lighter soil and are best sown separately, except when they 
ojra sown broad-cast mixed with beans, in order to be mown 
^ a green state as fodder for cattle or for pigs. Sowing 



in 



beans for this last-mentioned purpose is not much practised 
in England, but is found very useful on the Continent, espe- 
cially in Flanders ; in this case they are mown like tares soon 
after the pods are formed. In order to have a succession 
of this green fbod, Uiey should be sown at different times, 
with a week or fortnight's interval. By this means a great 
deal of grass is saved, which may be reserved for hay ; the 
cattle fed in the stables or yards thrive well on this food, and 
produce a quantity of rich mannre, chiefly in a liquid state* 
which fills the tanks and reservoirs which we have repeat- 
edly mentioned as indispensable appendages to every good 
Ikrm-yard. By having winter tares when the turnips are 
consumed, pease and l^ans after the first crop of clover, and 
summer tares to succeed them, cattle may be fed in the stables 
all the year round with great advantage, the land may be 
tilled at tiie best season of the year, and prepared for wheat, 
as well as by a dean follow, while the green crop will fVilly 
repay all the expenses. Three bushels of beans and two of 
pease mixed together are required per acre when sown broad- 
east, or drillea in each furrow after the plough. It is often 
advantageous to cut in a green state those beans which were 
sown fhr a general crop, when fbod for pigs is scarce. They 
will go nearly as fkr in this way in feeoing store pi^ as the 
beans would have done when ripe, and the ground is left in 
a much better state for the following crop. 

Although beans grow best in a rather heavy soil, they 
are often profitable on much lighter land, especiaUy after 
clover ley or grass, which is broken up after being depas- 
tured two or three years. This is an excellent preparatory 
crop fbr wheat, and better than oats, which leave such land full 
of weeds. In this case the land should be carefully ploughed 
up. For this purpose a skim-coulter, which has a small 
wing attached to it, to slice off the grassy surface of the land 
and turn it under the ftirrow, is a most useful appendage to 
the plough. This makes rery clean work, and a neavy roller 
drawn across the stitobes or lands leaves the whole surface 
compact and solid, keeping the moisture from evaporating 
andniicilitatingthe slow decomposition of the roots of the 
grass. Thus a very good and clean crop of beans may be 
obtained. If the soil should be exhausted or very poor, a good 
coat of manure spread over the grass and ploughed in win be 



a great advantage te the beanii^ and to the wheat whicU is to 
follow. On moderatoly light loams the mo»t profitable rota- 
tiMi of crops is that of toniips, barley, olover, beans, wheat ; 
or, if it is in a rich state, turnips, barley, clover, oats, beaus, 
wheat, beans. When land is ia good heart beaoa are 
often added to any rotation after wheat ox before it, and 
the follow is thus removed a year farther on. This ia like- 
wise done when it w iatonaed to change the course of 
crops ; because bea^s are considered the least exhausting 
of tne erops which are allowed to ripen their seeds, and this 
piactioe is far less hurtful than the too oommoa one of 
taking another crop of oats after the wheat, by which more 
harm is done than the value of the crop can compensate for. 

The diseases to which beans are sulJiect are, the mildew, 
vhieh is a minuto fungus that grows on the atems of 
leaves^ and is caused by cold fogs and frequent sudden va- 
riations of weather, and the black dolphin, an insect of the 
aphis tribe, which appears first in the form of a honey-dew 
on the tops of the plants. For the mildew no remedy or 
preventive has yet been found. Whenever it has at- 
tacked the plants generally, before the pods are filled, the 
best method is to cut down the crop in its green state ; and 
if it cannot be consumed in the farm-yard, to plough it into 
the ground, where it will decay rapidly, and be an excellent 
manuring for the succeeding crop of wheat* If allowed to 
stand, the crop wOl not only be unproductive, but the weeds 
will infest the ground, and spoil the wheat crop by their 
seeds and roots, vhieh will remain in the soil. When- 
ever the tops of the beans begin to be moist and danimv t« 
the feel, it is the foremnner of the aphia. They should thea 
be immediately cut ofi; and this, if done in time, may save 
the crop from the ravages ef Hw insects ; hut the most efft-c- 
tual way to prevent any disease firom attaeking the plants in 
their growtn is to have the g>roond in good heart, and well 
tilled ; to drill the beans at a suflkient diatance between the 
rows to allow of the use of the horse -hoet and thus to aooele* 
rate the growth of the plants, and enable them te outgrow 
the efiTect of incipient dwease» which seldem attaeka any 
but weak plants. 

The principal use of beans is te feed horses, for which 
puipose they are admirably adapted, and for more nourbhine 
than eats. They shonld be bruised or split in % mill^ and 
given to horses mixed with hay and straw eut into ^aflT ; this 
will ensure proper mastication and prerent that thickening; 
of the wind, as it is ealled. eaused by indigestion, which 
makes beans alone not so well adapted for the food of 
hunters and raoe-horses. Great quaatitiea ef heaas are 
consumed in fotting hogs, to whom thav are given whole at 
first, and afterwards ground into meal. Bacon hogs mav 
be fatted entirely en beans and bean-meal ; but aa thia food 
makes the flesh verv firm, it is not aa well adapted for de- 
licate porkers. In the kast period of their fetting, ther^ore 
tmrley-meal is usually substituted fot bean-meal. Bean- 
meal given to oxen soon maksa them fat, and the naeat ia 
for bettor than when oil-eake is used for that jmrpova. 
mixed with water and given aa a drink to oows it greatly 
increases their milk. A small quantity of beana is gene- 
rally mixed with new wheat when ground to flour : the mil> 
lers pretend that soft wheat will not grind well without 
bKMins, and they generally oontriva that there shall be no 
deficiency in the necessary prc^portiou. Thus a quaulity oC 
beans is converted faile wl»l ia ssnsidp wd aa wheuten Itoui- 



B£ A 



S3 



B E A 



Thii pnoUet to Ml) mown ts bH bdun and dmlers 
flow ; and at Am* «)« nwm «f ducoraring the quantity 
of twen-neal in Ae flosr, Ae ignonnt and nnsaipectinK 
onljr an deoetTCd, tad tke prioa tf die flonr to tfa« skilfol 
purchaser varie* according to the quality. 

IIm propoitiM <rf nskitiTe matttr ni beans, Danfared 
with otMr gnri«t m, •otardivg to Kinhof, u faUoira^-^ 

Wheat . . 74 perveM. about 47 A. 
Rye . ■" -* 

Batlar 
tiatt . 



FtvnelibeCmB H „ -„ H 

The Fremh beak, kidoBj bean, or hariMt bean (PAomo- 
iiu KHfeorif), is ekieflf owllivaMd for tta taMder aad aacaa- 
knt pod, being eaeof tba ittoat a a te t m e d vegetables for tbe 
table. The vaiielie* are BininneTable, dittmng sli^tly in 
their qusUties : they may be divided mio two dtBtiDet kiitds, 
thedvaifBiHtoiimbiii;; the fcniHmellMauVer, the latter 
the more prodaotive. French beans are much less hardy 
than theeomBMm beaut; % wry alight O ag i e ci of Iroat will 



in shettered sitBatieita, hmI o e tM i bnall r pratoetad by glaai 
frames or mats. n» rKmbibg bekni leqwe the euffort 
of Bticki «r iriree, round wUeh they twne aa they frow, 
with this pe wullti t y . 1b«t the voila turn Mtmd Ae enppart 
from the Rght to the left, «entnTf U> the growth «f eoaie 
indi|;eno«i twistng ptants, vMek tun fretn tketeftto tlie 
right, fiiHowingtbe myuMm ai w iiatwWionflf dN svn. 

The F^rmch bea*, et an eecaieRt veftetaMa^ ti vheleaoeae 
and nutrittoni n ■ fMh kMAe, «ed nNiy be Teadily pre- 
served for winter stei« <* «ea wyai^ 'bf wlting tn inrin. 
For ihii parpose the lacge, 4at«eilMl, Dateh wIhM tvarner 
is preferrad. In HoHand aoA wmanyi where large qom- 
litles areialted in akmeM «TCryAmity,« m a ehiiia jsosed 



for catting them e^)editio<uIy, which greatly reaemblei a 
turnip sheer, and tnay, with a slight alteration, be osed also 
for slicing cabbages when making the national German 
preparation of aour ktout (tauer-ltraul). It consists of a 
wheel or disk. A, in which two or four knives are set at 
a small angle with the plane of it, so as (o shave off a thin 
■lioe obliquely from the beans, which are held in a box, C, 
with several putiticns in whieb they are kept Dpright, so as 



toiMe<towp<Bp ro pe rti oiiaidMyMi»eBt! timssixereigfct 
beens aiealtoed at enea,andvery raptdty,merely by turning 
the handla B, and ««i^ying the bos with beans in svcees- 
■ion. The riieed beeiM Ml on the taUe below, asd are im 
mediMeiy put in aoaak with tdtematekfcnof salt. When 
tbe eaek is Ml aad weH pceued domt, a levnd beaid is put 
over ttie beaas end a iMavy woght npon it. Aa the beaas 
■re oompreaMd, aad begia >a)ight^ to femen^ the liquor is 
poured off, •omefreshealt is «tHwed over the •arihee, and a 
HBen clotii is presacd dots np« itte igeepvat tite ait; tke 
rvnnd board aiid weight m put «v« tke eledt, asd ee the 
team remain till wanted ftrtwe. When tay at» tdcra oat 
Aey are wushed in seft water te take oat Ae Mk, and gently 
stewed with a little gravy, at with milk and a piece irfbattv. 
Tbeyhm avary whi^esorae vegetable dirii at a tine when 
freak vegetables are scarce. Tie dried seeds an also boiled 
after IxMtg neaked in water fcr seme liwie, aid are tunally 
nixedwith thepreservedgreenbeaasia thesaaiedi^. This 
nee of the F^nch besa is not cotsmon rn England, but when 
we take intoconrideration that they are exttvmely wbriewtoe 
and nunitive, nrach more so than pease, and tnat they am 
an admirable eorreotive of the oily qualitieiof animal fat by 
their ftainaceoos qualities, we ^all regret that beth the 
eultnre and the tmeof them in the dry stateue not extended 
for thebeneAtrf'thelaboaringpertaftheootB«Bnity. The 
cultivation of the French beim for the seed is confined in 
Ifaia cmntry to the gardens and nnrseries, and to a few 
■pots in the Isle of Thanet in Kent, where they are raised 
for the London seedsmen. This is the only place, as far as 
our observation goes, where they are aomi in the field. The 
produce In seed is said not to exceed twenty bnahelB per 
acre, but it mast be observed Aat it ie chiefly the dwarf 
sorts which are sewn. Tbete is no doabt that the produce 
of the ninnen wo«M ^reatlf exceed this qaantity, and al- 
thou^ it might be ^xipelrerve to snpport them with sticks, 
the example of the iMp gronnds proves that, where the re- 
turn is jarm, im vxpeaee «r ttotme « tfwred. 

Tlw be£ aoB At FWneli Inant is a Tick melloiw k>am, 
rflber tight Htm otherwise; bat, provided the groond be 
weA etrrred, l^ef will :grow te ^y teA. T^y may be 
planted in tvm, Che dmif aMtaat two airfmbalf or three 
tbet -iMmue^ ^ t^aientX fe«r fceb Ae mob as the 
■t^ >»(^ terise lAWTC ^ fleed learea, Ae Morvsas alioald 
bewell MeAwitkAielMne^KN^endthennrabyhaad. The 
scanler -or gnMiot tavf be ated to looaea the soil, and 
wImH they are Mwewhat ttdwneed in gtm/& the rvaners 
may tttve stidks to «limb apon. A ni« of tnm^ mtf be 
soAnbetwefli every two lewa of beaas; or oatHMgaa nay be 
planted for cattle. The -crop itMiy be hwrveMed as soon as 
the lower pods are quite dry and the Meda hard, and threshed 
like other beans. The seed* when raw hifin a biCIer taste, 
SIB rather tough ander the teeth, which makes animals 
refiise to eat them in that state, but when boiled they become 
soft and pleasant. Oxen and pigs eat them readily. They 
eimiain.Eiccarding to BinboF, 84 per cent, of nutritive matter, 
of which SO is pure A^na, the rest ghitam and muulage : 
they are, tomequenlly, superior to every etbcr grain or 
palse caHivated,in p«m of noniirinBent; andwheaitis 
taken into the aeeoimt that they rewnin in the gntmd only 
from Hay te September, and that a crop of oabba^ or 
turnips is growing in the intenali at tiie same tiiae, it will 
appear that the cultivation of this pulse <m a large teifc 
might add gi«»tlyto the reeoutces of agrieniUBw, 

BEAN GOOSB (Zotiory), Amur fma of Ray awl 
Fleming, AniM legelum of Grnelin, ant at the wfld geaae, 
which we must be careful not to confound with the Owy 
Lagg, or true wild-goo^ the Anttr wAutri* wmt«r ef 
Lister and Ray, and the species from wai<^ as is general^ 
admitted, our domestic geese are derived. Prom that ape- 
ries the Aeon gnoM is to be distingniBbed by its omnparatively 
email and ihort bill, which is mote eompretsed towards the 
end, and also diSers in colour : for, la the bean gooae Ae 
base of the under mandible, and also of the upper one, is 
fir as the nostrils, together with the naila of both, are blart, 
the rest of Ae organ being of a reddish flesh-cokmr, in- 
clining to orange ; whereas the bill of the grey lagg is of 
an orans^-red, with the nail generally of a gr^ish white. 
The wings, moreover, in the bean goose reach, when cAceed, 
beyond the «id of the tail. 

Selby gives the following tntereiting account of its habits, 
ftom personal obsorvotion : — 

' In Britain it is well known ae a regular winl« visiUnt, 
arriving in large bodies ftom ha nottMm summer haunts, 



B E A 



S4 



during Septembar or the beginnini; i>f October, and leldorn 
taking itt final departure ^rorc tbe end of Apri) or be- 
l^nnin){ of Ma]'. The yarious flocks, during their retiilenee 
in thia country, hare each tbeir particular haunta or feeding 
£atricti, Id which, on eteh enining teawm. thnr invariablj 
retnm, u I have found to be the ease in Northnmbsrland 
and the toathem parti of Scotland, where wild geese have 
been known to mquant certain localitiea for a continued 
ieries of yean. Tbe habita of thia and the preceding 
tpeciei* an very nmilar, and they show the ttunevig Dance, 
and uutbeaame meana of guarding agaioatiurpriae: tbeii 
eaptare ii tharefbre proportionably difficult, and it is only 
hy ttntagem that, when at reit on tbe ground or feeding, 
they can be approached within gun-shot. In itormy wea- 
ther, when they are compelled to lly lo»er than they usually 
do, they may be sometimei ialercepted from a hedge or 
hank, situated in the route they ore observed to take early 
in the morning, in pasaing to their feeding ground. At 
night they retire to the water, or else (ai I have often re- 
marked in Nordiuniberland) to some ridge or bar of sand 
on the sea-coast, sufficiently distant fhtm the rosin land to 
afford a secure retreat; and where the approach of an enemy 
must become visible, or at least audible to their aouto or- 
gans, before it could endanger their safety. The haunts oi 
fceil in ^-grounds of tbeite birds are more frequently in llic 
niglior districts than in the lower and marshy tracts of the 
country, and they give the preference to open land, or where 



the inclosnre* are very large. They feed much upon the 
tender wheat, aometimet injuring these fields to a ereat 
Mtent ; and thmr fliequent also the stubUes, partieularly 
auch as ate laid don with clover and ether grasses. In the 
early p«rt of ^ring thev often alight upon the newly-inwn 
bean and pea fields, picking up greedilv such of the pulse 
sa it left on the inrhee; and I am inclined to think that 
their trivial name has been acquired firom their apparent 
pradilectioa Ha this kind of food, rather than from the shape 
and aapeet of the nail of tbe upper mandible, to which it 
iaa been generally attrihated. They usually fly at a con- 
aiderable elevation, either in a diagonal line, or in two auch 
line^ OTCOaed to each other, and forming a leading ocute 
angle, like the other species; and when on wing they main- 
lain a loud cackling, in which the voices of the two sexes 
nay be easily distinguished. The rate at which they move, 
when favoured by a gentle breeie, is seldom less than from 
forty to fifty railei an hour, a velocity which enables them 
tn have their roostmg-place lu nmmed from the district 
they frequent by day. The principal breeding stations, oi 
■uramer retreats, of tbe bean goose are in countries within 
I _^r^'' ''■*'* ■ '* ^ •*■''' however, Ihot great numbers 
lw*d annually in Harris, and some of tlie other ouletmoat 
I*?"' y""!*- Th" n«" ■■ i°"<e "> tl^ maiihy grounds, 
and formed of grasses and other dry vegetable material* ■ 
the e-^^ are while, and from eight to tnelve in number, 
llio trachea of thj. »p«:ia, increases in diameter towords 
tlie middle, and the bronchia are t-hott and tumid. The 

• Tb« On) Uq, „ ub, wuil C«»f. 



B E A 

denticulated lamimD of tbe aidea of tbe b9 an Bawnnr in 
rormation to those of the ffmerpoluffru, and form thin *b»n> 
culling edges, and the manner in which they lack witliin 
eadi Miter renden the bill an instnunent beuUiMIy wlaptrd 
for vegetable food-' 

In balk, tbe bean goose is generally rathw lea* thao the 
grey lagg. and it is, aoeordingl^. aenaetiaM eallad prvrin- 
cially the iTnaU greg goott, bnl it not nnfreqnaiitly equals 
the other in site and weight 

The bead and upper part of tlfo seek iodiiMto Womm. 
with B grmrish tinge, and the fisathersof tbe biter hue are 
so disposed as almost to produoe a ftirrowed appeannrv. 
The lower parts of the body am ash-gt»y, with trui«Ter>j 
darker shades ; and the beck and scapnlara we tMown, wiih 
a grey tinge, tite feathers being edgad with wUto. Wine- 
coverts grey ; teeondaries brown, edged and tipped wiili 
while ; primaries grey-black ; nnnp grar; upper t«il-eoveri> 
white ; (ail brown, with the foathBra deeply bordered ar,-* 
tipped with white; leg* md toea reddian, inolinine t' 
orange, theintenaity of theeidaurmytaiguespdiag to ti<t 
bird's age. [See Ooosb.1 

BEAR, GREAT, and LITTLE. [See Unax Hajos. 
and MnvoR.} 

BEAR (Zoology), the English name fin- a tanilc .<{ 
Plkntigradet (mammifnoua quadrupeds of the camivcrru-ji 
onler, whieh are soppMied in walking on tha entuw lolo uT 
tbe fbot). fsTming a natural group with six ioaaor tt^e''l 
and two canine teeth in eaeh jaw, twetre Burisra in li.r 
upper and fonrteen in the lower jaw; pmtwlaetylo or A\r- 
toed feet, armed with strong (daw* ; and a riiott tut. T;.? 
bears exhibit but a comparatively small camivotous <L'. 
valopmont : lor, notwithstanding their strangth. thsir demi' 
tion, particularly in the form of tbe downs of their moiir 
leslli, indicates a propensity bordoring on the AuglvoTT>ii< 
esolutively ; and indeed it appean that, allbaagh th«y :.rr 
omnivonHia*, they, for tbe most part, rarely devour tift. 
unless pressed Iqt necessity. Thair clvw*, loo, th<ii:.'h 
formidable weapons, ore not ratrsMile, and ana aora cair j- 
laicd for digging and climbing than fer tearing pnrt. 
their general ebaracteriatio to lay thamsdve* up in Vavc. ' 
hollows for tbe winter, which tfaey pasa in a dormant si jtr 
and without taking food, tha fsnule ptodncM be? }o<ii>- 



It'. 



at this season. 



Edoopixk Bkau. 



The Bntm B«ar. 'Amtsc of AristoUeb the Owrv of i!.e 
French, Or*o of the Italian*, fiorofthe Geratana, Bjom u 
the Swedes, Urtut Antot (Linn.) This appean to haic 
been the only specie* certainly known Is Lianau* [>m 
PoLAK Biah]; and though sookigiUa are dm vn\>^'A 
thoir suspicions aa to tome c^ the (peeies aince reooided. iIk 
number of those which can no longer be oanudwcd douU- 
ful will prove how much this depoitiMBt ot natnral hisuvr 
bus been enriched since hi* timch The brtnrn bear a 
widelv,ditfused. The mountainous distrioU of Bwope, fr<>a 
very high Uliludes (Arctic Circhi) in tha BHth, to Ibe Alps 
and Pyrenees in the south ; Siberia, Kamtcbatka. and v\ra 
Japan to the eastward, and a portion of the ncrtbam re^iott 
of America, tbnu the range of its gec^mphinl d^tributiuo. 
Africa and the Moluccoa have beeu addod; but i| i* fu 
from improbable that these locahliae have been BMigncd la 
it bj' travellers who have taken some other apocjea for it 

lo the Kamtchatkans this bear seems to batw given ibc 
neccs.saries, and even tbe comforts of lite. The ikin, n 
are told, formed their beds and their ooverlela, bonnet* tiir 
Uieir heads, gloves far their hands, and ccUan fcr their 
dogs ; while an overall made of it, and draws ow tha mim 
of llieir shoeo. prevaoted them from slipping ui the kk 
The hesh and fat were their dainties. Ot the i»n^nHnw 
they made masks, or cover* for their faoea. to pnilcct tbcm 
from the glare of the sua in the spring, and imd iben ■* a 

_ • AriiUrtle»,U kKw Ihii. wBi thu. dcwibad IhflxbiUorih. Wu - 
JI >l i.>.rK <-<v<^>'> irrf Mil yif tOfini irtU; » iMjU^u in ra 





np=l,.«., rf lu boj) 


j^^-^i^-^^rx 


il"i Ic.imrt. I 




'•^•■'«. »>>* • 


i.U«l^m.rt .l«,'pi 




•irihM htm Ih. g 




be ^Av* uhl f veq 1^4 bul 


'fh. t.ngir in 


'Tji^TJa^^'r^i 




nW...(t.hk. 


llnughi.Dl3«It,c|,u 






\tniua\ tot iiKJinii tn 




»".»■(« .,l.yu. 


arth« BIIN-iTuiik. u 




ti In Ibtlr [uiwi, 


«dll.«tl«v1lh«l 




xr-rniwn.). 


8» tlW <Ml.lll.lll diKl^rtklB «I . bw imi. p. «, 



l-llB 



B K A ( 

snbalituM for glcst, by extending tham oxac thair viodows, 
Kven tha Bitoukder-bkdes oie said to lu'e bean put in 
■a for cuttiDg grasj. 

Iriia LapUnden held it in Rreat reuerBtion, and, accord- 
ing to Lecms, called it tlie Dog of God, for it appears, that, 
among iha NorwsKiaai, tbere had long been a proverb, that 
it hsul the ttreogth of ten roan, and the tenM of twelve. 
Tliej- nerer, uya Lhe same author, presume to call It by its 
proper name of GuouzJija, lesE it shoulil revenge the insult 
on their llocLs, but nake mention of it as Moedda-aigja, 
or the old man with a fur-oloak (seneni oum maatnicfi). 

The brown bear is a solitary animal. Its retreat, during 
the period of bybemstion, is the natural hollow of a tree, 
OT some cavern ; and if these are not to be found, the 
animal constmcte a habitation for itself, sometimes by 
digging, sonietimea by rarming a rude kind of hut or den 
with branches of trees, linvd with moss. Here it retires 
when fat with the summer's food, and remains dormant, 
without taking any sustenance, till the ensuing spring*. 
Cuvier makes the period of gestation about seven manthi, 
staling that they couple in June, and that the birth takes 
place in January ; and the saroe number of months is as- 
signed in the article in the old French Encydopedie, taken 
from obierrutions of the bears kept at Beme. The cubs, 
when first born, are not much Larger than puppies. They 
kre long lived, for it appears that one of tlie Beme bean 
nad bean confined there one~ and- thirty yean ; and another, 
bom there, is spoken of at the age of forty-seven in the 
menagerie at Paris. They are excellent swimmers, not- 
witlistanding their uncouth appearance. Mr. Lloyd, in bis 
Field Sporit nf th» North of Ewopa, gives a very inte- 
resting Bcuount of the habit* of this species, and of bis ad- 
ventures in hunting it. 

Tliat ttw brovn bear was at one time oommon in the 
Briiish islands there can be no doubt. The Caledonian 
bears (another name for British with the Romans) were 
imported to make sport fur tlie Roman people, to whom 
the excitement of witnessiug the suffaring of man and 
beast, in lis mo&t distressing shape, teems to have bean but 
too welcome. From the well-knovrn lines of Maitial, de- 
scriptive of tlie dreadful punishment of the malefaotur 
Lauroolus. it sppesrs that they m 



NiHlii Caledoolo ik p«ton pmboit nno 

Nun CiUI pnukni in enoi Lilunlui f. 

Ray quotet authtnity for the brown bear having been one 
of the Welsh beasts of chase, and Pennant adduces ttia 
places which ntained the name of Pennarth, or the Bear's 
Head. ■» evideitee that it existed in that prindp^ity. In 
the Higtory of (A« Oordont it is staled tltat one of that 
fismily.so late as the year 1057, waa diteotad by the king to 
carry three bean' heads tm his banner, as a reward for bis 
vateor in slaying a flmve bear in Scotland. 

For many years it has been swept atvay fhim our islands 
M oomplstely that wa find it imported for ba ting, a sport 
in which oor nobility, as well as the commonalty, of tite olden 
time — nay, even royalty itself, delighted. A bear-bait was 
one of the raoreations oliured lo Elizabeth at Kenilworth, 
and in the Barl of Northumberland's Household Book wo 
tend of SOj>. for his bear-ward ; — * Item. My I/>rde usith and 
BceutlntDyth to gyb yorly when his Lordahipe is at home 
to his bar-ward, when he comyth lo my Lords in Cristmas 
vritb bis Lordshippe's beests, for makynge'of his Lordschip 
pastioM, the said xii days, xx«.' In Southwark there was 
a regular bear-garoen, that disputed popularity with the 
Glohe and tlie Swan Theatres on the same side of the 
water. Now however, so much do tastes alter (in this in- 
stanes certainly for the better), such barbaroue sports are 
baoLsbed f^xun the metropolis t- 

The firm support aSbrded by the well-developed sole of 
tlw fool enables the bears to rear tbemeelvee with compara- 

■ WUlo upon nu'inlijcelaf h]bi>riiD1iflii. R mail nm Duit to imltnlbi 
BlorChi Jlonraj tMnrf Ihs TapprnJ. tunid In thg rHhini o( bt hylarmt 




& B E A 

live facility on their hind feet ; and this has been taken 
advantage of to teach the animal to dance in an erect pos- 
ture. The discipline put iu furce to produce this accom- 
plishment is said to be so severe that it is never forgotten. 
Thcro is a well-known story, introduced uitli the happiest 
effect^n TAt Bride of Lammermoar, of a terrified gentleman 
wbo n'OB pursued by a bear. The bear gained ou him — 
was close upon him— with the resolution of despair he turned 
upon his pursuer with his uplifted cane, when the enraged 
animal reared itself up, the posture of attack, and instantly 
began — to shuIHa a saraband. 

Bacon Cu^ ier, in his ' Ossemens Foasiles,' distinguished 
the biack bear of Europe under the lilta of Ursut niger 
Europtsui, observing that the frontal bone was Hatteued, 
and that tbo well-marked depressions and ridges of the 
skull, for llie reception of the strong muscles of tlie lower 
jaw, were evidence of its being more decidedly carnivorous 
than tlie brown bear : but, in the last edition of his Segae 
Animal, he confesses his doubts about the data on which he 
bad come to this conclusion ; and it is probably a variety 
only. The usual siie of tUa brown bear is about four feet 
in length, by about two feet and a half in height. The 
claws are two inches long, very much curved and nearly 
equal. The gambols of the individuals kept in tho Garden 
of the Zoological SiKiety in the Regent's Park are too well 
known to need deacription. 



Pyrenean Bear, Uraua Pyrenaieus. — F, Cuvier has 
figured the bear of the Pyrenees and of the Aeturias, whoae 
fur, in its youth, is of a yellowish while colour. The hair of 
the feet is an intense black. This, it is oonsidered, is only 
a variety, though perhaps a distinct one, of Urtu4 Arctot. 
Amkrican BiAita. 

American Black Bear, Uriju .Imen'ciwut*.— Pallas first 
described this species (iho Sua of tbeChippewayon Indiana, 



6K A 



m 



ft E A 



•ad the Mifsoitfir <»f iht Ci«eft), vliose ^gmenl mfftHiofn 
ars ftnaBet tluai those of X/rtta Arcto$. The head of the 
Amencan bhMsk beer is nmrroirer, the ears more distant, and 
the mQzzle mofe prominent, and it wants the depression 
above the eyes. Tlie for is eomposed of soft smooth hairs, 
which aie of a glossy Uack for the greater part of their 
length, instead of possesstng the shaggy and woollt charac- 
ter of Uie eompaiatirely grizzled fhr of the brown bear, ex- 
cept on die muzzle, which ik clothed with short tiiickset 
hairs, brown on the upper pait and paler on the "^iide. The 
tail is apparently more prominetit, and the shaiper and more 
etffred claws are nearly hidden in die hair. 

'The black bear,* says Dr. Richardson, 'inhabfts «vety 
wooded district of the American continent fhnn the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, and from Carolina to the iftiores of the Arctic 
Sea.* A friend informs us that it still occurs, though not 
▼ery often, in the Blue Ridge, in Virginia. Other authori- 
ties place its southern boundary at the Isthmus of Panama. 
Man has, however, gradually driven ft from its haunts to 
make way for his works, and has compelled it to take refuge 
in the mountains and the immense inland forests. In Ca- 
nada it is still abundant, and it is' tolerably numerous on 
the western coast as far as California. Dr. Richardson 
gives the following interesting account of this species : — 

' The black bear is smaller than the other American beats 
which we have to describe, the total length of an adult 
seldom exceeding five feet. Its favourite food appears to be 
berries of vaiious kinds, but when these are not to be pro- 
cured it preys upon roots, insects, fish, eggs, and such birds 
or quadrupeds as it can surprise. It does not eat animal 
food from choice ; for when it has abundance of its favourite 
vegetable diet, it will pass the carcass of a deer without 
touching it. It is rather a timid animal, and will seldom 
face a man unless it is wounded, or has its retreat cut off, 
or is urged by affection to defend its young. In such cases 
its strength renders it a dangerous assailant. I have known 
the female confront her enemy boldly until she had seen 
her cubs attain the upper branches of a tree, when she made 
off, evidently considering them to be in safety, but in fact 
leaving them an easy prey to the hunter. The speed of the 
black bear when in pursuit is said not to be very great, and 
I have been told that a maa laiay escape from it, particu- 
larly if he runs into a willow gft^ve or amongst loose grass ; 
for the caution of the bear obliges it to stop frequently, and 
rise on its hind legs for the purpose of Yeoonnoitring. I 
have, however, «een a black bear make off with a speed that 
would have baffled tlie fleetest runner, and ascend a nearly 
perpendicular cliff with a facility that a eat might envy. 
This bear, when resident in the fur countries, almost inva- 
riably hibernates, and about 1000 skins are annually pro- 
cured by the Hudson's Bay Company, from black bears 
destroyed in their winter retreats. It generally selects a 
spot for its den under a fallen tree, and, having soratohed 
away a portion of the soil, retires to it at the commencement 
of a snow-storm, when the snow soon furnishes it with a 
close, warm covering. Its breath makes a small opening 
in the den, and the quantity of hoar frost which occasion ally 

fathers round the aperture serves to betray its retreat to the 
unter. In more southern districts, where the timber is of 
a larger size, bears often shelter themselves in hollow trees. 
The Indians remark that a bear never retires to its den for 
the wi|iter until it has acquired a thick eoat of fat ; and it 
is remarkable that when it comes abroad in the spring it is 
equally fat, though in a few days thereafter it becomes very 
lean. The period of ffae retreat of the bears is generallv 
about the time when the snow begins to lie on the ground, 
and they do not eoroe abroad a^ain until the greater part of 
the anew is gone. At both these periods they can procure 
many kinds of berries in considerable abundance, in lati- 
tude 65** their winter repose lasts Crom the beginnrog of 
October to the first or second week of May ; but on the 
northern shores of Lake Huron the period is from two to 
three months shorter. I n very se%*ere winters great numbers 
of bears have been observed to enter the United States from 
the northward. On these occasions they were very lean, 
and almost all males : the few females which accompanied 
them were not with young. The remark of the natives 
above-mentioned, that the fat bears alone hibernate, ex- 
plains the cau^ of these migrations. The black bears in 
the northern districts couple in September, when they are 
in good condition from feeding on the berries then in ma- 
nly. The females retire at once to their dens, and conceal 
^mselvea so caiefully, that evea the lyncean eye of an 



fodiaii hunter rerj rarely detects them ; 1ml flie im1e«, rt* 
hausted by the pursuit of the females, require ten or twv!*-- 
days to recover their lost fat. An unusually early wiotf^r 
will, it is evident, operate most severely on the male^, l> 
preventing them from fattening a second time : hence thif r 
migration at sueh times to more soothem districts. It *« 
not, however, true that the black bears generally aban^oc 
^e northern districts on fbe appro ad i of winter, as has bet-T^ 
asserted, the quantifly of bear skins proc ur ed during t^it 
season in all parts of the fat cosBfries being a suffic eii*. 
proof to tbe contrary. The females bring forth ftboot th^* 
middle of January ; and it is probable that tbe period : 
their gestation is about fifteen or sixteen weeks, but I belif ^- 
it has not been precisely ascertained. The number of cuS 
varies from one to five, probably with the age of the mother. 
and they begin to beat long oefbre they attain their fC 
size.* 

ft win be observed thkt he period of gestation attribvTf : 
to the brown bear is seven months. Cuvier says that t)-* \ 
couple in June, and produce their young in January. S'\- 
teen weeks is the probable time allotted to the Amem- " 
black bear for the same purpose by Dr. Richardson, who hk 
the best opportunities of collecting evidence on the subjen 
The bears kept in the fbsse at Berne fhmished the proof : 
gestation for seven months ; but it is so characteristic rf 
the family for the females to conceal themselves, that, in : 
state of nature, little evidence to be depended upon for i^* 
accuracy can be obtained. • No man,' according to Brick* •' 
'either Christian or Indian, ever killed a she-bear ^i*^ 
young;' and Dr. Richardson s numerous inquiries araon: 
the Indians of Hudson's Bay ended in the discovery of oclv 
one hunter who had killed a pregnant bear. The same d^ 
servation was long ago made bv Aristotle, for he says, i: 
chap. XXX. book vi., IL^ov^ay « apgrov fpyov Iwi X»,«^<rj. 
• it is difficult to capture a pregnant bear;' and again, it. 
chap. Xvii. book viii., "Kiowra ^'ofprrog, ^ 4ir'o*^rvAc, 17 iti^i- 
va' 6\iyiifv fiXi|irrai, • but a pregnant bear has never be« n 
taken by anybody, or at least by %'ery ffew ; ' and this s;-- 
counts for his own error, for he makes the period of gp>ti- 
tion only thirty days. Mr. Lloyd, in his Fieid-Spcrrts t/ 
the North of Europe, states that he was present at t! •• 
death and dissection of oneiUrnts Arcto^ which had a rr.ti 
in her womb, she having previously produced three, and ht 
relates other instances, but they are very rare. 

Upon the whole, though the American black bear may K* 
considered a well-defined species, distinct fVom tbe br ■^^'i 
bear ( Ursus Arctos}, it is not very probable that, in i^^ 
species so nearly allied, the period of gestation should K 
only sixteen weeks in the one instance, while it is seven 
months in the other. Cmier says that the Attierirai 
black bears produced young in the Paris menagerie : the 
young were of a uniform bright ash colotff, and without 1 
collar. 

The value attached to the skin of the black bear, a value 
very much decreased, for the skin that once fetched fn^is 
twenty to forty guineas is now hardly worth more than fnr^ 
twenty to sixty shillings*, and the high esteem in whrL 
the Indians held their flesh, caused peat havock amorr 
them. The importation into England m 1783 amounted t • 
10,500 skins, and ascended gradually to *25,000 in IfP*. 
since which time there has been a considerable declir.? 
That an animal from which the wild Indian derived so murb 
benefit, an animal, moreover, particularly to be dreaded t:. 
the perilous hour of the chase, and when encountereii un- 
expectedly, should be the subject of much attention, or tK 
parent of particular customs, and the object of great super- 
stitious regard, was to be expected. Accordingly we fin \ 
that, as the New Hollanders have their kangaroo dance ani 
dog dance, the Indians had their bear dance. 

The limits of a work of this nature will not permit us t . 
go at large into the subject of bear hunting, and the cere- 
monies which accompanied it among the different triKs 
but, as it may be expected that something should be saJ 
on the subject, we select the account of an eye-witness, who 
visited the fur countries soon after Canada had yielded t 
Great Britain. Alexander Henry thus writes in his T. .- 
ifeU, whilst at Wawatam*s wintering ground * near Lak* 
Michigan : — 

• In the course of the month of January I happened i • 
observe that the trunk of a very large pine-tree w^as mL« !i 
torn by the claws of a bear, made both in going up at: 1 

* The rcUU prim of ao Ameriain black b^ar*! 'It^ la 
Cvpring of 1835), is from on« to three guloeM, 



B BA 

dovB. OnforiitieKeuuBiiuUcnlnwtlialtlMreTM&larK* 
OpaaiDg in the ^VP^t pvt, neei which the smaller braDcfasi 
were broken, num these m&rki, and from the edditioDol 
oirciiirntmce that there were no tmcka in the snow, there 
was reBBon to believe that k beur lay concealed in the tree 
On returning to the lodge I cotamumcaled my discovery 
and it was agreed that all the fanily should go together ii 
the morning to assist ia cutting down the tree, the girth of 
which wu oot leaa ^an three fathoms, The women at 
fir&t opposed tho uaderUking, because our axes, beini{ only 
of a pouDd and a half weight, were not well adapted to so 
heavy a labour ; but the hope of finding a large bear, and 
obtoininft &om lie fat a great quantity of oil, an article at 
the time muoh wauled, at length prevailed. Accotdingly, 
in the monung we lurrounded the tree, both men and 
women, as many at a time as could conveniently work at it; 
and theiv we toiled Uke beaven till the sun went down. 
This day's work cariied us about half-way through the 
trunk ; and the nex.t morning we renewed the attack, oon- 
tinuing it till about two o'clock in the aftemoon, when the 
tree fell to the ground. For a few minutes everytlung re- 
mained quiet, and 1 feared that all our expectations would 
bo disappointed; but as 1 advanced to the opening there 
came out, to the great satisfaction of all our party, a bear of 
extraordinary size, which I shoL The bear being dead all 
my assiatanta ai^roacbed, and all, but particularly my old 
'---'-■-- - - >k the head f " ' 



tDother (tu 1 was wont la call her), took I 






bands, stroking and kissing it several timoe; begging a 
tliousand pardons fbi takis^ away bat bCe; calling her 
their relation and grandmather ; and requesting her not to 
lay the fault npon them, since it was truly an Bnghshmaa 
that had put ber to death. This ceremony wu not of long 
duration, and if it was I that k)lle4 their grandmolher. they 
were not themselves behindhand im what pemaiatd to be 
performed. The skin being taken off we found the fat in 
several places six incbee deep. This, being divided into 
two parts, loaded two persons ; and the fienh parts were as 
much ai four persons could carry. In all. the carcass must 
have exceeded Qvecwt. As soon as we reached the lodge, 
the bear's head was adorned with all the trinkets in the 
possession of the family, such as silver arat-bands, and 
wrikt-bands and belts of wampum ; and then laid upon a 
scallild set up for its reception within the lodge. Near the 
nose was placed a large quantity of tobacooL The nest 
numing no sooner appeared than pnparationa were made 
for a feast to tho manes. The lodge wos cleaned and swept ; 
»nd the head of the beorlifled up, and anew Stroud blanket 
which had never been used before spread under it. The 
pipes were now lit ; and Wawatam ble« tobacco-smoke into 
tbo nostrils of the bear, telling me to do the same, and thus 
appease the anger of the beat on account of my haviDv 
killed hw. I endeavoured to persuade my bettefactoi and 
fl-iendly adviser that she no longer had any life, and assured 
him that I was Bnder no apftehension from her displeasure ; 
but the first propceitien obtained no credit, and the second 
gave but little satisfaction. At length the feast being 
ready, Wawatam made a speech resembling, in many 
things, his address to the manes of his rektioas and de- 
parted eompanioBs ; but having this peeuliarity, that he here 
deplored the necessity under which men laboured thus to 
destroy tbeir friends. He represented, howetws that the 
misforlune was unavoidable, staoe without deing so they 
csuld by no means subsist. The speech ended, we all sl« 
heartily of the bear's desk ; and even the heed itself; after 
raiBniniDg three days on the scafeld. was put into the 
kettle. It is only the female beat that makes her winter 
kKlging in the upper parls of trees, a pta«tice by which ber 
young are secured ftrom the attacks of wolves and other 
animals. She brings forth in the winter season, and ■»■ 
mains in her lodge till the cubs have gained some strength. 
The male always lodges in the ground, under the roots of 
trees. He takes to his habitation as soon as the snaw 
falls, and remains there till it bos disappeared. The In- 
dians remark that the bear comes out in the spring with 
the same fst which he carries in in the auttunn ; but after 
the exeroiBa of only a few days becomes lean. Except- 
ing for a short part of the season the male Uvea constantly 

The following are considered to be varieties of this spe- 
cies, which is almost equal to the polar bear ia its power* of 
swimming;, and is said to be very fond of fish :— 

The Citmamon Bear, which, with the black variety, may 
be Men in the Zoological Garden at tha Regent's Park. 



tie Tdhu) Bear qf Carolina, a specimen of which waa 

in the Tower of London in 1 78S, and is Qeured by Catton. 
Tha Ourt Gulaire of Geoffrey, with a w^ite throat. The 
white markings on the throatof Geoffroy 'shear are, perhaps, 
as D[. Bichaidaon observes, analogous to the while collai 
which many of the European brown bears exhibit when 
young ; and the Doctor cites Cartwright to -show that the 
cubs of the black bear on the Labrador coast are often 
marked with white rings round the neck ; and Pennant, to 
prove the same as to the bears of Hudson's Bay. An Ame- 
rican black bear was kept for some time in the Tower of 
London in the same den with a bymna. They agreed verr 
well together except at meals, when the hycona, thougn 
much the smallest, was geuwally master; 'and the bear,' 
says Mr. Bennett, 'would moan most piteously, and in a, 
tone somewhat resembling the bleating of a sheep, while 
bis companion quietly ooHsumed, the remainder of his 

Hu SpectaaUd Bear, Urtaa Omalus of F. Cuvier, inha- 
bits the Cordilleras of the Andes in Chili. Its fur is smooth, 
shining, and black, with the following exceptions : — Its short 
muizle is of a dirty yellow, or buff colour, and there are two 
semicitoular marks of the same hue. reminding the ob- 
server c^ a pair of spectacles above the eyes ; ue under 
parts of tbe ihroat and neck and the uppor part of the breast 
ore whitish. This species, which may be now seen at the 
Garden of tbe Zoological Society in iii» BiegeU's Park, isi 
about three feet and a half in length. 

Sir R. Ker Porter describes a bear brought from the 
Andes and living at Caracas in 1833 sontewhat differing in 
its markings from the ordinary individuals of Uriut oma- 
tut ; but it is probably only a variety.. (See procetditigi qf 
the Zoological Society, part i. p. 1 14.) 



Behrs w« | n i|ii l la tha eaoilrleration «f iha tnie griuly 
hew, we uual Kotica th« 

Bivttn-gnmiti 5Mr.— Thi^ vbiott wkeara te be tbe 
giiisly bM< «r Hevna, and lh« brown boar, variety 3, 
gtizily of PeoBOBl, waa slated by De. Richardson to be the 
biown variety of Vrvti ji^iencwmis hut, in tbe Fauna 
Borsaii-A'a*rica»A, b» eorrects himself, and seems in- 
oUned to coasidei tl a variety ef tha brown bear {Vriui 

' FroH the inquirie* I made,' *iitM the Doctor in tbe 
last- mentioned work, 'thioughiNit the woody country from 
Lake Superior to Great Slave Lake, being 10° of latitude, 
I learnt that the natives of those ^tricts are acquainted 
with only two species of land bear, viz., tbe common black 
bear, including the cinnvaon-ooloured and other varieties, 
and tbe grisly bear, which is confined to the lofty chain of 
the Rocky Hountaine, and the extensive plains that skirt 
their bases. The barren lands, however, lying to tbe north- 
ward and eastward of Groat Slave Lake, and extending to 
the Arctin See, are frequented by a species of hear which 
differs from tlie American black bear in its greater siie, 
proGle, physiognomy, larger soles, and tail ; and tmta the 
grisly bear, also, in colour, and tbe eompantive smallneM 



B E A 

of its cliin'fl. Its grentesl affinity is with the brown htu of 
Norway ; but its identity with that sjwcies Ima nnt been 
Htablisbed by actual comparifion. It freqiienla Ihe kS' 
nout in autumn in consiilerabla numbers, for tbo purposs 
of feeding on Bsh. The ^neral olour of this bear is a. 
dusky, or sonetimei yellowish -brown, but Iho shoulderi and 
flanks are, in the summer season at least, covered with long 
hair, which is frequently very pale towaiJi the tips. The 
Indians and their interpreters, who are not Yery precise ir 
their application of the few tenns they have to express va- 
netiea of colour, often denominate them "white bears.'" 

Tbeso are, not improbahly, the ' silver bears ' (nlber-bSi 
of the Oermansj, which Pennant considers to be the some 
as those which inhabit the north of Europe, though he di 
scribes them as a variety of the American black bear. 

Dr. Richardson says that the barren-ground bear does 
not possess the boldness (rf* the true grisly bear (I/rtiM/arox), 
as all the individuals seen by his tiart^ lied at once. He says 
that it resorts to the coast of the Arctic Sea in the month of 
August, and that it preys indiscriminately upon animal and 
veiretahle food. 

To an eminence which had been much ploughed up by 
the bears in quest of /irciomy* Parryi (Parry's marmot), 
termed by Heame ' ground hog,' according to the same 
author, Hearne gave the name of Grizzle-Bear Hill ; and 
in the sfimnch of one of these bears which he opened the 
Doi'^r found the remains of a seal, a marmot, a krge quan- 
tity of the long, sweet roots of some tufm^o/l and kedysara, 
leather with some berries, and a little grass. Many long, 
white worms adhered to the interior of the stomach. Hi 
also observes that the tail of the barren-ground bear i: 
kmger liian that of the black bear, which is conspicuous 
oough. 

Sttbgtnut Dam$. 
The Oristy or Orixxly Bear. Uritu (Donis) /«■£._. 
Cuvier, in the last edition of his 'RIgne Animal.' expresses 
a doubt BS to the specific distinct ion of this formidable bear. 
' 11 n'est pas encore hien prouv* pour nous que Tours cendri, 
fours terrible de I'Amerique Septentrionale, soit diffc 
par I'esp^. de Tours bnin d'Europe,' siiys the note _^ 
pended to Urnu ArelM; and the species is not mentioned 
among the others recorded in the work. This is certainly 
great authority, hut it is more than balanced; and with all 
due submission to so great a name, an examination of the 
animal will prove it to he as strongly defined a species as 
any which Cuvier has himself admitted. These differences 
indeed are so well mariied, as to have induced Mr. Gray 
separate it from its congeners as a subgenus. 



The Gnzc/e Sear of Umfreville, Gruty Bear ot Mao- 
keniie, Orizxly Bear of Warden, Urtut einereui of Des- 
■BOivst. Vrttu korribili* of Say, Meetheh MuMouaui or Mee- 
ehee Afutquatc of the Crec Indians, Hohhoft of the Cliopun- 
niali Indians, and Uriutferox (Lewis and Clarke who first 
accurately described the animal, callinif it often ■ White 
Sou- >. isotatly double the .ite of the bkok bear. Loiris und 



1 B B A 

Glarkepre the raeasDrement of one as nini IM IVtom nas» 
to tail, and state that they had seen one of larger dimen^ons. 
Eigiit hundred pounds is reported to be the weight to which 
it attains. The length of the fbre-foot in one of those mea- 
sured by the travellers above quoted is given os exce«diag 
nine inches, that of the hind-fcot at eleven and three-quar- 
ters without the talons, and the breadth seven inches. The 
claws of the fore-feet, which are a good deal longer and lest 
curved than those of the hind-feet, measured in another in- 
dividual more than six inches. Thispart of its organization 
is well adapted for digging, hut not for climbing, and the 
adult grislv bear is said not to ascend trees. The muzzle is 
lengthened, narrowed, and flattened, and the canine teeth 
are highly developed, exhibiting a great increase of size and 
power. The tail is very small, and so entirely lost in the 
hair which covers the buttocks, that it is a standing Joke 
among the Indian hunters, as Dr. Richardson observes, 
when they have killed a grisly bear, to desire any one un- 
acquainted with the animal to take hold of its tail. The 
fur, or t«ther hair is abundant, long, and varying throu:;b 
moat of the intermediate gradations between grey ani 
blackish brown, which last is prevalent and more or less 
grixxled. On the mussle it is pale and short, on the Ir^ 
it is darker and coarser. The eyes are small and ralhtr 
sunk in the head. 

Unwieldy as this animal appears, it is capable of grmt 
rapidity of motion, and its strength is overpiiwering. Tbt 
bison contends in vain with the grisly bear. The conijui^rnr 
drags the enormous carcase (weighing about one thousan-l 
pounds) to a cliosen place, digs a pit for lis reception, an'l 
repairs to it till the exhausted store compels him to rent-v 
the chase. And yet he will he satisfied with fruits am! 
roots ; and on bis diet depends the aggmvatod or initigaled 
ferocity of his disposition. The bears on the western side 
of the Rocky Mountains, which feed for the most part on i 
vegetable diet, ore mild, when compared with those of thr 
eastern side, whose appetite for blood is whetted by ibe 
abundant supply of ammal food which is there offered Ic 
them. The accounts ^ven of the tenacity with vrhich ttc 
grisly bear clings to life would be almost beyond bclwf. 
were they not related by witnesses worthy of all credit, li l» 
recorded, that one whose lungs had been pierced wiili 6te 
balls, and whose body was suffering under Sre other 
wounds, swam a oonsiderable distance to a sand-bar in the 
river, and survived twenty minutes; — that another, ^ligt 
tiirough the centre of the lungs, pursued fat half a mile it^ 
hunter by whom the wound was given, then returned man 
than twice that distance, dug a bed for itself in the eartb, 
two feet in depth and five feet in length, and was appa- 
rently in full life at least two hours after the shot wu 
fired ;— and that atiiird, though shot llirough the heart with- 
in twenty paces, as he was rushing on the hunter, fell indeed. 
but got up apin. ' We then," say the travellers, ' followtd 
him one hundred yards and found that the wound had beca 
mortal.' These, and many other instances are recorded by 
Lewis and Clarke. 

Namerous, indeed, and interesting are llie relations uf 
contests with this ferocious animal. The following narra- 
tive by Dr. Richardson is selected, as beios comparaU\v'v 
modem, and throwing some light on lis habits, ' A panr 
of voyagers, who bad been employed all day in trackinE > 
canoe up the Saskatchewan, had seated themselves in toe 
twilight by a fira, and were busy in preparing their suppu 
when a large grisly bear sprang over the canoe that wa* 
tilted behind them, and seising one of the party by the 
shoulder, carried him off. The rest fled in terror, with the 
exception of a metif, named Bourasso, who, grs.sping h;s 
gun, followed the bear as it was retreating leisurely with il* 
prey. He called to his unfbrtunate comrade, that ho wis 
afhud of bitting him if he fired at the bear, but Iho lutttt 
entreated him to flro immediately, without hesitati^. « 
the hear was squeeiing him to death. On this he took a 
deliberate ahn, and discharged his piece into the bodv of 
the bear, who instantly dropped its prey to pursue Bourniso 
He escBDed with difficulty, and the bear ultimately retreated 
to a thicket, where it was supposed to have died ; but tb« 
curiosity of the party not Wng a match for their fears, the 
tant of its decease was not esccrlaitied. The man nbo was 
rescued had his arm fractured, and was ollierwise severely 
biUen, but finally recovered. I hare seen Bourasso, au'l 
can odd, that the account which he gives h futiv cred.lHl 
by the traders resident in that part of tlie eountrv, who a.T? 
best qualified to judge of iu Imth fnnn their know1(idi;e of 



ttia pirtio*. I Iwva been told ili>t Uwre u a nun novr 

livina iu tha nai^hbourhood of EdmontoD-boiua, wUo vas 
DitncUed by a grisly bear, which sprang out of » thiuket, 
Hiid with one »troke of it* ^w coDiplvtuly scalped hiia, lay' 
iug hare Ihe skull, and bringing Ui« Bkm of the forahaad 
duwn over the eyes. A;tsistuice ooming up, the bear made 
olT without doing him further iiyury, but the scalp not being 
replaced, the poor man baa lost his ligfat. although he 
thijika his eyes are uninjumL He. Diummond, in bu eX' 
cursLoiiii over the Rocky Mountains, bad frequent opportu-, 
niticB of observing the tnaouers of the grisly bears, and it 
"•ften happened that in turning the point of a rock or sharp 

''y tgic of a valley, he came suddenly u[Hjn one or more of them. 
O 1 such occ;isians they reared on their hind legs, and made 
a loud noise Uke a person breathing quick, but tnueli 

„^arsher. Ue kept his around, without attempting to molest 



them ; and tliey on their part, after attentively rcgatdin 
him for some time, generally wheeled round and gi " 
aK; tbjugb, bom Ineir known disposition, there i 



doubt but he would hare been lorn in pieces, bad he lost 
his presence of mind and attempted to Hy. When he dis- 
covered them from a distance, be geiteraUy frishteoed them 
away by beating on a large tin-box, in which ne carried his 
specimens of pUnts. He never saw mon than four tojte- 
Iner, and two of these be supposes to have been cubs ; ne 
more often met them singly, or in pairs. He was only 
once attacked, and then by a female, fur tlie purpose of 
allowing her cubs to escape. His gun on this occasion 
missed fire, but he kept her at bay with the stock of it, 
until some gentlemen of the Hudson s Bay Company, with 
whom he was travelling at the time, came up and drove her 
off. In the latter end of June, 1326, be observed a male 
caressing a female, and soon afterwanls Omv both came 
towards liim, but whether accidentally, or fur the purpose of 
attacking him< he »'as uncortun. Ho ascended a tree, and 
as the female drew near, RreJ at and mortally wounded her. 
She uttered a few loud arrearas, which threw the male into 
a furious rage, and ho reared up against the trunk of tlis 
tree in which Mr. Drummood was seated, but never at- 
tempted to ascend it. The female, in the meanwhile re- 
tiring to a short distance, lay down, and as Ihe male was 
'■ ---■■• »» T. imond sliut llim also. 
,ws, he judced them to 
be about four years old. The cubs of a grisly bear can 
climb trees, but when the animal is fully grown it is un- 
able to do BO, OS the Indians report, from the form of ita 
claws.' 

The Rocky Mountains, end the plains to the eastward of 
them, particularly, according to Mr. Drummond, the dis- 
tricts which are interspersed with open prairies and grassy 
hills, are the chief haunU of the grisly bears. To the 
north they have been ob^rved as for as Gl° of latitude, and 
it is supposed that they are to be found still farther. To the 
south It is said that they extend aa Iki as Mexico. The 
cubs and the pregnant females hvbemste, but tha idder 
males often come abroad for food during winter. The fol- 
lowing dimensions have been given of a den or winter i«- 
treat, — ten feet in width, five feet in height, and six feet in 

The fine grisly bear now in the Garden of the Zoological 
Suriety in the Regent's Park waa presented to Georae III. 
by the Hudson's Bay Company, and was long a resident in 
the Tower under the name of Martin, and latterly of Old 
Martin. His present Majesty William IV. graciously pre- 
sented it to the Zoological Society with the rest of the royal 
col'.eetion. 

The brown bear mentioned by Pennant, on the authority 
of Condamine and Ulloa, as an inhabitant of the Peruvian 
Andes, must nut be forgotten ; but it Is not known whether 
h helonRH to this ipecios. Cuvter thinlii that the Peruvian 
bean of Acosta and Garcilasso may have been the great 
ant bears (Myrmecopiaga). It is not impossible thai 
these Peruviau bears may have been Speetacltd Bear* ( Ur- 
tus rmalut). 

Asiatic Bears, 
The Stberian Bear, Unut coUarii of F. Cuvier, u>- 

f roaches closely to the brown bear {Urtut Atviot). Tht 
air in quality and colour is much the same with that of th« 
brown bear, with the distinction of a large white collai 
which passes over the upper part of the back and thi 
shoulders, and is completed upon the breast. It is not im' 
probable that this may he a variety of the brown bear. 



Ho. 216. [THE FENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



B B A 



9&r St ittttaan 

W detenniiMd tnwa tiM part* wfaicli bare been pnaened in 
Ae n»i i^ii AtDoog tiwae, the elsvs aSwd the beit 
Mcam of cotsporiioa : tbef ue uaall, obtuse, uid stnisbt, 
vtuk l^ae of tbe Aiiatie bean abate mF^tioaed are luge, 
MroQglr cwn^ acvte. «n4 ttted br dimbin^-' 

The Sfri^ S«v, C>Vni a^rt t - M .— The «he-fae*n vbkh 
^jneftutof tbe«ad,'iadtare (tirtT «»d tv«' of Ibe mockers 
•r EUahft (S Kk^i. 13, ft ar^.), an pnteUr tb* firet 
bean eo ncBcd. Tbiae bests ef Stria m^ be oRasiaaaUr 
xt hMfatr. Tim* Mitthev Pari*, in 
s bo* Oadbey (i^er Qad gfrt t fa tX m be 
■ttion in a oeiffafaMriEif vnod dn^nf the 
4c«Bi>f Anlioeh (jfRd'odUoM nun oren), ia« a pDOt ittascer, 
who vai loaded vhb a bsBdte of drf vood, Oeeinf; fruoB an 
ewifad bear, wbneupott Oodfre; jcaUaoUr «ent to the 
tMEBC^ and the bear tamitif apon him he «aa unboned, 
Ibe bona being voanded bj the br*t, and fosj^bt dd bat, 
Wten, afket a Krera Mrngfle. in which he rereiicd a lamt 
da u|, i j i gu a woaad (nrfmu fin ktifinim), be buned bis 
(vofd ap to ^ hilt In bit Mrai^ aAr^nuj, and killed him. 
TbebietMian, in CoatiitaatiMi, ivlates tbc gritt }Df «t9te 
aitDf M Ggdfrej'e i^meiy. iHitU ^England, tom. ii. 
f. H, lEitia. LoadM, 1«40.) 



Hudcln-iist make* no nioriii>)n of a bear in hii cataloKUa 
rfthK an:m>l4 ri"fen tn bia travels in the Lerant, in the 
yriT* ir-f). 17 j*), ITS Land 1752; but Seeltcn,Kimetweniy 
*^n It;'!. «u inf'.rnted in the eountiy that bean exUted ' 
*e nto«mi:iis of PiWttce. 

H«in»ni-n and EkrBr.V«rs, in the Symhola Phytiar. have 
•■^'n a mn.'* 'Hi^re cnY:fHi and • description of a female 
■ilu>d M^r Bi'V-'vrrTe Lii S)Tia. The toUovi^ ■ the Bub- 
tmnrit rtt ihe i4is)rr;pt.vQ. 

%^r. -rf a an-.tona fulnus while (^metiaiM varie^ted 
•^th ftilv-vwi ; tarsd'.-nsated; (i>r_>head but sliKhtlf arched; 
Air «>>»>! V hRneath.sirh lont; straight, or but ■ligfall)' curled, 
iM>r AWna.'iT : a atiff mane of erected hain (about bur 
fl^lHn .nnvi between ihe shoulders. 

The cot'-.-.^mA killed was neither Tonng nor oU, and 
nfamnvl. fr^>m ibe nose to Ihe tip of the tail, aboit (imr feet 
tot. -^-ve tul being aix incbei. Nothing was (bund in the 
•nnuf^a, nor wetean^ niozoa ruitemal norms) disrovered. 
T i*« •»• her den (where tliere was much bear'* dung). 



n euaollT thrown together. The; ate of the 
finh, whidi ibe; Ibund tapid, but the liver wu sweet and 
moaemu. Tba gall appears to be in great esteem; the 
•kill are aold ; and lo a the dung, under the name of Bar 
M dab, the latter beins used ai a mediciue for diseases of 
MM are in Svria and Egypt. 

Knaat Lebam 
M. 'd Gebel Sai 
an--'WTa visited: bat there are no beare. except upon Mount 
tfiiCM^t. nnr the village of Btwherre, to the gardens of 
■•Svi» !h^ are iihI to wnniler in winter; bo" " "' 

"Siiy r;ci i;n in llie neiehbourhood of the 

^fiiaa bc« faqoentlT litort raro) pnjs on uutnals,] 



B E A 

bat iv the v«t part feeds en tegetablB. Tile fields 't 
dcerarietnmi (a kind of chick-pea), and other oopa nei; 
the Bnow7 i^ioa, ate often laid waste by iL 

The skin b sometimes ftdvoQS brown, and. as baa h^en 

ated, Bonclimes fbhms white, vwicd with fulnnu spotf . 

These efaanges are supposed to hava been oeeasioaed b; i;:: 

abrasion af the Ions nair, wbercbf die VDoOy fiir becM.3 h 

and thai of tba head beecme expoaM. 

In Ibe British Mnseom is a reflowkk bear pteaenlcd \y 
Ihe RoTsl Odteee of SargeoDS, which has lome point* v'. 
resemblance aitb Rhtetiberg's descriptkn; but it ta a--. 
albino Tarietf of the brown bear {Cmu Jrclat), and cax.-- 
from Roisia. 

Those who are familiar with Atfaenvos wOl remem'. .: 
the description of the procession of Pudem; l%iladelpi>^- 
(lib. T. p. 201. Casanb.) at Alexandria, in which ooe pjt.-. 
white bear {ajucroi fiv >jcijt I'T'^ ^^) makes > c. :;. 
spicnoas figure. Some, and among Ihem Baron Cuiitr. 
have tbonght that this wu the Umu marifimtu. EhrtL- 
ber^ thus writes npon this point, alter referring to tlj.' 
opinion of Ciivier: — 'But since it is evident fivnn Profit r 
Alpinns, that white bears, of the siie of a theep (tame :'. 
TOO will) were known in the land of lbs Arabtaiu acj „- 
Egypt, I would rather believe that Ptolemy's baar was iLi- 
tiuguisbed for its «iie (as it is written) than dtstinct i:^ 
species. There is scarce room tor hestating to refer :1 
those evideticei rf bears seen in Egypt \o oar Syrian Iieir, 

To this we can add that, in RoKllini's work (plate M. L 
No. !!) there is a tepesentalion of two men together, — ot«, 
a red man with a red beard and long bUck hah* with a fi'.\ ', 
clad in a white tunic or frock bordered with btu: an<I r.-, 
stripes and with blue tassels at the neck, lapparts on ;'. 
left shot:ldi^ a pai-ks^ nearly square, pinkith, and spji' '. 
with blue, and bulds in the ri^ht hand a red vase. II. > 
companion, of the same coloor, dressed in the same wji. 
but with the fi>re-part of his bead apparently shaven k 
covered with a capof the some colour as the skin (tbe hindc 
part with tbc black hair cut close), carries on his left sbokil- 
der tvro elephants* tusks, and with his right hand leads ■ 
large yellowish bear, high in the withers and with a rol 
collar. 

In the same phlc, and immedialeiy before the bear- 
leaders, is a dark-brawn man, naked all but th« ciiKlun 
(which is white patched with red leopard-like spots), a wbii; 
collar round his nerk with a red ceotrv-piece, and wLii-' 
wristbands. He has no beard : his head is covere<l bv i 
close skull-cap spotted with black: on his left shoulder'). g 
bears a log (ebony ?), and with his right hand leads a leir 
pard or panther. 

There are also two men conducting a giia& with a monkev 
climbing up its neck ; and there is an elephant vith iti 
keeper, and a lion without any guardian. 

The bear Bgured in RoseUini is led apparently in a pro- 
cession, and Ptolemy's pompa occurs iumediately to the 
observer; hut the modem opinion would refer these figure. 
to a date long prior to tbe Groek occupation of EgypU If 
this opinion he correct (and it is considered the better one) 
Rosellini's plate cannot relate to Ptolemy's pompa. 
Sithgtmi* Proffiiliu. 

Labiattd Bear, or Shih Bear, Urnu (PnMlii*} Labh- 
'"*■— J'liger, it is true, founded this genua on imperfcc; 
materials, for the individnal which led him to separate i: 
had lo!t its incisor teeth, a loss to whuh it is said t' ! 
species is very subject*. M.deBlainville proved that itsii 
a species of bear; and we think that, though lUiger* d.- 
icripljon, from the cause above alluded to, was incorrect, l.a 
name isexpresstvely characteristic of me of the lubUivisi j. 
of this family, and should be retained. 

The uncouth animal, on its arriial in Europe some fom- 
re years ago, was taken for a sloth, and obtauied the naci 
of Bradi/putpfntaiiaclylut and Uninu*, ' Five-fLngerc-i 
Sloth, Sloth Bear, or Ursine Klolh.' By the two last rjames 
it is, or very lately was, shown in menageries ; and Bewn-.. 
gave an excellent portrait of it in hk Quadmpetb, as - = . 
animal which has hitherto escaped the altentioa oT naiu- 

• IntiK pocrrdbn of tb* ZmdifH] SocMj Iv 1SH.IB31. U U aO-' 

ih»t. in ih* tk.-iUi ci DM} iidiTiiliuli of Ibk (Hen vlikti ba cuuuk ■ 
[ajar Sftfrn hid BTver wen mcBTlh.n tour iiifi.Ml»«hlBtJiBDpp,r *t»' . 



fnaritimw Mmt major tretieai. Martms. Spittb. IS. L'o. 
f. r.lifftedittinctsspocieaeit, nobis non visa, capita longiore, 
eollo aoewsWore." 

Tbe nabilg, anit many parts of it« organualion ad[ 
to those habits, of the Polar or Sea Hear, f Ours Pb 
of tlie French, Waupiuk of the Cras Indiani, Neamoak of 
Ibe EaquioiBUX, Nennook of the Greenlandera, Urtut ma- 
ritimut of Ertleben, Uriui marima of Paltu, Ureutaibut 
of Briuon, T^alarelo* maritimtu of Gny, according to 
the testimony of all loologisti, have conflrmed the accuracy 
of Haitena. 

An inhabitant of the dreary regions which sarround tha 
Notth Pole with eternal fhMt, and of those eoaata which are 
rarely free from ioe, the Polar bear is almost entirely cer- 
nivwous, in a state of nature. Animals of the land and of 



great strength, he chases the seal with success, and is uiid 
to attack the tydlrut itielT. Cartwright relates an anec- 
dote in proof of his agility in the water. He saw a Polar 
bear dive after a salmon, and the bear dived with sue 
fbr bo killed his Dsh. C^itain Lvon gives the following 
account of its hunting tbe seal: 'The bear on seeing his 
intended prey, gets quietly into the water, and swims until 
to leewaril of him, from whence, by frequent short dives hs 
silently makes his approaches, and so nrmngca his distance, 
that, at the last dive, he comes to the spot where the seat 
is lying. If the poor animal attempts to escape by rolling 
into the water, he falls into the bear's clutches ; if, on the 
contrary, be lies still, his destroyer makes a powerful spring, 
kills him on the ice, and devours bim at leisure.' The 
some author iiifarms us that this bear not only swims with 
rapidity, but is capable of making long springs in the water. 
Captain Sabine states that he saw one alraut midway be- 
tween tho north and south shores of Barrow's Straits, which 
are forty miles apart, though there was no ice in sigt 
which he could resort for rest. 

The lloating carcasses of whales and other marineanimals 
form a considerable part of its food, and the Imell of the 
burning krtng often brings it to the whale ships. Dr. Ri- 
chardson says, that it does not disdain, in the absence of other 
food, to seek the shore in quest of berries and roots. 7" 
Polar bear moves foster on firm ground than might be i 
posed from hit appearance. Captain Lyon describes 
pace when at full speed, as 'a kin» of shuttle, as quick as 
tbe sharp gallop of a horse.' 

This species is of a more lengthened form than that of 
tho others, the head is very much elongated and flattened, 
the ears and mouth comparatively small, the neck very long 
and thick, and the sole of the foot very large. The fur is 
silvery white tinged with yellow, close, short and even on 
the head, neck, and upper part of the back ; long, fine, and 
Inclined to be woolly on the hinder parts, legs, and belly. 
The sole of the fbot exhibits a beautiful instance of adapta- 
tion of means to an end, for it is almost entirely covered 
with long hair, affording tbe animal a Arm footing on tbe 
ice. The claws ore black, not much curved, thick and 
short. Captain Lyon's crew found none of the terrible 
effecis (skin peeling off, &c. Sic.) ttoxa eating the flesh, 
ascribed to it by some of the earlier voyagers. 



Hllw(tM uuto >»i 



pcouraoy of modem investigation has disaipatsd a good deal 
of the awe with which ic waa re^rded, and has gone far to 
irove, that the excited imagina^n of some of the narrator* 



ted tfaem beyond the truth. That the polar beu when 
pt«Med will attack man there is no doubt, and that such aa 
attack must he most formidable, every one who has eeoa 
the fine specimen, killed in 70° 40' N. lat. and 68° W W. 
long., brought home by Captain (now Sir John) RoM, from 
his first voyoKe (181S), and •]Lhibited on tha Btaircass of 
the British Museum, will allow. But «ben one informs ua 
that the skin of a Polar bear slain by him and his oomrade* 
waa twenty-three feet long; and another, that he and hia 
party were frequently attacked by them, that they seiied 
on tne seamen, carried them off with the graatnt ease, and 
devoured them at their leisure within ai^t of the survivma ; 
we must be permitted to pause before we give entire oredenca 
to the stories. 

The gallant adrentiirer* who conducted the modem 
northern espeditioDs penetrated br beyond the points 
formerly reached, and had opportunities of obsemng nun^ 
bers of Polar bears. The greatest length (ram nose lo tail. 



1 Ross records the measurement of seven feet ten 
inches, and the weight of eleven hundred and sixty pounda ; 
and Caplun Lvon states, that one which wo* unnsuaUy 
loTf^, measured eight feet seven inches and a half, and 
weighed sixteen hundred pounds. The greater numbor of 
(lill grown individuals ore spoken of as far inferior to tbeae 
in dimenuons and weight. 

The testimony of zoologists is to the same effeoL The 
adult female mentioned by Pallas was only si 



inches ftom nose to tail ; and that in Ibe FVencb menagerie, 
alluded to by Cuvier, meaaured about six feet Snglbb on 
its arrival, ukI gained nothing in size at the end of seven 
yean, Tbe individual which baa been kept for a consi- 
derable time in the garden of tbe Zoological Society is fia- 
miliar to many of our readers, and furnishes anouter in- 
stance of the average proportions of these animals. 

Pennant slates that Polar beara are frequent on all the 
Asiatic coasts of the Froien Ocean, tram the mouth of the 
Obi eastward, and that they abound in Nova ZemUo, 
Cherry Island, Spittbergen, Greenland, Labrador, and the 
coasts of Baffin's and Hudson's Bays, but that they are un- 
known on the shores of the White Sea. Captain (now Sir 
Sdward) Parry, saw them within Barrow's Straits as fkr as 
Melville Island; and, during his daring boat-royoge, b»- 
yond tho B2° north latitude. Dr. Richardson soys, that 
the limit of their incursions southward on the shores of 
Hudson's Bay and of Labrador, may be stated to he about 
the 59th parallel. Captain (now Sir John) FronkUn learnt 
from the Esquimaux to the westward of Mackeniie River, 
that they occasionally, though rarely, visited that coast. 
Captain Beechey did not meet with any in his voyage to 
Icy Cape. 

As the Polar bear resides principally on the Belds of ice, 
be is frequently drifted fkr from the land. ' In this way,' 
says Dr. Richardson, ' they are often carried from tbe coast 
of Greenland to Iceland, where they commit such ravages 
on the flocks, that the inhabitants rise in a body to destroy 
them.' The same author gives the following observations, 
confirmatory of Heome, from Mr. Andrew Graham's MSS, 
' In winter,' says Graham, ' the white bear sleeps like 
other species of the genus, but takes up its residence in a 
different situation, generallv under the decUvities of rocks, 
or at the foot of a hank wiiere tbe snow drifts over it to a 
great depth; a small hole for the admission of&esh air is 
constantly observed in the dome of its den. This, however, 
has regard solely to the she-bear, which retires to her 
winter quarters in November, where she lives without food, 
brings forth two young about Christmas, and leave* the 
den in the month of March, when tho cubs are as large as 
a shepherd's dog. If perchance her oKpring are tired, 
they ascend the back of the dam, where they ride secure 
eitber in water or ashore. Though they sometimes go 
nearly thirty miles fVom the sea in winter, they always 
come down to the shores in the spring with their cubs, 
where thov subsist on seals and sea-weed. The be-baar 
wandeia about the marshes and adjacent parts until No- 
vember, and then goes out to the sea upon the ice, and 
preys upon seals. They are very fat, and though very in- 



3 BlAi 



Ifl 



BE A 



cMbasive if not ihaddled with, they aro'Terf ftereo when 
provoked.* • 

The Esquimaux account of the hybernation of this species 
it thus related by Captain Lyon : ' From Ooyarrakhioo, a 
most intelligent man, I obtained an account of the bear, 
which is too interesting to be passed over. 

• ' At the commencement of winter, the pregnant she-bears 
are very fat, and always solitary. When a heavy fall of 
snow sets in, the animal seeks some hollow place in which 
she can lie down, and then remains quiet wnile the snow 
covers her. Sometimes she will wait until a quantity of 
snow has fallen, and then digs herself a cave : at all events, 
it seems necessary that she should be covered by and lie 
amongst snow. 8he now goes to sleep, and does not wake 
until the spring sun is pretty high, when she brings forth 
her two cubs. The cave, by this time, has become much 
larger, by the effect of the animal's warmth and breath, so 
that- the cubs have room enough to move, and they acquire 
considerable strength by continually sucking. The dam at 
length becomes so thin and weak, that it is with great diffi- 
culty she extricates herself, when the sun is powerftil enough 
to throw a strong glare through the snow which roofs the 
den. The Esquimaux affirm, that during this long confine- 
ment the bear has no evacuations, and is herself the means 
of preventing them by stopping all the natural passages 
with moss, grass, or earth. (See note on the bear's tappen.) 
The natives find and kill the bears during their confine- 
ment by means of dogs, which scent them through the 
snow, and begin scratching and howling very eagerly. As 
it would be unsafb to make a large opening, a long trench 
is cut, of sufficient width to enable a man to look down, and 
see where the bear's bead lies, and he then selects a mortal 
part into which he thrusts his spear. The old one being 
killed, the hole is broken open, and the young cubs may be 
taken out by hand, as, havmg tasted no blood, and never 
haying been at liberty, they are then very harmless and 
quiet. Females which are not pregnant roam throughout 
the whole winter in the same manner as the males. The 
coupling time is in May.* 

That part of these accounts which relates to the non- 
hybernation of some of these bears is corrobomted by Cap- 
tain Parrv, who saw them roaming in the course of the two 
winters which be passed on the coast of Melville Peninsula. 

Tliat the Polar bear will subsist on vegetable diet was 
proved in the ca^^o of two which lived and throve for years 
in the French menagerie without being allowed to touch 
animal fbod. The individual kept in the Tower in the 
reien of Henry III. seems to have been indulged in diet 
and recreation more congenial to its habits, for there are 
two of the king's writs extant in choice Latin, directing the 
sheriffs of London to furnish four-pence a day for 'our 
white bear in our Tower of London, and his keeper,* and to 
provide a muizle and iron-chain to hold him when out of 
the water, and a long and strong rope to hold him when he 
is fishing in the Thames.* 

Fossil Bears. 

The fiMsll remains of these animals, when first found, 
ministered, as might have been expected IVom the spirit of 
the age, to the speculations of the lovers of the mai-vellous, 
and figured in the medical prescriptions of the time. The 
caverns of the neighbourhood of the Harti were ransacked 
for them ; and their supposed virtue as medicines, under 
the title of fossil Unic«>ms' Bones, procured a ready sale. 
In the Protogeea of Leibnitz, there is a figure of one of 
those Ibssil unicorns, the product of an imagination suffi- 
ciently lively. 

But it was not till the year 1172, as Cuvier observes, that 
any notice, truly osteological, appeared on the subject, when 
Hayn gave some representations of their bones brought 
from a cave of the Carpathians, as those of dragons ; and, 
by way of helping the evidence, informed his readers that 
there were still to be found in Transylvania dragons alive 
and flying. 

* Thfw writ* are sacli eorioilties, that we fabtoin them ns civcD by Modos 

to bU • K\r>)oqurr/ 

* K«« Vie««uniiitbus I/mdonia eelotem. Prtrcipimiii robifi quod euidjim 
Urso nnitni Albo qnem miltimtu vique Turrim nostrmm I^ondonin* ibiilcm 
CMitodirndnmi ct cQfttodl ip«iu9 itngulis dirbtii quamdtu fUrrint ibklem, ha- 
brro ruintU qMatuor di>nariot ad fustpntationem •aan.' 

* ^^ VirecofQttibat I^Aodoniae Mluten. Pnwipiinut vobii qood eastodi 
Albi T'r»l DCMtri. qui Dut»r miMUf tuii nobia de Norwaj-ijl el e«t io Turn 
no»tr4 IxMdoniv. h*brr« UcUtit mitmi idqm'Uuiii H unani i-athpnamferreani, 
ad teueBdun Umiai lUum extra aquam, eC unaa lonipim ct fimcm eordaoi 
ad tfoendttia ruodeon L'raam pucaoteiQ iz Aam Thanitic; el eu^tom* &«. 
eompatobitur, Ac* 



These Were the remains of the extinct hear of the ca\o» 
(Ur9us sneiaiM), an animal wliich roust have approttchcil 
a large norse in size, some of whose bones are given bv 
Esper, in his Description de* Zoolithee ei dee Oaucm^t 
dane le Margraviat de Bareuthil774). RosenmiiUox, in 
1794 and 1795, gave the figure of a cranium from Gai- 
lenreuth ; and John Hunter, in the Philoeopkical Trcutsac 
Hone (1794), described the bonea found there; and the 
Margrave of Anspach the caves. In \SQ4 Roaenmtiller 
again returned to the subject 

The amount of information had now arrived to such a 
point, that Blumenbach distinguished the skulls found in 
the caverns as those of two distinct species, and gave them 
severally the names of Ureue spelcBue and Ureue arcloideui, 
which Cuvier adoptedt expressing, however, his opinion 
that they were only varieties of Che same species. 

Without entering largely into a detail of all the cavema 
where these remains were found* it may be as well ahortly 
to notice some of the different districts where they ooour. 
Those in the neighbourhood of the Harta furnished the fosatl 
unicorns' bones above alluded to. The principal of these are 
those of Soharzfeld and Baumann, the latter of which om«s 
its name (Baumanns Hohle) to a wretched miner, who, in 
1679, lured by the hope of finding ore, sought its reeeases. 
There he wandered, alone and in darkness, three days and 
three nights. At length he found his way out, but in so 
exhausted a condition, that he only returned to tbs light 
of day to die. 

The caverns of the Carpathians supplied the dragons 
bones above mentioned. 

In Franoonia, near Muggendorf, the eaves axe numerous, 
and abound in bones. Here ars the eavems of Oailen- 
reuth, Rabenstein, Kiihloch, &o. 

The south-west border of the Thuringerwald has those of 
Oliioksbrunn and Leibenstein, near Meinungen, and West- 
phalia those of Kluterhohle and Sundwiok. 

In these caves, it appears, successive gsneratioBS of 
hem, now swept ft^om the fkoe of the earth ^absolut^Iy 
extinct as ^ecies — were bom, lived, and died, for a verr 
long series of years. RasenmiiUer, Hunter, Blumenbach 
Cuvier, and Buckland, all agree in this point The first of 
these found bones of a bear so young, that its death mmx 
have almost immediately followed its birth, and other re- 
mains of individuals which must have died in their youth. 
It would be out of place here to give an account of th; 
remains of the other animals, many of them also extinrt. 
found in the same places ; but it is agreed on all sides, tfc: : 
the proportion of bears, in relation to the others, must* have 
been great Buckland {Religuiw DilutnamB) thus ex- 
pressively describes the scene in the cavern ef Ktihlrr. 
* It is Uterally true, that in this single cavern (the size aai 
proportions of which are nearly equal to those of the int<« 
rier of a large church) there are hunckvds of cart-loads ^t 
black animal dust, entirely covering the whole floor, to a 
depth which, if we multiply this depth by the length an! 
breadth of the cavern, will be found to exceed 5000 rul<:- 
feet The whole of this mass has been again and acan 
dug over in search of teeth and bones, which it still eonuip* 
abundantly, though in broken fraffments. The state f 
these is very diflterent from that of the bones we find in anf 
of the other caverns, being of a black, or, more proper.) 
speaking, dark umber colour throughout, and manr if. 
them readily crumbling under the finger into a soft dark, 
powder, resembling mummy powder, and being of the *airr 
nature with the black earth in which they are inibedH«>iL 
The quantity of animal matter accumulated on this flcc^ 
IS the most surprising and the only thing of Uie kind I ert r 
witnessed ; and many hundred, 1 may say thousand, 
individuals must have contributed their remains to make up 
this appalling mass of the dust of death. It seems, in grcji 
part to be derived from comminuted and pulverised lone - 
for the fleshy parts of animal bodies produce, by their dc^ 
composition, so small a quantity of permanent earthy resi- 
duum, that ws must seek for the origin of this mass pnnri> 
pallv in decayed bones. The cave u so dry, that the bl.ick 
earth lies in the state of loose powder, and rises in duM 
under the feet ; it also retains so large a proportion of u- 
original animal matter, that it is occasfonally used b% t! o 

Feasants as sn enriching manure for the adjacent Bieadk>«> 
'he ft>nowfa)g is added by the Professor in a note ; — * I hji\e 
stated, that the toUl quantity of anUnal matter that lir* 
within this cavern cannot be computed at less than 5( t f 
cubic feet; now sllowing two eubie feet of dust and boue» 



B E A 



96 



B K A 



Fort Franklin, whicli is placed on the south-western ex-- 
tremity of the lake, in 65"* 12^ N. lat., and 123'' 12' W. long. 
The measurement firom this point across the lake in the 
direction just mentioned to the north-eastern part of Dease's 
Bay. is about 150 geographical miles. The diameter taken 
in the direction south-east by east, from the western shore 
of Smith's Bay to the eastern shore of MTwish Bay, is 
rather more than 120 geographical miles. The depth of 
this great collection of flish water has not been ascertained, 
but it is known to be very great ; no bottom was found with 
270 feet of line near to the shore in M'Tavish Bay. The 
water, which appears of a light-blue colour, is so transpa- 
rent, that a piece of white rag let down into it was visible at 
the depth of ninetv feet. 

The exact height of the surface of Bear Lake above the 
arctic sea has not been ascertained with exactness, but a 
careful computation made by Dr. Richardson leads him to 
believe that it is not quite 200 feet above the ocean ; and in 
this case the bottom of the lake must be below the surface 
of the sea, as is known to be the case with other of the great 
lakes in this quarter of America, and with lakes in other 
parts of the globe also. The bottom of the three great 
American lakes, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, is said to 
be 300 feet below the level of the Atlantic ; and the lowest 
part of Loch Ness in Scotland is more than 700 feet below 
the level of the Murray Firth. 

At the bottom of Dease^s Bay, which forms the north- 
eastern arm of the lake, it receives the water of Dease River, 
which is the principal feeding stream. At the bottom of 
Keith Bay is the Bear Lake River, the outlet stream, 
which flows in a south-west direction for seventy miles 
to its junction with the Mackenzie River, in 64'' 59' N. 
lat., which point is about 500 miles from the mouth of 
that river in the arctic ocean. The breadth of Bear Lake 
River, throughout its whole course, is never less than 450 
feet, except at one remarkable place, called the Rapid, about 
midway between the lake and Mackenzie River. The 
depth of the stream varies firom one to three fathoms, and 
flows six miles per hour. It is joined in its course by 
several considerable branches of muddy water. The rapid 
just mentioned is caused by the river 'struggUng through 
o chasm bounded by two perpendicular walls of limestone 
over an uneven bed of the same material.* The walls of 
the rapid are about three miles long and 120 feet high. 
The Bear Lake River flows into the Mackenzie at a right 
angle, and its entrance is distinguished by a very remark- 
able mountain, whose summit displays a variety or insulated 
peaks, crowded in an irregular manner. From the base of 
this mountain two streams of sulphureous water flow into 
the Mackenzie, and from the lower clifis which front that 
river a dark bituminous liquor issues and discolours the rock. 
Great Bear Lake contains an abundance of fish. Captain 
Franklin relates, that towards the end of summer and in 
autumn the produce of fhim fifteen to twenty nets kept in 
use at Fort Franklin was from three to eight hundred fish 
daily, of the kind called ' the herring-salmon of Bear Lake/ 
and occasionally some trout, tittameg, and carp. 

(Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shoreeofthe 
Mar Sea, 1825-1827, by Captain Franklin; Topographi- 
cal and Oeographical Noticee of the North-west Territory, 
read before the Geological Society of London, by Dr. Rich- 
ardson.) 
BBAR*S-FOOT. [See Hsllsborus.] 
BEARS WHORTLE-BERRY.the generic and specific 
characters of which have been given under the article 
Arctostaprylos Uya Ursi, was used in medicine by the 
antients,fBll into neglect, and was restored about the middle 
of the last century. It possesses manifest astringent and, 
under certain circumstances, diuretic properties. The leaves 
are the part of the plant which is used. These are destitute 
of smell, but have an astringent, bitter taste. Analysed by 
Meissner, 100 parts contained 
Gallic acid . • . • , . 1*20 
Tannin, combined with gallic add . . 36*40 

Resin 4*40 

Cblorophylle 6*33 

Extractive, with malates and other salts * 3*3 1 
Ditto, with citrate of lime . • • . 86 

Gum and extractive 33*30 

Lignin , 960 

Water 600 



101*42 



The leaves are frequently intermixed with thoee of the 
Vaccinium vitis Idtea, or cow-berry, from which tbey may 
be distinguished by not being spotted nor having the xnMxf^ 
revolute. The watery infusion of the cow-berry l<»vci 
treated with muriate of iron merely becomes green. The 
watery infusion of the bear- berry so treated throws down a 
blackish-grey precipitate ; also with the leaves of the f 'oo 
dnium uliginosum, or bog whortle-berry. To distinguish 
them from these last is more important than from the fore- 
going, as the leaves of the bog whortle-berry are poisonous. 
They do not possess the leathery texture, or the reticulated 
character of tne leaves of the ifva ursi. The leaves of the 
Buxus sempervirens, or common box, are often fraudutcutly 
intermixed with it. They may be distinguished by the 
veins of the leaves running from the mid-rib to the margin, 
not being reticulated like the Uva urei, having an un- 
pleasant smell, and yielding on analysis the principle called 
buxin. 

The power of the leaves is greatest over the mnrouf 
membranes and the kidneys. The leaves rubbed with cM 
water yield up all their tannin and gallic acid, and thu« 
afford an infusion of great efficacy in hemorrhages fna 
the prostate gland. In cases of tendency to calculous dis- 
eases, especially of the phosphatic diathesis, it is of great 
use when persevered in ; also in catarrh of the bladder. It 
has been thought useful in consumption, and indee«l it« 
tonio power may render it occasionally serviceable. It is 
administered in powder, in the form of an infusion or de- 
coction ; but the best form in which it can be longest used ii 
that of extract, as recommended by Dr. Prout. 

(See Preut On Diseases of the Urinary Organs^ second 
edit, p. 185.) 

BEARD, the hair which grows upon the chin and con- 
tiguous parts of the face in men, and sometimes, thougli 
rarely, in women. With men its growth is the distinctive 
sign of manhood. 

The fashion of the beard has varied greatiy in diiTercnt 
times and different countries ; and some of the learned to 
curious triHes have spared no pains to record the chanz^-t. 
Hotoman wrote a treatise expressly on the beard, entitled 
Poordnias (JlOTQlflAXU first printed at Leyden in 15>^, 
and which, on account of its rarity, was reprinted at length 
by Pitiscus in his Lexicon. 

The earliest notice of attention to its growth is prolably 
in Leviticus, where the lawgiver of the Jews (chap. xii. 
27) says, ' thou shalt not mar the comers of thy beard.* 

Generally speaking, the growth of the beard was cujti- 
vated among the nations of the East, although it most bt 
observed that most of the Egyptian figures in the antieot 
paintings are without beards. In Rosellini's work we baft 
a series of portraits of Egyptian kings, nearly all witboet 
beards. (See Plate No. x. &c.) The antient Indian philo- 
sophers called Gymnosophists were solicitous to have loog 
beards, which were considered symbolical of wisdom. The 
Assyrians and Persians also prided themselves on Che 
length of theh* beards; and SU Chrysostom informs us 
(Opera, edit. Monfauc. tom. xi. p. 378) that the kings of 
Persia had their beards interwo^-en or matted with gold 
thread. The figures on the Babylonian cylinders are usu- 
ally represented with beards ; and those on the reliefs froa 
Persepolis in the British Museum. 

Aaron Hill, in his Account of the Ottoman JSmpirt^ 
folio, London, 1709, p. 45, draws this distinction betveea 
the Persians and the Turks : ' the Persians never shave 
the hair upon the upper lip, but cut and trim the beaid 
upon their chin, according to the various forms their sevenl 
fancies lead them to make choice of; whereas the Turks 
preserve with care a very long and spreading beard, estee«> 
ing the deficiency of that respected ornament a shameAiI 
mark of servile slavery.* The slaves in the seraglio an 
shaved as a mark of servitude. 

The Chinese are said to affect long beards, hut natms 
having denied their natural growth, they are someciiMS 
supplied to the chin artificially. (See Nouveaux Memotm 
sur I'Etat de la Chine, par le R. P. Louis le Comte, torn, l 
p. 209.) 

Athennus (xiii. p. 565, edit. Casaub. Lugd. 1657) ob- 
serves from Chrysippus's treatise De honesto et voiuptait^ 
that the Greeks wore their beards till the time of Alexander. 
The first person who cut his beard at Athens, he adds, was 
ever after called ropinjv, the shaven. Plutareh, in his Lift 
qf Thfisens, mentions incidentally that Alexander cut off 
the beards of the Macedonian Boldiersi that they might nut 



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ee 



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tax upon them, and at others hy ordering those he found 
with bcardg lo have them pulled up by the roots, or shaved 
with a blunt razor, which drew the skin after it, and by 
these means scarce a beard wa:) left in the kin<;dom at his 
death : but such a veneration had this people for these en- 
signs of gravity, that many of them carefully preserved their 
beards in their cabinets, to be buried with them, imagining 
perhaps that they should make but an odd figure in the 
grave with their naked chins.' 

The reader who desires further information on the history 
of beards may consult the lexicons of Hoffmann and Pitiscus 
for the classic times ; and in Bulwer's Anthropometamor- 
phnsis, or Artificial Changeling , 4to. Lond. 1653, p. 193- 
216, Scene xii. is a whole chapter 'On the opinion and 
practice of divers© nations concerning the naturall ensigno 
of manhood appearing about the mouth ;* quoted from in- 
numerable autnors, antient and modern. 

Shaving the beard in derision was, throughout the East, 
considered to be the greatest mark of ignominy which could 
be indicted upon an enemy ; and to pluck a man's beard 
was the highest mark of insult. The Eastern origin of some 
of our old romances is, perhaps, in no circumstance more 
visible than in the descriptions which are so frequently 
given of giants cutting off the beards of princes who fell 
into their hands. Drayton alludes to this practice in his 
Poli/olbioUf Song iv. : 

* Ad(1 for A trophy bvought the gUnCt coat aY»y. 
Made of the twardf of kings.* 

See also Warton's Observations on Spenser's Fairy Queen, 
edit. 1762, vol. i. p. 24. 

The suffering of the beard to grow in the time of mourn- 
ing is a custom which has been already incidentally alluded 
to. Levi, in his Stirdnct Account qf the Bites and Cere- 
monies of the Jews at this present time, 8vo. Lond. says, 
that for the seven following relations, viz. a father or mother^ 
brother or sister, son or daughter, husbapd or wife, they 
must not shave their beards, nor cut their nails neither of 
their hands or feet, nor bathe for the term of thirty days ; 
which term is called in Hebrew Shyloshim, which means 
thirty days. 

To beard, in modern English, means to set at defiance, to 
oppose face to face in a hostile manner. Shakspeare, in 
Henry IV. act iv. sceiie 4, makes Douglas say, 

* No man so potent breatbet upon tb« nound 
Bill / viU bear<i him.* 

BEARING, the direction of the line drawn fi-om one point 
to another. It is a term usually applied to the points of the 
compass, as follows:— If the line B A be in a N.W. direc- 
tion from B, A is said to bear N.W. of B. or the bearing of 
A is N.W. To take bearings is to ascertain the points of 
the compass on which objects lie. The following example 
will serve to familiarize the word, by conuecling it with a 
simple problem of trigonometry : — 




Cape B is 20 miles from Cape A. and bears S.E. of it. 
On board a ship S,Cape A is observed to bear N.N.E.,and 
B bears E. by N. : required the position of the ship. Draw 
S D, A C. both east ; then the angle D S B is one point of 
the compass, and the angle D S A six points : consequently 
A S B is five points of the compass, or 56° ly ; but 
CAS and A S D are together equal to two right angles, 
or sixteen points, of which A S D is six points, there- 
fore C A S is ten points; but C A B is four points, there- 
fore S A B is six points, or G7° 30': therefore, in the tri- 
angle A B S, the side A B and two angles are known, 
whence the other sides, or tjio ship's distance from the two 
cajH!'*. can be found. The easiest method of solving this 
problem is by actual construction, the results of which are 
genendlj as accurate as the data. 



In a nianner somewhat similar, the distance of a ship 
from a headland might be found by observing its bearin^^ 
at two different hours of the day, and knowing the cour«.e 
and the distance sailed in the intermediate time. If all the 
bearings are by compass, as in the second problem, the 
magnetic variation need not be allowed for, because all the 
bearinns are equally wrong : but if one or more be true 
bearings, taken from a map, as in the first problem, then 
the bearings observeil by the compass must be eorrectud, 
[See Azimuth ; Compass, Azimuth.] 

BK'ARN, one of the thirty-two provinces into which, 
previously to the Revolution, France was divided. It con- 
stitutes now, with Les Pays des Basques [see Basqubs], the 
department of Basses Pyrenees or the Lower Pyrenees. Tlie 
name Beam is derived from Benehamum, an antient town 
in this country, first mentioned in the Itinerary of Antoni- 
nus : its exact position is undetermined. 

The greatest part of Bearn lies amidst the Pyrenees, the 
summits of which form its southern boundary, and separate 
it from Spain. On other sides, with reference to the old ter> 
ritorial divisions of France, it is bounded by different purt« of 
Gascogne, or Gascony, viz., by Bigorre on the east, by the 
Pays des Basques on the west, and by Armagnao and Cha- 
losse on the north*. It is a very mountainous country, as 
may be supposed from its being occupied by the branches of 
the Pyrenees. The Pic du Midi (9732 feet) and Mount 
Billari (8475 feet) are upon or within its frontier. Frona tbe 
mountains numerous streams descend, which drain different 
valleys, and full into the Adour, of whose basin Beam forms 
a part. The name Gave, which is synonymous with river, is 
common to the streams of this country : they are distin- 
guished from one another by some additional designation, 
such as the name of a town on the bank. The rapidity u( 
these Gaves prevents their being used for navigation, but 
they abound with fish, especially trouts, salmons, pikei, ar^l 
a kind of small salmon of exquisite flavour callea toquan^. 
The two principal streams are the Gave d'Ol^ron and the 
Gave de Pau. The Gave d*016ron is formed bv the GaTe 
d'Aspe and the Gave d'Ossau, or d'Osseau, vtiicb latter 
rises in the Pic du Midi : these unite close to the town <*f 
Olferon, and flow in a north-west direction. The Grave <li> 
Pau rises in Mont Perdu in Spain, crosses the country of 
Bigorre, and flows north- west through B^ani, passing Pau 
and Orthcs, till it unites with Gave d'Ol^ron. Their jov.-t 
stream falls into tho Adour soon after their union. Tl ^^ 
length of the Gave d'Ol^ron (measuring from the source • f 
the Gave d'Ossau) may be estimated at 75 to 80 miles, and 
that of the Grave de Pau at 100 to 110 : these meaauiemtr.ti 
are, however, only approximations. Some of the smaller 
streams which flow into the Gaves d*Ol^ron and de P:j 
contain particles of gold. 

The soil is dry and in many parts unsuited to tnia;rt*, 
though the banks of the Gave de Pau contain some plait. i 
fertile in grain. Little wheat or ^rye is grown ; but mi'.!t : 
and maise are the principal kinds of grain cultivated, and 
afford subsistence to the bulk of the people. The hills 
yield a good deal of wine, of which those of Juraiifon and 
Gan near Pan hold the first rank. Flax is also an article 
of considerable importance in the agriculture of B^am, and 
serves to supply the linen manufacture. Many of the 
mountain-tops are mere heaths covered with fern, which 
the inhabitants use for manure ; but some afford good pas- 
turage, and others are covered with woods which vield timber 
for the carpenter or the shipwright, and furnish the ma^ts 
which are floated down by the tributaries of the Adour, and 
by the Adour ititelf. to Bayonne, from whence they arc sent 
to difierent parts of France. The horses of B^am are much 
esteemed ; they are small, but strong and lively. 

The mineral treasures of this district are considerable. 
Lead, iron, and especially copper are found in several places ; 
and very fine marble is worked. Three brine springs, one 
near the town of Saillies, not far from the left bank of tho 
Gavede Pau; a second towards St. Jean Pied de Port*: 
and a third near lUvenac, a few miles south of Pau, supply 
the neighbourhood with salt. Talc, bitumen, and asphalt um 
are also found. There are mineral waters at Aigues-Caudes 
or les Eaux Chaudes in tlie Valley of Ossau. The tempe- 

• In the Map of France in Provinces, published by the Society for the Fh'- 
ftiMon of L'-pnjl KnowletlKo. tbe »l«»tilct of ChaloM* is not marked. It u lo 
eluded in the larger UiTisiun of IjOs Landea. 

..i }*** ''"*'^ '^"* aecond. spring, os belunffiog to Beam, with eonai<lerabU 
dtffldence. Uur authority i« Uie Ennjdaft>di« Methodiq%e; but unless the 
phrase, 'do cdte de St. Jean Pied de Port,' is used wiUi consfalemble Utitude, 
Um tprinc must be beyond Um ftooUm «l Bearo. 



e E A 



100 



B E A 



in parliament as abbot of Arbroath ; and in October, 1527, 
John Beaton of Balfour and others having been indicted 
for an assault upon the sheriflfof Fife, and found bail for 
their appearance, the abbot became bound to relieve John 
WardlawofTorryofthecautionry. (Pile. Crim. Triaig.) On 
the fall of the Earl of Angus, and the surrender of Geor^ 
bishop of Dunkeld, he was appointed Lord Privy Seal, m 
I528~the same year in which the great convent of Black- 
friars at Edinburgh, in the immediate neighbourhood of 
which Beaton and his uncle had their magnificent abode, 
was burnt down to the ground by a sudden fire. In Febru- 
ary, 1 533i Beaton, now prothonotary apostolic, was sent am- 
baiMador to France, with Secretary Erskine, to treat of a 
league with that crown, and also of a matrimonial alliance 
with the Princess Magdalene ; and when the King of Scots 
proceeded thither on the same object, Beaton was one of the 
fords of the regency appointed by commission, of date 29th 
August, 1536, to conduct the government in his absence. 
On Queen Magdalene's decease, he was joined in an em- 
bassy to the house of Guise, to treat of a match with Mary, 
widow of the Duke of Longueville ; and we find that, agree- 
ably to the common practice of that time, he, before going 
abroad, obtained the king's special protection for his friends 
and dependants in his absence. (Reg. Privy Seal, x. 163-4.) 
It is probable that, when in France on this occasion, he pro- 
cured the papal bull of date 12th February, 1537, for the 
erection of St. Mary's College at St Andrew's. In Novem- 
ber, 1537, he was made a denizen of France, and on the 5th 
of next month consecrated Bishop of Mirepoix in Languedoc. 
On his return home he was made coadjutor in the see of St. 
Andrew's, and successor to his uncle, who being now much 
advanced in years, devolved on him the charge of church 
affairs. He seems afterwards to have gone abroad again, for 
on the 20th December, 1538, Pope Paul III. advanced him 
to the cardinalate, by the title of Sancti Stephani in Monte 
CcdUo, the same style which was borne by Cardinal John de 
Salerno, who presided at a council of the Scottish clergy in 
1201; and on the 20th June, 1539, the King of France 
directed new letters of naturalization in his favour, with a 
further clause allowing his heirs to succeed to his estate in 
Frahce, though bom and living in Scotland. About this 
time also we find him ' legatus natus* of the Roman See. 
On the death of his uncle in the autumn of 1539, he was 
liilly invested in the primacy of St. Andrew's, the privy seal 
being again returned to the Bishop of Dunkeld. These ac- 
cumulated honours he no doubt mainly owed to the influence 
of his deceased uncle ; but Beaton was already both an able 
and zealous son of the church. His authority, zeal, and 
ability now made him truly formidable : and that he might 
devote them all to the politics of the church, with consent 
of the king and pope, he devolved his diocesan duties on 
the dean of Restalrig, as his suffragan. On the 28th May, 
1540, he convened a large assembly of ecclesiastics and 
others in the cloisteis of St. Andrew's, and on their con- 
viction of Sir John Borthwick for heresy in holding Pro- 
testant opinions, pronounced sentence of outlawry and for- 
feiture against him, with solemn burning of bis effigy at the 
market-cross of the city. But not liking the odium which 
must ensue to the clergy if they continued to put their sen- 
tences in execution, a promise was made to the king of 
30.000 ducats of gold yearly, and 100,000 ducats more out 
of tho estates of condemned heretics, if he would appoint a 
ju(l(ce in heresy. Tho avaricious James consented, and 
named Sir James Hamilton, natural brother of tho Earl of 
Arran, to the office, in which, however well fitted for it by 
Irs intolerance and ferocity, he fortunately did not long 
remain, being attainted of treason and beheaded. 

On the 20th December, 1542, the king died, leaving 
an infant daughter, eight days old, heir to tho throne, 
but for whose safety or that of tho kingdom during her mi- 
nority he had made no provision. Bentun had in the inter- 
val gone abroad ; for in the Lonl Treasurer's uccounts we 
find a large sum entered 'for expeiiHos mudo upnn ilio 
Grtai Iwieom, Jul. 1 1, 1541, at her passing to Franco with 
the cardinal :* but he returned before the desith of James, 
aod on the king's demise he produced a testament, which 
J^affinaed was subscribed by his majesty, appointing him 
reirent of li* kinffrlotn and guardian to the mfant queen. 
Ttje dMiuBCBt «as a base forgcrv: and as the nobility 
bad expnvDr«d cikovsh of Beaton's rule, they roused from 
\itft iLactrrdT Jaae^. Rari of Arran, next heirto the queen, 
^•** h:a to the retmicy. The power, however, 
fciied t© obuin dirertlv, he obtained by his 




address ; and not only got the nobles to aooede to . _ . 

of government, but also induced the timid regent publicly 
to abjure the doctrines of the Reformation. 

In December, 1543, the great seal was taken from the 
Archbishop of Glasgow and bestowed on Beaton, whom aK \ 
on very strong letters from the regent. Pope Paul 1 11^ by 
bull of 30th January following, constituted bin legate d laf.^^ 
in Scotland. Thus he was placed at the head both of churrh 
and state, including also the whole civil judicature of tii<r 
kingdom, being ex officio principal of the Court of Ses«i'>n« 
the supreme judicatory in civil causes ; and as he did nrt 
scruple to employ these extensive powers (or furtberinf^ h»^ 
own views, he appears to have been looked upon as a sort 
of wild besst whom it was not murder to destroy. The 
king of England, in particular, whose fHendship was ro 
nounced at the instigation of the cardinal and tne popi<.h 
faction, for an alliance with France, anxiously desiretl lii« 
death ; and in the instructions of the English privy council 
of date 10th April, 1544, the Earl of Hertford was c<im- 
manded, in his inroad into Scotland, to sack and tle>tr*\ 
Edinburgh and Leith, * and this done, pass over to the Fi:'tr- 
land, and extend like extremities and destruction to the 
towns and villages there, not forgetting amongst all th'* 
rest so to spoil and turn upside down the cardinal's town of 
St. Andrew's, as the upper part may be the nether, and n«vt 
one stone stand upon another, sparing no creature zIa^ 
within the same, specially such as either in friendship or 
blood be allied unto the cardinal.* Henry soon found m 
Scotland spirits congenial with his own ; for on the 1 7th ff 
the same month we find the Earl of Hertford communiratir v 
to him a design by Wishart and othera to seize or slav the cai- 
dinal, could they secure his majesty's protection and support. 
Beaton was haughty to all; but to the reformers be 
was particularly oppressive. In the beginning of 1545-6 
he held a visitation of his diocese, and had great numbers 
brought before him, under the act which had passed the 
parliament in 1542-3, forbidding the lieges to argue or 
dispute concerning the sense of the holy scriptures. Con- 
victions were quicklv obtained; and of those convictel, 
five men were hanged and one woman drowned , some %%ere 
imprisoned, and others were banished. He next proceeded! 
to Edinburgh, and there called a council for the ai!air» oi 
the church ; but they had scarce assembled when tidin£> 
were brought that George Wishart, an eminent refonner 
and worthy man, was at the house of Cockbum of Ormistoiu 
The cardinal instantly left the meeting, and went persomtlly 
to the sheriff of the county to have Wishart apprehended, 
which being done, Wishart was carried over by the cardinil 
to St. Andrew's, and shut up in the tower there. The fal- 
lowing month the Lord Justice General of Scotland held a 
court at Perth at the instigation of the cardinal, and * con- 
demned to death and gart hang four honest men for eatin;; 
of an goose in lent. Likeways they caused drown ane vouni; 
woman because she wald not pray to our ladie and' other 
sancts in the tyme of her birth.' (Pitscoitie, 453.) Beatoa 
afterwards returned to St. Andrew's, and called a conven- 
tion of his clergy, at which Wishart was condemned f r 
heresy, and adjudged to be burnt; a sentence which (*a 
violently were the clergy bent on the accomplishment of 
their ends) was passed in the face of a command by the 
regent that the trial should proceed at Edinburgh, and 
was put in force by the cardinal and his clergy in defiance 
of tlie regent, and without the aid of the civil power. Foe 
this conduct the cardinal was loudly applauded by h\i 
creatures. Tlie cardinal afterwards proceeded to the abbey 
of Arbroath, to the marriage of his eldest daughter by Mr«, 
Marion Ogilvy of the house of Airly, with whom he had 
long lived in scandalous concubinage, and there, with in- 
famous effrontery, he gave her in marriage to the eldest son 
of the Earl of Crawford, and with her 4000 merks of dowr>'. 
The marriage articles subscribed by him are vet extant 
(Keith's Hist. p. 42.) He then returned to St.' Andrew s 
where, on Saturday, 29th May, 1546, he was put to death 
in his own chamber by a party of reformers, headed by 
Norman Leslie, heir of the noble house of Rothes, who, w*» 
nnd, had on the 24th April, 1545, given the cardinal a hoM 
of manretit*, and who, on private grounds, had a personal 
quarrel with the cardinal. His death was fatal to the eerie- 
siastical oligarchy, which, under him, trampled alike on law. 
liberty, and reason. 
Three works of the cardinal's are named : De Legaiiofiibut 

• Bou^i of maaTCBt wrw kmf camaoD ia ScoUaad. Tlity ««?« hi tw 
nalun of Uie obUsatioiia of homage and CMlty by a iraaat to his feudal locT^ 



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101 



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Shis ; De Primatu Petri ; and Ejnitola ad d^ versos. We 
liave said that he was at the head of Ihe civil judicature of 
the kingdom, being, in his capacity of Lonl Chancellor, 
principal of the College of Justice or Court of Session. We 
now add, that in his time two remarkable alterations appear 
to have been made in the customs of that court, and both 
manifestly derived from the papal tribunals, with whidi the 
cardinal appears to have been very familiar. The first of 
these was the custom (continued to this day) of the judges 
of the Court of Session changing their name on their eleva- 
tion to the bench, in imitation, no doubt, of the like custom 
on elevation in the papal hierarchy. The first judges of the 
court were indeed called lords of session, as the judges of 
the previous court were called lords of council ; but the in- 
dividual judges of the court of daily council were never de- 
signated as the present judges of the Court of Session are, 
nor were the early judges of the latter court so designated. 
The first we have yet noticed bearing the present style 
is James Balfour, parson of Flisk, wliom we find called 
* My lord of Flisk.' (Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, January, 
1666.) The other change wo have to notice was the ap- 
pointment of lords ordinary to sit in the outer house to hear 
and determine causes; in conformity, perhaps, to a like 
practice in the tribunals of Rome. It is almost certain that 
there was no such distinction as an Outer and Inner House 
at the first institution of the Court of Session : no trace of 
any such is perceived in the documents of that time, but, on 
the contrary, every thing tends to demonstrate that all the 
judi^es sat only in the council house; but soon after the 
cardinal's time an outer house appears. 

BEATS, in music (a term always used in the plural), 
are the pulsations, throbbings, or beatings, resulting from 
tlie joint vibrations of two sounds of the same strength and 
nearly the same pitch; that is, of two sounds differing but 
little, if at all, in intensity, and which are almost, but not 
exactly, in unison. When two organ-pipes, or two strings 
sounded together, are nearly, but not accurately » of the 
same pitch, i. e. are not in perfect tune, they produce throb- 
bin^s that may be compared to the rapid beating of the 
pulse ; and to these, Sauveur, the discoverer of the pheno- 
menon, applied the term battemenst or beats, which has 
since been adopted by all writers on the subject. 

Dr. Smith has, in his Harmonics, entered fully into the 
suliject ot beats, and founded hereon his well-known system 
of temperament. [See Temperament.] In his ninth pro- 
position he says, that 'if a consonance of two sounds be 
uuiform without any beats or undulations, the times of the 
sin'^le vibrations of its sounds have a perfect ratio ; but if it 
beats or undulates, the ratio of the vibration differs a little 
from a perfect ratio, more or less, according as the beats are 
quicker or slower.* His experiment in demonstration of 
this is practical, easy, and satisfactory. * Change,' says Dr. 
Smith, 'the first string of a violoncello for another about as 
tliick as the second. Then s>crew up the first string, and 
\\h\[e it approaches gradually to a unison with the second, 
th(^ two sounds will be heard to beat very quick at first, 
then slower and slower, till at last they make a uniform 
consonance without any beats or undulations. At this junc- 
ture, either of the strings struck alone, by the bow or 
finder, will excite large and regular vibrations in the other, 
plauily visible; which show that the times of their single 
vihrations are equal.* For the vibrating motion of a musical 
string puts other strings in motion, whose tension and quan- 
tity of matter dispose their vibrations to keep time with the 
pulses of air propagated from the string that is struck; a 
phenomenon explained by Galileo, who observes, that a 
heavy pendulum may be put in motion by the least breath 
nf the mouth, provided the puffs be often repeated, and keep 
time exactly with the vibrations of the pendulum. * Alter 
the tension,* eontinues Dr. Smith, in pursuing his experi- 
nieut, ' of either string a very little, and the sounds of the 
two will beat again. But now the motion of one string 
struck alone makes the other only start, exciting no regular 
vibrations in it; a plain proof that the vibrations of the 
strings are not isochronous.* And while the sounds of both 
are drawn out with an even bow, not only an audible but 
a visible beating and irregularity is observable in the vibra- 
tions, though in the former case the vibrations were free 
and uniform. Now measure the length of either string 
between the nut and bridge, and when the strings are per- 
fect unisons, mark, at the distance of one-third of that length 
from the nut, one string with a speck of ink. Then place 
the edge of the nail on the speck, or very near it, and press 



the siring, when, on sounding the remaining two-thlrda 
with the other string open, a uniform consonance of fifths 
will be heard, the single vibrations of which have the per<* 
feet ratio of 3 to 2. But on moving the nail a little down- 
wards or upwardsi that ratio will be increased or diminished ; 
and in both cases the imperfect fifths will beat quicker or 
slower, accordingly as that perfect ratio is more or less 
altered. 

Dr. Young remarks of Beats, that they furnish a very 
accurate mode of determining the proportional frequency of 
vibrations, when the absolute frequency of one of them is 
known ; or the absolute frequency of both, when their pro- 
portion is known ; for the beats are usually slow enougn to 
be reckoned, although the vibrations themselves can never 
be distinguished. Thus, if one sound consists of 1 00 vibra- 
tions in a second, and produces with another acuter sound a 
single beat in every second, it is obvious that the second 
sound must consist of 101 vibrations in a second. (Young's 
PhUosophy, i. 390.) 

In tunmg unisons, as in the case of two or more pipes, or 
strings, the operator is guided by beats. Till the unison is 
perfect, more or less of beating will be heanl, as the sounds 
more or less approach each other. ' When the unison is 
complete,* observes Sir John Herschel, * no beats are heard : 
when very defective, the beats have the effiect of a rattle of 
a very unpleasant kind. The complete absence of beats 
affords the best means of attaining by trial a perfect hai*- 
mony. Beats will also be heard when other concords, as 
fifths, are imperfectly adjusted. (Herschel on Sound.) 

Dr. Smith, in the learned work of which we have here 
availed ourselves, gives some useful practical rules for 
tuning by means of beats, the substance of which will be 
found under the head of Tuning. 

BEATIIE, JAMES, a poet and metaphysician of the 
18th century, was born in Scotland, at Lawrencekirk, a 
village in the county of Kincardine, Oct. 25, 1735. His 
parents kept a small farm, and were esteemed, not only for 
their honesty, but for a degree of cultivation and intellect 
not common in their station. James Beattie received his first 
education at the village school. He entered the Marischal 
College, Aberdeen, in ] 749 ; obtained a bursary, or scholar- 
ship, and other honours ; and after completing his course 
of study was appointed, August 1, 1753, schoolmaster to the 
parish of Fordoun, at the foot of the Grampians, six miles 
from Lawrencekirk. In this solitary abode his poetic tem- 
perament was fostered by the grand scenery which sur- 
rounded him ; and his works evince the zeal and taste with 
which he studied the ever-changing beauties of nature. 
He attracted the favourable notice of a neighbouring pro- 
prietor, the celebrated Lord Monboddoi with whom he ever 
afler maintained a friendly intercourse. In June, 1756, he 
was elected usher to the grammar-school of Aberdeen ; and 
in ] 760, it seems rather by pnvate interest than in conse- 
quence of anv distinction which he had then attained, he 
was appointed professor of moral philosophy and logic in 
the Marischal College. 

His first and chief business was to prepare a com*se of 
lectures, the substance of which, as they were remodelled 
by long study and frequent revision, was given to the world 
in his Elements of Moral Science, His first poetical at- 
tempts were published in London in 1760, and received with 
favour ; but most of the pieces contained in this collection 
(which is now very rare) were omitted by the authors ma- 
turer judgment in later editions of his works. Some will 
be found in the Appendix to Sir William Forbes's Li/e qf 
Beattie. The same tacit censure was passed by the author 
upon his Judgment qf Paris, published in 1765. In 1762 
he wrote his Essay on Poetry, which, however, he retained a 
long time in manuscript, until it was pubhshed, with others 
of his prose works, in 1776. The Minstrel was oommenced 
in 1 766 ; but during that year all his pursuits, except those 
which were compulsory, were interrupted by a bad state of 
health. June 28, 1 76 7> he married Miss Dun, daughter of 
the rector of the grammar-school at Aberdeen. 

During this year he conceived the notion of composing 
his Essay on Truth, written avowedly to confute the moral 
and metaphysical doctrines advanced by Hume, which at 
that time were supposed to be making numerous converts ; 
and which, perhaps, derived as much of their popularity 
fit>m the fashionable acceptation and high repute oi their au- 
thor, as from the arguments on which they rested. Beattie's 
motives for engaging in this task will be found fully de- 
tailed in a long letter to Dr, Blacklock (Forbes's Z»t/e, vol. U 



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103 



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I 



. 129), and they do credit to his iincerity and oourage: 
or it was no slight thing for a young and almost unknown 
man to attack an author formidable at once from ability, 
party connexion, and high standing in society ; and this he 
did not in the language of deference, but with the uncompro-- 
mising hostility of one who believes his antagonist to be not 
only a mistaken but a mischievous person. If Beattie could 
not quite attain his own wish of being * animated without 
losing his temper,' something must be conceded to his deep 
feeling of the importance of the subjects in dispute. The 
Essay, however, was received with much anger by Mr. Hume 
and his friends, as a violent and personal attack ; and that 
Beattie's zeal might require some tempering we may conclude 
from knowin<r that an intended preface to the second edition 
(published early in 1771) was cancelled by the advice of 
some of his best friends. His work appeared in May, 1770, 
under the title Essay on the Nature and Immutability 
of Truth, in opposition to Sophistry and Scepticism. 
The plan of it is thus given by his biographer. 'Dr. 
Beattie first endeavours to trace the several kinds of evi- 
dence up to their first principles, with a view to ascertain 
the standard of truth, and explain its immutability. Ho 
shows, in the second place, that his sentiments on this 
head, how inconsistent soever with the genius of scepti- 
cism, and with the principles and practice of sceptical 
writers, are yet perfectly consistent witn the genius of true 
philosophy, and with the practice and principles of those 
whom all acknowledge to have been most successful in the 
investigation of truth ; concluding with some inferences or 
rules, by which the most important fallacies of the sceptical 
philosophers may be detected by every person of common 
sense, even though he should not possess acutcness of meta- 
physical knowledge sufficient to qualify him for a logical 
confuration of them. In the third place, he answers some 
objections, and makes some remarks, by way of estimate of 
scepticism, and sceptical writers.' — Forbes, p. 167. 

The Kasay on Truth was only the first part of an intended 
lecture on the evidences of morality and religion. Habitual 
ill health, and an avowed dislike to severe study, prevented 
Dr. Beattie from completing his design. 

The first canto of the Minstrel «as published anony- 
mously in 1771. It was most favourably received by the 
public, and honoured by tlie warm praise of Gray, the more 
valuable because the praise was accompanied by a letter 
of minute criticism. This is presen*ed in Forbes's Life 
(vol. i. p. 197). In the same year he visited London, for the 
first time since ho had been known as an author ; and re- 
ceived distinguished and flattering notice from Dr. Johnson, 
Lord Lylllcton, and the best literary society of the metro- 
polis. 

It was the wish of his friends to obtain some permanent 
provision for one who had no patrimony, whose literary pro- 
fits were small, and whose only other resource was the scanty 
income of his professorship ; and it was thought that his 
exertions in the cause of revealed religion entitled him to 
tliis mark of public favour. In 1 773 he again visited London 
to urge his claim, and owing to the powerful interest which 
he was then able to command, he obtained a pension of 200/. 
The King (George III.) received him with distinguished 
favour ; and the University of Oxford conferred on him the 
honorarv degree of D.C.L. During this visit. Sir Joshua 
Reynolds painted and presented to him the well-known 
portrait, which contains the allegorical triumph of Truth 
over Sophistry, Scepticism, and Infidelity. In the same 
autumn there occurred a vacancy in the University of Edin- 
burgh, which it was thought would open the chair of moral 
philosophy to Dr. Beattie; but this preferment, though 
strongly urged upon him, he dechned for the sake of peace 
and quiet. At this time he was engaged in finishing the 
second book of the Minstrel, which was published in the 
following spring:. 

Several uf Beattie's friends, and some eminent persons 
who do not appear to have been influenced by personal re- 
gard, were dcb irons to induce him to take oitiers in the 
Kn^'Ush church, and more than one living was pressed upon 
his acceptance. In 1774 he received the oflfer of a living 
wortli near 500/. per annum, from Dr. Thomas, Bishop of 
Wiiichc»tcr. It appears that Beattie took these pro- 
posals into serious consideration, and that he entertained 
no objections on the score of discipline or doctrine ; but 
he refused them principally on tl>e ground that his ac- 
reptance might give a handle to the opponents of revealed 
ugivn for a2>5crting that the Essay on Truth was written 



for the Rake of preferment. • Partly,' he nys, 'because it 
might be construed into a want <rf princiifie, if, at the ace of 
thirty-eight, I were to quit, with no other apparent motive 
than that of bettering my circumstances, that church of 
which I have hitherto been a member.' It is not snperfluou'i 
to praise this delicacy and independence of feeling, becauu 
many persons whom it would be harsh to condemn as havmg 
sold their opinions for preferment, have at least ahown a 
culpable neglect of their own characters and the interest (if 
truth, by accepting preferment tinder nircumstanr^^a whicii 
were almost sure to fix the imputation of venality u|»>r. 
them. (See Beattie s Letter to Dr, Porteus, Forbea, vol. i. 
p. 859.) 

The Essay on Truth was re-pnbliahed in 1776, with Ibrc* 
other essays : — On Poetry and Music, as they affect the 
Mind ; On Laughter and Ludicrous Composition ; On the 
Utility of Classical Learning, These were followed at 
intervals by other essays and dissertations, chiefly taken 
from his academical lectures:— DiMtfr/a/f on* Moral and 
Critical, on Memory and Imaeination, on Dreaming, tai 
the Theory of Language, on t\»ble and Romance, on the 
Attachments of Kindred, and Illustratione of Subiimity, 
1 783 ; Evidences of the Christian Religion, 1 786 ; EUmerjU 
of Moral Science, vol. i. containing Psychology and Nalural 
Theology, 1790; vol. fi. containing Ethics, Economics, Po- 
litics. Logic, and a Dissertation on the Slat>e Trade, 1 793. 
But he appears to have engaged in no new investigations cr 
studies ; and his letters explain the canse of this to ha\c 
been ill health, and consequent disinclination to labour, 
aggravated by mental depression, and a considerable share 
of domestic disquiet, produced by an hereditary disprKj- 
tion to insanity in his wife. His life passed until 1 7'JO 
without marked events, in the discharge of his acade- 
mical duties; varied in his long summer vacations by n^t 
unfrequent visits to London, and to many persons emi- 
nent by their talents or rank, who sought his society for the 
sake of his powers as a companion, as much as for his repu- 
tation. In 1 790 he sufTered an irreparable loss in tho de:ith 
of his eldest son at the age of twenty- two, a young man if 
great promise; and his declining health received anot] t: 
shock in 1796 in the unexpected death of his only surviv.Tc 
son after a week's illness, in the eighteenth year of his ai:t\ 
He said, in looking on the corpse, ' I have now done wim 
the world,' and he never again applied to study of any sort 
The closing years of his life exhibit a melancholy scene cf 
gloom and distress, bodily and mental. He was struck ht 
palsy in April, 1799, and after one or two subsequent at- 
tacks, expired August 18th, 1803. 

In the relations of private life, and in his public duti< « 
as a teacher. Dr. Beattie was most amiable ; and he vom- 
manded, in an unusual degree, the esteem and affection cf 
his pupils, as well as of a large circle of friends. It is to U 
recorded to his honour, that long before the abolition o: 
the slave trade was brought before parliament, Beattie wa» 
active in protesting against that iniquitous trafiic; and ! .* 
introduced the subject into his academical course, with il.e 
express hope that such of his pupils as might be led by f.>r- 
tune to the West Indies would recollect the lessons ot hu- 
manity which he inculcated. 

Of nis writings, the Minstrel is that which now probaMy 
is most read, it exhibits a strong feeling for the beaui:c> 
of nature, which will probably prevent its l^ing entirely Ut- 
gotten. Beattie's metaphysical writings have the reputati. n 
of being clear, lively, and attractive, but not profound. Tj i 
Essay on Truth was much read and admired at the time ^f 
its publication, but has fallen into comparative neglect, vita 
the doctrines against which it was especially directed. 
(Life of Dr. Beattie, by Sir W. Forbes, two vols. 4 to.) 

BE AUG AIRE, a town in France on the right bank of 
the Rhdne in the department of Gard, 432 miles S.S.E. oi 
Paris bv Mouhns, Clermont, Mende and Nimcs. It ii» in 
43° 48' N. lat, 4° 30' E. long. 

Bcaucaire seems to have" existed in anticnt times undt-i 
the name of Ugemum. It probably was at first a depen- 
dency of Ntmes. In 1734 a Roman road leadinj^ from 
Nimes towards Bcaucaire was discovered by M. Verpile de 
la Bastide. On this road were several Roman mile-»tone», 
numbered, as it seems, in the direction from Nemausub (or 
Ntmes) as the capital of the district t> Ugemum. Some of 
these mile-stones not having been displaced afibrded the 
means of ascertaining by actual measurement the leu|rvh of 
the Roman mile, which was found to be 76i toi&e^ 4 feet 
French measure, equal to 1604 yards 12 iuchc:» EDgh^h. 



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103 



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Some of the mile- stones had lieen removed, as it is supposed, 
by Constantius, general and father-in-law of the Emperor 
Honurius, and fonned into a monument in memory of some 
person or persons of distinction, who fell in a victory which 
he fi^ained (a.d. 411) over the Franks and Allemanni, who 
attempted to force him to raise the siepje of Aries. In the 
seventh century Ugornum was rej^arded as a place of great 
strength, and was perhaps rather a castle or military post 
tlum a town of any extent. (Millin, Expilly, D'Anville, 
S:e.) 

la the eleventh century the name Uj^ernum pave place 
to that of BeUi-Cadrura or Belcadro (whence the modern 
}3eaiicaire), derived either from the square form of the castle 
or of the towere of the ca^^tle, or from the beauty of the dis- 
trict in which it was placed ; for Cadre, or Ciiirc, in tlie 
dialect of Lanj^uedoc and Provence si^jnifles a square, or 
tronerally a space ; and Beaucaire may be translated * hand- 
S(»nie district' {bcait quartier), (Millin, Malte-Brun.) The 
u ime Uj^ernum, ihouiijh lost by the town, was traceable in 
tliat of an island in the Rhone opposite to it, which was 
(Mlled Gernica, a corruption seerainirly of Ugcrnira. This 
i.^land, l»y tlie dryin*^ up of the branch of the Rhone which 
siHTounded it on the east side, is now united to the town 
of Tarascon, the lower part of which is still called Ger- 
noixue. 

In the middle aj^es Beaucaire was under the Counts of 
Provence, until it was ceded in 1125 to the Count of Tou- 
louse; and in the troubles which that illustnous family suf- 
i"»red for their protection of the Albigenses it was twice the 
M-ene of contest In or about the year 1217 it opened its 
t:<\tes to Raymond, son of Raymond VI., Count of Tou- 
louse ; and the garrison placed in it by Simon Montlbrt 
(leader of the Crusade a^^ainst Raymond), which retired 
into the castle, was forced to surrender. Louis VIII., Kinj; 
(»f France, besieged it within ten years alter, but in vain. 
To the Counts of Toulouse Beaucaire is said to owe its cele- 
brated fair, which constitutes at present its chief claim to 
notice; but this is doubtful, thouj^h the fair, at any rate, 
existed long before the year MG3, when Louis XL of France 
granted certain privileges to those who frequented it. 

Beaucaire is situated in a pleasant country ; and the view 
across the Rh6ne. which is here a magnificent stream, to 
the picturesque castle and town of Tarascon, is very fine. 
Tarascon and Beaucaire are just opposite one another, so as 
to appear like parts of the same town. The communication 
h 'tween them was long maintained by a bridge of boats, or 
rather by two bridges leading from each bank to a stone 
causeway, the remains, as it seemed, of a former bridge ; 
hut the passage by these bridges of boats was dangerous 
when the violent mistral or south wind blew. Of late years 
a suspension bridge of three arches, 441 metres, or 14-17 
feet, long has been erected : five of these suspension bridges 
have been erected of late across the Rhone between Lyons 
and Boaucaire. The situation of Beaucaire on the banks of 
the Rhone is highly favourable to its commerce. The quay 
is well built, and convenient for the landing of goods. A 
canal runs from Beaucaire to Aigues Mortes, and there 
("!i\ides into two branches: one communicating directly with 
the Mediterranean at the village of Ilepauset, the other 
p issing through several of the etangs or lakes to the port 
(>f Cefte. This canal enables boats to avoid the mouths of 
the Rhone, the navigation of which is uncertain and dan- 
gerous, and sometimes impossible. 

The tx)wn of Beaucaire was, in the middle of the last cen- 
tury, surrounded by walls, which were, however, useless for 
dctence. These walls probably slill remain, for later au- 
thorities speak of the beauty of the gate which leads towards 
the Rhone. The streets are crooked and narrow ; but for 
this it would be considered a handsome town. The number 
of houses is great in proportion to the popidation, which in 
I b.^2 was only 9007. These are fully inhabited only during 
the fair, and during the greater part of the year the closed 
apartments and almost deserted streets form a marked con- 
tract to the activity which prevails at the fair time. The 
hi^h prices then obtained for lodgings and accommodation 
of every kind, by enabling the inhabitants to subsist during 
the rest of the year with little exertion, have been fatal to 
the industry of the town. There arc no manufactures, nor 
are any great commercial undertakings entered into. They 
cultivate a few vineyards and olive plantations. M. Millin 
sa\s thai they have scarcely a tailor or a shoemaker in 
the town, and that for clothing they must either wait 
the return of the fair, or resort to Tarascon for a supply. 



(Voyage dans les DSpariemeni du Midi de la France^ Pariii 

1808.) 

There is an antient church, founded in the ninth century 
by the Count of Narbonne the portal of which is adorned 
with sculptures relating to the birth of Christ. Before the 
Revolution there were two other churches, both antient : 
two convents for men, one of Cordeliers and one of Capuchins, 
and an establishment of priests, * de la doctrine Chretienne/ 
who had a college under their direction. There were also 
an abbey for Benedictine nuns, two other nunneries (one of 
Ursulincs and one of Hospitalieres), and two hospitals. (Ex- 
pilly, Diet, des Gaules et de la Fratice, 1762.) 

There are some remains of the antient castle of which 
mention has been already made. It stood on an eminence 
commanding the town, and was demohshed in 1632, because 
it had ftillen into the hands of some rebels against Louis 
XIII. It appears to have been an object of contention in 
the religious wars of the sixteenth century, between the 
Catholics and the Huguenots, or Protestants: the latter are 
charged with having committed great disorders here in 1562. 
(l*iganiol de la Force; Expilly.) 

The great fiiir of Beaucaire, in the number of persons 
who resort to it, is equal to almost any in Europe. It is 
said that the fair of 1833, confessedly the greatest for some 
years, was attended by from 70,000 to 80,000 persons, and 
that business was done to the amount of 160,000,000 francs, 
or 6,400,000/. sterling. Mr. MCuUoch (from whose Diet, 
of Comoierre we i^kii this statement) suspects exaggeration, 
but Malle Bnm (Googj-aphie Utiwcrscllc) speaks of 1 00,000 
as the usual number of persons who resort to it. They come 
from the middle and southern parts of Europe, and from the 
Levant. 

This fair had its origin in the middle ages, and according 
to some, was established by Raymond VI. Count of Tou- 
louse ; and there is no account that it has been suspended 
since its establishment, except in 17'21 and 17'22, when the 
plague devastated Provence and part of Languedoc. At 
first the fair was held in the town, but the increasing busi- 
ness rendered it necessary to hold it out of the town in a 
neighbouring meadow, where tents were erected. This 
alteration had taken place long before Martin iere published 
his Grand Diciionnaire (vol. ii. 1730.) Its present extent 
may be judged of by the statement given above. We take 
the following particulars from M. Millin. {Voyage dans les 
Depariemens du Midi de la France, Paris, 1808.) 

Long before the fair the principal merchants hire a Irouse, 
or an apartment; every room is filled with beds, and the 
owner contents himself for the time with the garret. The 
wool merchants and the drapers occupy, in alternate years, 
the houses in certain streets, so that the householders in 
each street have alternately a profit by the high prices that 
the drapers are made to pay. The linen-drapers have their 
quarter, the leather-sellers theirs; the Jews occupy always 
the same spot. Not only are the shops filled, but stalls are 
erected and covered with cloth ; and benches of stone serve 
for the display and sale of small wares. The names of 
the dealers, their residence, and their trade, are written on 
squares of linen, Sec, which are suspended by ropes across 
the streets, and form, by the medley of the colours and the 
variety of their inscriptions, a singular spectacle. The town 
being insuHicient for the thousands who resort to it, a new 
town of wooden huts and of tents is run up in a meadow on 
the borders of the river, having also its public places, its 
streets, &c. The merchants of tlie same country, or the same 
town, usually occupy the same street, which has the eflectof 
bringing to tho same spot wares of a similar kind. One 
street contains the drugs, spices, and soap of Marseilles ; 
another the pomatum and wash -balls of the perfumers of 
Grasse ; and a third tho perfumes and liqueurs of Mont- 
pellier. Goods of all sorts are exposed for sale, including 
even cameos, medals, and other antiques. One whole street 
contains nothing but onions and garlic. Not only are tho 
town and the meadow filled with a dense and busy popu- 
lation, but the river is crowded with boats (arranged m regu 
lar order according to their form, their cargo, and (he place 
from which they come), m which many persons take up 
their habitation. Vessels of various forms from Genoa, 
Catalonia, or MarseUles ; the boats which come from the 
interior down the Rhone ; and those which come from the 
coast of tho ocean by the Canal du Midi (which unites tho 
ocean with the Mediterranean), may be seen there. The 
vessel which first arrives salutes the town with a musket or 
pistol shot, and receives in return a sheep, the skin of which. 



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ntuffed with straw, and aiyompanied with flogs, indicates 
tba superior diligence or good fortune of the ship-master. 
Besides the merchants who frequent the fair, the business 
done, and the vast concourse of people draw a number of 
other persons: there are notaries and legal gentlemen, 
laerobers of the medical profession to attend to cases of 
sickness or accident, and undertakers to buty the dead. A 
small chapel occupies the extremity of the plain where the 
hut4 and tents are erected : in this mass is said ; and as the 
worshippers cannot be all contained in the chapel, they kneel 
in the meadow with their faces turned towards the altar. A 
great number of rosaries are sold here. 

Restaurateurs, cafi^s, billiard-tables, and places for danc- 
ing offer their attractions; jugglers, showmen with wild 
beasts, and rope-dancers, seek to profit by the opportunity ; 
and gaming and debauchery ore prevalent. Pickpockets 
hnvo taken place of the highwaymen who once infested the 
roads, and plundered those who came to or left the fair. 
The government of the fair is in the hands of the Pr^fet 
of the department, by whom it is solemnly opened. 

The fair was originally established for three days, but the 
intervention of three saints' days (Magdalen, St. Ann, and 
St. James), on which, though not reckoned as business days, 
business goes on, extends the period to six days, viz., from 
the 22d to the 28th July. At its close the merchants 
depart, the Jews and Catalonians being usually the last to 
go ; and the town is left to its ordinaiy dullness till the 
return of this extraordinary scene. 

BEAUFORT, the name of several places in France, of 
which one only is of sufficient importance to require notice. 
Beaufort en Vallie (or Beaufort la Ville), with its suburb 
Beaufort en Franchise (otherwise Beai^fort hors la Viile), 
is in the department of Maine-et-Luire, about seventeen 
miles, measured in a straight line, £. by S. of Angers, the 
capital of the department. Tlio town and suburb arc sepa- 
rated from each other by a branch of the little river Coesnon 
or Couanon, which soon aHenvards falls into the Authion, 
one of the minor feeders of the Loire. The chief ti*ade of 
the town in former times consisted in corn ; but the more 
modern authorities speak of manufactures of coarse li- 
nens for the use of the army, hempen cloths, serges, drug- 
gets, and hats. Hemp is grown in the surrounding dis- 
trict, which produces also com and vegetables. Before the 
Revolution there were in Beaufort la Ville two parish 
churches and a convent of Recollcts, a class of Franciscans. 
The population, in 1832, comprehending, probably, both 
Beaufort la Ville and its suburb, was 3288 for the town, 
and 5914 for the whole commune. 47° 25' N. lat., and 
U^IS'W. long, from Greenwich. (Piganiol de la Force, 
Diriionnai'^e Universel de la J'>ance.) 

BEAUFORT. CARDINAL. Henry Beaufort, Bishop 
of Winchester and Cardinal of St. Eusebius, was a son of 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (father of Henry IV.), 
by his mistress Catherine Swyn ford, whom he subsequently 
married. His children by this \i*oman, all born before wed- 
lock, were legitimated by the name of Beaufort in the 
twentieth year of the reign of Richard IL We are unable 
to state the exact year of Cardinal Beaufort's birth ; but 
from the circumstance of his having been consecrated a 
bishop when *very young,* in 1397, and that he is spoken of 
on his death-bed as ' an old man of eighty,* we infer that it 
was about the year 1 370. He studied at 0.\ford, Cambridge, 
and Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1397 he was created bishop of Lin- 
coln (he is erroneously called bishop of London in the Par- 
liamentary History); became chancellor of the University 
of Oxford in 1399; and in 1404 succeeded the celebrated 
William of Wyckham as bishop of Winchester. In the 
parliaments of 1404 and 1405 he officiated as lord chan- 
cellor, an office which he filled four times during his life. 
The bishoprick of Winchester was then, as at present, one 
of the richest endowments in the £ngli»h church : and 
Beaufort, from habits of frugality according to some writers, 
fVora sordid covetousness acconli'ng to others, multiiilied his 
riches so as to bei^omo the wealth iest subject in England. 
He tttlvanccd his nephew, Henr>- V., by way of loan, out of 
\\U own private purse not le^^s than 28,000/. durtncT his wars 
m France ; and alM> lent the infant king, Henry VI., 
11.000/., sums which, the circumstances of the times being 
con»idertHl, «cre of enormous mainiitude. 

On the death of Henry V. in 1422, Beaufort (with his 
blather, afterwards Duke of Exeter) was appointed guardian 
of hi'i infant succvss^^r : Beaufort was also a member of the 
couDcil of regenc). of which the kings uncle, Humphrey. 



Duke of Gloucester, was the nominal head. The stmggle for 
supremacy between these ambitious men, which soon as- 
sumed the character of a fierce personal contest, is the mo^t 
prominent feature of the internal history of England from 
the year 1424 to the year of their death, m 1447. The pre- 
late being a man * well skilled in all the means prudence 
suggests to the ambitious to accomplish their ends' (we 
quote the words of Rapin), ultimately triumphed in the 
struggle, which on more than one occasion threatened to 
inflict upon the countrv all the ills of civil war. The quarrel 
first assumed a warlike aspect in 1426. The citizens of 
London were of the party of the duke. To overawe them 
the bishop strengthened the garrison of the Tower, which 
the council, under his influence, had intrusted to the care of 
Sir Richard Wydevile, a creature of his own. This oc- 
curred during a temporary absence of Gloucester on the Con- 
tinent. On his return he demanded lodgings in the Tower. 
hut was reCused, Wydevile having orders to admit ' no one 
more powerful than' himself.* In his resentment the duke 
ordered the gates of the city to be closed against the prelate. 
The next morning the retainers of Beaufort attempted to 
force the gates at London Bridge. The citizens flew to arm^ 
and bloodshed was with difficulty averted by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and the Prince of Portugal, who happened 
to be then in England, prevailing upon the two parties to 
suspend their feuds till the Duke of Bedford, the regent, 
who had been written to, should amve from Paris. The 
bishop's letter to the Duke of Bedford on this occasion is 
worth quoting : — 

' I recommend me unto you with all my heart ; and as 
you desire the welfare of the king our sovereign lord, and of 
his realms of England and France, and your own health and 
ours also, so haste you hither ; for, by my troth, if you tarry 
we shall put this land in a jeopardy with afield: such a 
brother you have here. Grod make him a good man. For 
your wisdom knoweth that the profit of France standeth in 
the welfare of England. Written in great haste on Alhallow 
Even, by y' true sonant to my lives end, 

• Hkn. Winton.' 

(Hall's Chronicles ; the letter is also printed in the second 
series of Ellis's Hist, Letters.) 

The Duke of Bedford hastened from Paris to reconcile 
the rivals, but found it expedient to refer the matter to a 
parliament summoned for the purpose at Leusester. Tbu 
parliament is known by the nickname of the ' parliament of 
bats,* a nickname which, in its origin, aptly illustrates the 
temper of the partizans of the bishop and of Gloucester, 
and throws some light on the state of manners. In order 
to prevent the consequences of strife among armed men. 
the members of the parliament summoned at Leicester 
were ordered to leave their swords and other weapons 
usually worn by the gentry at their inns : their follower^ 
however, with a view to defeating this prohibition, attended 
them witli bats, or clubs, on their shoulders ; and when 
these also were forbidden (hey concealed stones and plum* 
mets of lead in their sleeves and bosoms. (ParHamentary 
History, %ol. i. pt 354.) 

Among other charges put forward by the Duke of Glou- 
cester, in a bill of impeachment against his uncle Beau- 
fort, was an accusation that he had hired an assassin to 
take away the life of the late King Henry V., at the lime 
Prince of Wales ; and that he had encouraged the prince to 
usurp the throne before the death of his father. Gloucester 
professed to make this charge on the authority of Henry 
himself; but the bishop triumphantly opposed to that testi- 
mony the fact that Henry had. to the last moment of his 
life, honoured him with his friendship and confidence. After 
much wrangling and recrimination, the matter was referred 
to the arbitration of four spiritual and four temponil peers, 
who awarded that Gloucester should be * good lord to the 
bishop, and hnve him in affection and love,' and that the 
prelate should preserve to the duke • trew and sad love and 
affection, and be ready to do him such service as pertaineth 
of honesty to my Lord of Winchester and to his estate to 
do.' A formal public reconciliation then took place between 
the two disputants; but the bishop felt the award to be so 
much of a reproof, that he resigned the chancellorship, and 
obtained leave to go abroad. (The letter of leave is crixen 
in the second series of Ellis's Hist, Letters,) Beaufort ac- 
companied Bedford in his return to France ; and at Calais 
recei\-ed the welcome intelligence that the pope had raisK^d 
him to the dignity of cardinal, and had appointed hiro lesrate 
a latere, for the purpose of directing an English forve In a 



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105 



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crusade against the Hiissitc) in Bohemia. [See Bedford, 

Dl'KK OP. J 

III 1429 Cardinal Beaufort succeeded in destroying the 
power of his rival Gloucester, hy having the young king 
crowned, and hy inducing the parliament to declare on the 
occasion that the office of protector, filled by the duke, 
was, ipso facto, at an end. From being at the head of the 
council of regency, Gloucester was thus reduced to his rank 
as a peer. From this time till his death the councils of the 
cardinal predominated in the administration. 

A powerful party, however, headed by the Duke of Glou- 
cester, opposed itself to the administration of the car- 
dinal. Tne spirit of the age was averse to the rule of 
ecclesiastical statesmen ; and the House of Commons in 
particular had directed its attention to the question of church 
reform, as essential to good government. In a meeting of 
peers, in 1431, it was propos^ that, as the dignity of car- 
dinal was, by the law of the land, incompatible with the 
possession of a bishopric in England, Beaufort should be 
removed from the see of Winchester, and compelled to re- 
IliikI its revenues fVom the day that he had accepted the 
cardiiial's hat. Gloucester followed up this motion with a 
series of charges, to the effect that Beaufort had incurred 
tlic penalties of praemunire in having accepted the papal 
bull, contrary to the express prohibition of the late king, and 
Vad exempted himself as legate from the jurisdiction of the 
see of Canterbury. The same charges were renewed in a 
more formal manner by Gloucester in 1434. (The articles 
are given at length in Rapin and the Parliamentary History 
from Hall.) He accused the cardinal, also, of having 
amassed wealth by dishonest means, of having usurped 
the functions of sovereignty, appointing embassies, and re- 
leasing prisoners on his own authority, and estranging from 
the person of the young king his relatives and the council 
of the regency. That these cliarges were founded on truth 
is e\identfrom the fact that two acts of parliament were 
passed, one in 1432, the other in 1437, indemnifying Beau- 
fort a<^ainst the penalties of priemunire, and pardoning him 
for all crimes committed up to the 20th of July in the last- 
named year. The arrest and probable murder of Gloucester 
are usually ascribed to his fierce and courageous denunciation 
of the ecclesiastical counsellors of the king. Gloucester's 
death took place on the 28th of February, 1447. 

The cardinal survived his great rival but six weeks. 
His death-bed has been painted in immortal colours by 
Shaks|)eai"e (Henry VL Part 2), but the imagination of 
the poet has supplied the darkest features of the picture. 
Shakspeare represents him as expiring in an agony of 
despair : — 

Lord Cardinal, if thou think'it on beaven** blUt, 
Hold up tliy baml. make signal of Uiy hope.— 
He dies, auU makes uo kigu.' 

But we know from the authority. Hall, which Shakspeare 
has followed in the less harrowing details of the scene, that 
the cardinal's worldliness was confined to expressing his 
retire t that money could not purchase life, and that death 
should have cut him oif at the moment when his rival to 
the great object of his ambition (the popedom) had been 
removed. Hall's version is given on the authority of one 
Baker, the cardinal's chaplain ; and the last words arc, * I 
pray you all to pray for me.' His will, moreover, to which 
two codicils are attached, on the 7th and 9th of April (he 
died on the 11 th). is still extant (Nichols's Royal and Noble 
ff'tlls^ p. 311), indicating a state of feeling more worthy of 
a Christian prelate. His great wealth was distributed, ac- 
cording to the provisions of his will, in charitable donations. 
Not less than 4000/. was allotted for the relief of the indi- 
^•^ent prisoners in Newgate, Ludgate, the Fleet, Marshalsea, 
Kin^ s Bench, and the prison attached to the South wark 
manor of the diocese of Winchester ; and the hospital of 
8t. Cross at Winchester still exists as a monument of his 
munificence. Cardinal Beaufort was buried in the beautiful 
chuntry which bears his name in Winchester Cathedral. 

(Hall's Chronicles; Turner's Modem History of Eng- 
land \ Rapin's i/i>/ory ; Lingard's //f*/ory ; and Milners 
History of Winchester, In the two last-named works the 
reader will find a much more favourable account of the 
last moments of the cardinal, given on the authority of an 
eye-witness, in the Continuation oft/ie History ofCroyland, 
I'aan we have adoptwl m the text.) 

HKAUFORT. MARGARET, COUNTESS OF RICH- 
MOND AND DERBY, is entitled to honourable mention 
as an eminent patroness of literature, after the manner of 



the age in which she lived. She was of royal descent, being 
the daughter and heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Somer- 
set, grandson of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancuster, third 
soti of Edward III. This descent was not strictly legitimate, 
the name of Beaufort having been first given' by John of 
Gaunt to his natural children by Catherine Swynford, who 
were legitimated by act of parliament under Richard II. 
Margaret Beaufort was born in 144 1 ; and was thrice married . 
first to Edmund Tudor, half brother to Henry VI., created 
Earl of Richmond, by whom she had one son, afterwards 
Henry Vll. ; secondly t^Sir Henry Stafford, a younger 
branch of the ducal house of Buckingham ; thirdly to Liwd 
Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby. By the two last mar- 
riages she had no issue. She died in 1509, and is buried at 
Westminster, where her tomb may be seen in the south 
aisle of Henry Vllth's Chapel. 

The Countessi of Richmond was rich, pious, charitable, 
and generous. Her attention to the formal observances of 
religion prescribed by the Papal church was strict even to 
rigour. To her bounty Christ's College, Cambridge, founded 
in ISO.'i, and St. John's College, Cambridge, projected and 
endowed by her, but not chartered till 151 l,owe their exist- 
ence. The latter, however, was deprived of the greater por- 
tion of its revenues, that which consisted of the foundress's 
estates, by Henry VIII., who sued for and recovered them 
as heir-at-law ; and the wealth which this distinguished col- 
lege now enjoys is chiefly due to the liberality of later bene- 
factors. The Countess of Richmond also established a pro- 
fessorship of divinity, with a salary of 20 marks, in each 
university ; the holders of which are called Lady Margaret's 
professors. Their incomes have been increased, at Cambridge 
by the annexation of the rectorial tithes of Terrington in 
Norfolk, by James I. ; and at Oxford, by the revenues of a 
prebendal stall in Worcester Cathedral. The Countess of 
Richmond also appointed a pubUc preacher at Cambridge, 
salary 1 0/., whose duties are now confined to the delivery of 
one Latin sermon yearly. 

AValpole has given this noble lady a place in his Cata- 
logue of Royal and Noble Authors, as the translator of two 
books : — 1 . The Mirroure of Golde to the Sinful I Soul, trans- 
lated from a French translation of the Speculum Aureum 
Peccatorum, printed byW. deWorde in 1522; 2. Trans- 
lation of the fourth book of Dr. J. Gerson's Treatise on the 
Imitation and Following the Blessed Life of our Most 
Merciful Saviour CAm/, printed at the end of Dr. William 
Atkinson^s translation of the three first books — Pynson, 
1504. The following treatises are said to have been pub- 
lished by her desire or encouragement : — 

Scala Pcrfeccionisy Englysshed, the Ladder of Perfec- 
tion, by Walter Hilton— W.de Worde, 1494. fol. 

Treatise concernynge the Seven Penetencyall Psalmes, 
by Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, printed by W. de Worde in 
1509. and Pynson, 1510. 4to. 

The Ship of Fooles of this World, translated by Henry 
Watson into prose, and printed by W. de Worde, 1517. 4to. 

Bishop Fisher preached her funeral sermon, entitled 
A Momynge Remembraunce, printed by W. de Worde, and 
reprinted in 1708, with a biographical preface by the Rev. 
Mr. Baker. (Walpole's Catalogue, continued by Park» 
1806 ; and Kippis's Biog. Britannica.) 

BEAUFORT, LOUIS DE, was born of a French fa 
mily, settled in (jS^rmany or Holland, as far as we may pre- 
sume from the scanty information we can find of his early 
life. He was for a time tutor to the young prince of Hesse 
Homburg ; but he became known to the learned world by his 
Dissertation sur CIncertittuie des Cinq Premiers Siccles de 
CHistoire Romaine, 8vo. 1 738. He was one of the first modern 
writers who carried the spirit of critical investigation into the 
narrative of the first five centuries of the Roman common- 
wealth ; he showed that both Livy and Dionysius could not 
be implicitly trusted, and that it required a process of very 
acute and careful discrimination to separate the truth from 
the legendary fables of early Roman history. Among other 
things he maintained that Porsenna did really conquer 
Rome after the expulsion of Tarquinius. Niebuhr remarks, 
when speaking of Beaufort's dissertation (vol. i. p. 539, 
note), • that the critical examination of this war is the most 
successful part of that remarkable little work.' His next 
work was La Republique Romaine, ou Plan General de 
rAncien Gouvernement de Rome, 2 vols. 4to. La Haye, 
1 766. The author treats at length and systematically of the 
institutions of that celebrated republic, of its senate, its 
ppulus and plcbs, its comitia, its consuls and tribunes, of 



No. 218. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA.] 



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106 



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the laws and tribunals, of the religion of the country and 
Its ministers, of the various classes of society and their re- 
spective rights, and the condition of the allies and subjecrts 
of Rome. This work met with great approbation, and main- 
tained its ground as one of the oest works upon the Roman 
republic previous to Niebuhr's History of Rome, which, 
however, was left unfinished by the author. Auger's work, 
Sur la Constitution de Rome, and Adrien de Texier's 
Du Oouvemement de la Ripublique Romaine, 3 vols. 8vo. 
Hamburg, 1796, are perhaps the only works written in the 
last century that deserve to b4kentioned together with 
Beaufort's. He irrote also Histoire de Germanicus,, 12mo. 
1741, which he dedicated to the Landgrave of Hesse Hom- 
burg. Beaufort was a member of the Royal Society of 
London. He died at Maestricht in 1795. 

BEAUGENCY, a town in France, in the department of 
Loiret, on the road from Paris through Orleans to Blois 
and Tours, eighty-six miles S.S.W. of Paris nnd fourteen 
or fifteen miles S.W. of Orleans, in 47** 47' N. lat., and 
i° 36' E. long, from Greenwich. It is situated at the foot 
of a hill on the right or N.W. bank of the Loire, over 
which is an antient bridge of twenty-two arches, according 
to the older authorities (Piganiol de la Force, Expilly, 
Encyelopidie Methndique), or of thirty-nine, according to 
the last edition of Malte Brun*s Qeographie Universelle, 
Paris, 1832. This bridge is divided into two parts by an> 
island in the centre of the river. The town contains the 
remains of an old castle, the antiquity of which some would 
carry up to the time of the Gauls : it has been ruined by 
time and by the various sieges which the town has sus- 
tained. Before the Revolution there was a chapter of the 
regular canons of St. Augustin, the successors of a much 
larger number of religious of that order, who were esta- 
blislied here in former days. The monastery in which they 
lived was destroyed by the Calvinists in the civil war of the 
sixteenth century; and though a part of the building was 
repaired, the establishment seems never to have recovered 
its greatness. There are two hospitals for the children and 
the aged among the poor. 

The manufactures of the town consist of leather, woollen 
stuffs, and hats ; there are some distilleries, and several mills 
for the supply of the town and neighbourhood with flour. 
A considerable trade is carried on in wine (which ia of 
superior quality), brandy, corn, and the goods manufactured 
in the place. The population, in 1832, was 4182 for the 
town, and 4883 for the whole commune. At Beaugency 
are quarries of a calcareous freestone, which has been used 
for the foundation of the cathedral of Orleans, and that of 
the bridges of Orleans and Tours. 

Two councils were held in this town: at the latter of 
these the marriage between Louis VH. (le Jeune) and his 
queen, Eleanor of Guienne, was annulled on the plea of 
relationship : her subsequent marriage with the Count of 
Anjou, afterwards Henry IL of England, added largely to 
the posst ssions of the English kings in France. {Diction- 
nnire Universcl de la France; Ex^iUy'i Dictionnaire des 
Gaulps el de la France,) 

BEAUHARNOIS, EUGE'NE, son of Viscount Alex- 
andre Beauharnois, was bom in September, 1780, and re- 
ceived his early education at the College of St Germain-en- 
Laye. His father was a member of the National Assembly, 
in which he embraced the popular side, and afterwards served 
with distinction in the array of the Rhine, in 1 792. He was, 
however, accused by the Jacobins, taken before the revolu- 
tionary tribunal, condemned, and beheaded, in July, 1794, 
when he was only thirty-four years of age. His widow 
Josephine married, in 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte, who treated 
her children, Eugene and Hortense, as if they had been his 
own. Eugene accompanied Bonaparte to Italy, and aftcr- 
wanls. in 1 793, to Egypt, where he acted as his aide-de-camp. 
After Bonaparte became first consul, Eugene was made chef- 
d'escadron in the Consular Guards, in which capacity he was 
present at the battle of Marengo. In 1804 lie was made 



but he was obliged to retire befl>re the superior fofttm of tfar 

archduke John, and, after sustaining considerable lo»s froca 
the Austriens at the battle of Saeile on the river Livenzm, k« 
withdrew to the banks of the Adige, where he received rein- 
forcements. Upon the defeat of the great Austrian artar 
in Germany, the archduke marohed beck for the proiecui^i 
of Vienna, and was elesely followed by Eugene. A battle 
took place between the two armies near the river Pia^v; 
where the Austrians were worsted, and obliged to hastee 
their retreat. Eugene followed them through Cannthia 
andStyria, and on the 27th of May made his Junotion w.tu 
Napoleon *s grand army at Ebendorf, near Vienna. He 
was thence sent into Hungary to check the rising en mai^ 
of the people of that country. On the I4tfa of June be 
defeatea the archduke John at Raab in Hungary, 

The battle of Wagram In July following put an end to tht 
war. After the peace of Vienna, Eugene returned to Milar. 
from whence he repaired to Paris in December, 1809, to br 
present at the declaration of divorce between hie mother 
and Napoleon. He made a speech to the senate, in wn*. \ 
he dwelt on the duty of obedience to the will of the em- 
peror, to whom he and his family were under great obi lo- 
tions. In 1812, he joined Napoleon in the eampaiirn of 
Russia with part of the Italian army, during which wr- 
vice he took the command of the fourth corps of the Krand 
army, and was engaged at the battles of Mohilow an-. 
of the Moskwa. In the disastrous retreat from M< *- 
oow, Eugene succeeded in keeping together the remnai:t« 
of his own corps, and maintaining some order and di^i- 

{)line among them; and after Napoleon and Murat h^: 
eft the army, he took the command of the whole. A: 
Magdeburg he collected the relics of the various corpe ; ar-' 
on the 2nd of May, at the battle of Lutxen, he eommandt'c 
the left of the new army which Napoleon had laised. 8«*r 
after he returned to Milan to raise new consoriptiona to rv- 
plac« the soldiera who had perished in Russia, and to m-At 
every effort to defend Italy against the threatened attack iA 
Austria. Three levies of 15,000 conscripts each were or- 
dered in the eourse of one year, in the kingdom of Ita!t 
alone ; but the people were tired of war, and it was fbiin ! 
difficult to collect the men. The news of the battle > f 
Leipzig added to the general discontent ; and at the end m 
October, IS 13, the Austrian army entered the VenH<.t*. 
territory, when Eugene was obliged to retreat to the Pi3\^, 
nnd, after some sharp fighting, to fall back on the Aihje. 
In March, 1814, being attacked by the Austrians on ••r** 
side, and by Murat at the head of the Neapolitan an*') 
on the ether, he withdrew to the Minoio, and removed \ \ 
family and property from Milan to the fortress of MantkL 
On the 16th of April, Eu^e and Marshal Belle^ar r 
the Austrian commander, signed the convention of Si:..- 
rino-Rizzino, by which hostilities were suspended, m 
French troops remaining in Italy were sent away, ot. 1 
Venice, Legnago, and other fortresses, were delivere*! w 
to Austria. Napoleon's kingdom of Italy was now at f\ 
end, and Napoleon himself had abdicated the croan •' 
France. Some endeavours were made by Eugene's frier-' « 
to obtain his nomination as king of Lombanly, but . 
strong party at Milan violently opposed it, and an insur- 
rection took place in that city, in which Prina, one of Pnn'-e 
Eugene's ministers, was murdered by the people. Ur> '. 
this, Eugene gave up Mantua to the Austrians, and retnrurl 
with his fhmily to Bavaria. 

As viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, Eugene was peno-'- 
ally liked by the people and by the army, for hta fni.'ilt 
bearing and affable temper, and his humane disposal' *:. 
Entirely devoted to Napoleon, he implicitly obeyed and cr - 
forced his often harsh decrees, although he occasionally ft- 
deavoured to obtain some mitigation of them. He di:<p?s\ e-1 
activity and regularity in the details of admtnistrat - : 
his viceregal court was splendid, but he was frugal in r-- 
own expenditure. Some of the persons by whom he a a-. 
surrounded wero objects of popular aversion, and thus • 




. .... ^ -, r, — - great reverses of Napoleoi 

the (so ciUod) kingdom of Italy, which comprised Lorn- tunes, used harsh and offensive expressions to the Ita'^;-: 

baidy and the northern Papal provinces, he fixed his re- officers around him, men who had devoted their lnx^* to l-^ 

bi.Ience at Milan. Ha was adopted by Napoleon in January, and his stepfather's service, who had fought the battles 



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106 



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ihese was founded in the beginning of the eleventh cen- 
tury by Fulk Nerra, Count of Anjou and Lord of Lochea ; 
the tatter was of much later origin, having been founded in 
1643. The chief manufactures of the town aie woollen 
cloth and leather: the tanneries are on the river Indre. 
The population, in 1832, was 1800 for the town, or 2222 for 
the whole commune. The celebrated Agnes Sorel, mis- 
tress of Charles VIL, king of France, was ladv of this town 
of Beaulicu. It is in 47^ V N. lat., and 1' O^E. long. 

At the village of Beaulieu, near the town of St Germain 
Lembron, in the southern part of the department of Puy-de- 
Ddme, are some alkaline waters, the source of which is in* 
termittent, though the times of flowing and of cessation 
have not been accurately marked. 

BEAUMARCHAIS, PIERRE AUGUSTE CARON 
D£, was bom at Paris in January, 1732. His father was a 
watchmaker, and brought up his son to the same profession, 
in wh\ch young Beaumarchais showed considerable skill. 
He was also remarkably fond of music, and attained great 
proficiency in playing on the harp and the guitar. Beau- 
marchais played before the daughters of Louis XV., who 
being pleased with his musical skill admitted him to their 
concerts, and afterwards to their parties. He now appeared 
at Versailles in a rich court-dress, which offended a haughty 
nobleman, who meeting him one day in one of the galleries, 
asked him abruptly to look at a valuable watch that he 
wore, which was out of order. Beaumarchais excused him- 
self, by saying that his hand was very unsteady ; the other 
insisting, Beaumarchais took the watch and dropped it on 
the floor, simply observing : ' I told you so.' Notwithstand- 
ing this event he continued to enjoy the patronage of the 
Court, which gave him the opportunity of becoming con- 
nected with some of the Fermiers Genlraux and great con- 
tractors. It was bis bad fortune to be involved in several 
law-suits, some of which made great noise in the world, and 
gained considerable notoriety in consequence of the memoirs 
or pleadings of his case, which Beaumarchais wrote and 
published. These pleadings, which show considerable skill 
and omtorical power, are inserted in the collection of his 
works. But his fame as a writer rests on his plays, and 
chiefly on the two, * Le Barbier de Seville,* and * Le JIariage 
de Figaro,* which are toe well known all over Europe, both 
as plays and as operas, to require any particular notice 
here. The character of Figaro was a happy invention, 
and the other princinal characters, in both plays, are 
drawn with great skill. The ' Mariage de Figaro * alone 
produced to Beaumarchais 80,000 francs. He wrote a third 
play, ' La Mdre Coupable,* which may be considered as a 
sequel to the other two, but is inferior to them in many 
respects, and objectionable in a moral point of view. He 
also wrote * Eugenie and ' Les Deux Amis :' the subject of 
the first is taken from an adventure which occurred to his 
own sister, and which he relates in his memoirs. Goethe has 
treated the same subject in his drama of * Clavigo.' At the 
beginning of the revolt of the English- American provinces, 
Beaumarchais entered into a speculation for supplying the 
colonies with arms, ammunition, &c. ; he lost several ves- 
sels, three of which were taken in one day by the English 
oruisers in coming out of the river of Bordeaux, but the 
greater number arrived in America, and Beaumarchais en- 
ricbed himself by his undertaking. Among other specula- 
tions he engaged to supply Paris with water and with fire- 
engines. When the French revolution broke out, Beau- 
marchais showed himself favourable to the popular cause, 
and entered into speculations to supply corn, muskets, 
&o. But his activity in that critical period exposed him 
to suspicion ; he was accused and acquitted, then accused 
again, and being obliged to run away, he escaped to 
England and afterwards to Germany. He returned to 
France after the fall of Robespierre, and then entered into 
a netr speculation in salt, by which he lo&t a large sum. 
He died in May, 1 799. 

Beaumarchais had considerable talent and other good 
qualities, but he was very vain and fond of distinction. He 
undertook an edition of all the works of Voltaire, of whom he 
was a grout admirer ; but the edition, notwithstanding all 
his pains and great expense, proved very indifferent, both as 
to correolneM and execution. His correspondence, which is 
at thf$ and of his works, contains some well-written letters, 
among others one to Citiien Baudin, of the French Legis- 
lati^'o CounriU in which he inveighs against the iniquitous 
'Stem adopted bv the Directory of transporting to Guiana 

le who were obnoxious to them, after the affair of the | 



18 Fruetidor, 1797. ((Euvret completei A BeaxanMrehs^ 
1 vol. 8vo. Paris, 1809 ; Dietionnaire UrdverMd Historignt^J) 
BEAUMARIS, a parish and borough, and the counc)- 
town of the county of Anglesey, North Wales, in the hun- 
dred of Dindaethwy. It is situated on the picturesque bay 
of Beaumaris, at the northern entrance of the Menai atraiu 
at the distance of 4) miles from the Menai bridge, 34 miles 
from Bangor, and 216 miles N.W. from London. The ori- 

S'nal name of the site was Bonover, which was changed by 
dward I., who may be regarded as the founder of the tovn, 
to Beaumaris, which, according to some authorities, is a 
French compound (beau and marais, a fine or beautifwl 
marsh), descriptive of the situation of ihe place ; but other* 
very improbably derive it from Bi-marii, in allusion to ir* 
situation at a place where two tides cr seas meet. The former 
explanation seems to agree best with the existing name. The 
castle of Beaumaris is considered to have been the parent of 
the town. After Edward I. had secured his conquests in 
Caemanonshire, by the erection of the castles of Caemar\ on 
and Conway, he built Beaumaris castle in 1295 ; a low marshy 
8pot was selected for the site, for the purpose of having a 
large fosse around the castle filled with water from the !>ea. 
A canal also was cut to enable small vessels to dischanre 
their lading under the walls, fur the use of the garrison. 
Each of Edward's three castles differs in form. The pre- 
sent, from the lowness of its site and dilapidated state of the 
walls, presents a far less imposing appearance than (be 
others. It consists of an outer ballium or envelope, flanked 
with ten circular bastion towers, of which those at tLe 
angles are the largest, and having on the south side an 
advanced work, called the Gunner's Walk. About tbe 
centre of this fortified enclosure stands the principal body (>f 
the castle. Its height far exceeds that of the envelope, and 
at a distance appears to rise majesticallv from it, as fn-m 
a base. It is nearly quadrangular, with a grand rouud 
tower at each angle, and another in the centre of each face. 
The interior consists of an area 190 feet square, with obtuse 
comers. The centre of the north-west side contains a srr. it 
hall, 70 feet long and 23i broad, with a proportion ate 
height: it has five large pointed windows, which form i 
handsome front to the inner quadrangle. On the easytern 
side of the area there are remains of a chapel, the sides of 
which are ornamented with receding pointed arches. Tbe 
elegantly- groined roof is supported by ribs springing from 
pilasters, between each of which is a long narrow window. 
There was a communication between the several parts c{ 
the inner court by means of a narrow surrounding gallery, 
a considerable portion of which is still entire. Within re- 
cesses formed in \1\g thickness of the wall, in the sides of 
this gallery, are several square apertures, apparently once 
furnished with trap doors, which opened into rooms beneath ; 
but as there are no vestiges of descending steps, it is dif- 
ficult to ascertain their use. It is conjectured that these 
rooms, as well as the two circular eastern towers, were 
employed for the confinement of prisoners. The principal 
entrance to the castle faces the sea, and is formed bv two 
circular bastion towers, between which a pointed arciiway 
was fortified with four portcullises. The ruins of this castle 
are plentifully bespread with gilliflowers, which grow no- 
where else in the island of Anglesey. 

The governor of the castle was generally also captain of 
the town, and usually had twenty-four men under him. 
There is nothing remarkable in the early history of the 
castle, except the frequent quarrels between the garrison 
and the inhabitants of the vicinity, whose complaints ulti* 
mately occasioned its removal in the reign of Henry VII. 
In the year 1642 the castle was garrisoned for Charles I.^ 
for whom it was held by Colonel Bulkeley, the son of Lord 
Bulkeley the constable, until 1648, when it capitulated on 
honourable terms to General Mytton. The estimated an- 
nual expense of the garrison in 1653 amounted to 1703/. 

The castle is still the property of the crown. A hand- 
some tennis-court, fives-court, and bowling-green have been 
fonned within its walls for the amusement of residents at 
Beaumaris. 

When Edward I. built the town, he surrounded it with 
walls, made it a corporation, and gave it great privileges, 
and some valuable lands. Among the privileges the follow- 
ing are mentioned .-—That the inhabitants should ha\'e a 
• free prison' in the castle ; that no Jews should dwell in 
the town ; that if any of the burgesses died, testate or in- 
testate, their goods should not be forfeited to tbe king, but 
should be enjoyed by their heirs. The town did not, how- 



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109 



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ever, send ainy member to parliaiinent until tlie reign of I an affluent of ibe Garonne. Coarse woollen clotbs, bats, and 
1.-1 — A XTT u . ., « » *>.„ ., n T . A_. I igj^^her, are tbe chief manufactures of this little town, which, 

in 1832, had a population of 3126 for the town, and 4130 

for the whole commune. It is in 43'* 53' N. lat,, and 1^ 0' 

£. long. 
Beaumont sur Oise, in the department of Seine et Oise, 

is about 19 miles north of Paris, on the road to Beauvais, 

Abbeville, Boulogne, and Calais. It is on the left or south 
bank of the river Oise, over which there is a very handsome 
bridge ; and on the summit of the hill, on the slope of which 
the town is built, there are the remains of an antient castle. 
Some braid (passementerie) is made here, and some trade 
is carried on in com, flour, and glass. The population in 

1832 was 1892. 

Beaumont had a collegiate church up to the period of the 
Revolution. This town was pillaged by the Burgundians in 
the year 141G, while Charles Duke of Orleans, to whom it 
then belonged, was a captive in England. It is in 49° 8' N. 
lat., and 2° 16' E. long. 

Beaumont'le- Roger, in the department of the Euro, is 
situated on the right bank of the river Rille, which falls 
into the Seine near its mouth. The town was built, at least 
augmented, by Roger, one of the lords of the territory in 
which it is situated. Louis IX. (otherwise St. Louis) King 
of France, obtained it of its former lords, and united it to the 
domains of the crown ; but a century afterwards it was 
alienated by John II. to Louis, brother of Charles of Evreux, 
King of Navarre. It returned, however, into the possession 
of the French kings, having been ceded by Charles III., 
King of Navarre, who had inherited it, to Charles VI. of 
France. 

There is a large village called Vieille, on the opposite 
bank of the river, which may be coniiridered as a suburb of 
the town, with which it is connected by a stone bridge. 
Beaumont had, before the revolution, a Benedictine prioi^, 
dependent upon the altbey of Bee, as well as a parish church 
dedicated to St. Nicholas. Formerly the townsmen manu- 
factured woollen and linen cloths, and nails, and a consi- 
derable quantity of linen was bleached in the village of 
Vieille. (Le Grand Dictionnaire de Martinidre, 1 730.) At 
present there is a large woollen-cloth manufactory employ- 
ing 400 workmen ; also a glass-work, which employs 100. 
This last manufactures annually 400,000 bottles, which are 
chiefly destined to Bretagne. Population, as given in the 
Dictionnaire Vniversel de la France (Paris, 1804), 1325. 
We have no later authority. 

There was formerly a strong castle here, built upon a 
precipitous rock. West of the town is a considerable wood, 
above seven miles long, from N.N.W. to S.S.E. and two 
and a half miles wide, which takes from it the name of 
the Forest of Beaumont. {Dictionnaire Universel de la 
Prance, Vox'i^, 1804.) Beaumont-le-Roger is in 49° 4' N. 
lat.. and 0° 46' E. long. 

Beaumont'Sur-Sarthe, otherwise Beaumont-le^Vtcomte, 
is a town in the former province of Maine, and the present 
department of Sartbe. It lies on the right (which, from the 
sinuous course of the river, is here the north) bank of the 
Sarthe ; and on the road from Alencon to Tours ; 1 2 miles 
S. of Alen9on, and 127 miles W.S.W. of Paris ; 48° 13' N. 
lat., and 0° 6' E. long. 

This town takes its distinctive adjunct of Le-Vicomte, 
because built by the former viscounts of Mans. It was 
considered a place of considerable strength ; and was se- 
veral times taken and retaken in the wars which William 
the Conqueror, as Duke of Normandy, carried on with the 
counts of Maine. Henry IV. of France, during the life- 
time of his father, and alter the death of his elder brother, 
took from this town the title of Due de Beaumont 

There are not any remains of the fortifications now. The 
manufactures of the town consist of linen cloth and serge. 
The population, in 1832, was 1918 for the town, and 2381 
for the whole commune. 

BEAUMONT, a commune of Hainault, bounded on 
the north by that of Thirimont ; on the north-east by Stre£ ; 
on the east by Braban9on and Clermont (the latter in the 
province of Namur); on the south-east by Solre Saint 
Gery ; and on the west by the commune of Leval-Chaude- 
ville. 

The district is watered by the little river Beaumont, known 
also under the name of Hantes, which falls into the Sambre. 
In its course through Beaumont it gives motion to several 
mills, iron works, and establishments for sawing marble. 

The town of Beaumont, which is situated on the high 



Edward VI. By^ the Reform Bill, the towns of Llangefni, 
Amlwch, and Holyhead, wiUi Beaumaris, now send a mem- 
ber. The bill made no alteration in the boundary of the 
luMough, which embraced a district of about ten miles in 
circuit, and was therefore considered sufficiently extensive. 
Beaumaris seems to have flourished under the royal fa- 
vour, and to have attained some commercial importance ; for 
Sir John Wynne, in characterising the inhabitants of the 
three castellated towns of the Menai, upwards of two centu- 
ries ago, speaks of * the lawyers of Caernarvon, the mer- 
chants of Beaumaris, and the gentlemen of Conway.' An 
inference to the same effect has been made from the local 
tokens which were, at a somewhat later time, in use among 
the opulent tradesmen as a substitute for copper coin ; a 
practice at that time common in places of considerable 
trafrio. * At present,* says the Boundary Report, * it has 
not any trade or manufactures, but it derives a considerable 
l>rorit from being the resort of visiters for sea-bathing, 
many of whom come from Liverpool.* The bay before the 
town affords good anchorage for ships, having seven fathoms 
water at tiie lowest ebb. Vessels oflen find security there 
in hard gales, and occasionally undergo repairs upon the 
beach. A few sloops belong to Beaumaris, but they are 
chietiy employed in carrying for other ports. 

The town of Beaumaris consists of several streets, of 
which one, terminated by the castle, is well built, and the 
houses are in general neat. The chapel, dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin, had formerly one aisle distinguished as the 
chapel of St. Mary, and the other as that of St. Nicholas: 
it is now known exclusively by the former name. It is a 
spacious and rather elegant structure, consisting of a chancel, 
nave, and two aisles, with a square embattled tower. It 
was formerly a chapelry in the parish of Llandegfan, but is 
now a distinct parish church. The town-hall is a commo- 
dious modern structure; the basement story contains a 
prison. Above, besides the apartments for the transaction 
of municipal business, is a handsome apartment, which 
forms the finest ball-room in the principality. There is 
also a county-hall, a county prison, and a custom-house, 
which is the comptroUing-oflice not only to the different 
parts of the island, but to those on the Caernarvon side of 
the Menai. Near the town is a ferry, which belonged to 
the crown until the reign of Elizabeth, who granted it to 
the corporation. The other five ferries of the Menai had 
previously been transferred to private hands by Henry VIII. 
The last Lord Bulkelcy, who did much for the improvement 
of Beaumaris, made a fine road at his sole expense, from 
tlie town, along the banks of the Menai, to the Menai 
bri'igc, a distance of 4} miles. 

In the year 1603 a free school was founded and liberally 
eii'lowed at Beaumaris by David Hughes, Esq., a native of 
the town. Among the other establishments for education 
is an extensive school, the pupils of which pay one penny 
a -week. There are almshouses for ten poor persons, six of 
whom are indebted for their provision to the founder of the 
free school; the other four were added by the last Lord 
Bulkelcy. 

The town, as re- incorporated in the fourth year of Queen 
Elizabeth, is governed by a mayor, two bailiffs, chosen an- 
nually, and chief burgesses, forming altogether a governing 
body limited to twenty-four persons. These twenty-four 
capital burgesses were the only electors of the parliamentary 
representative previously to the Reform Bill. The market- 
class are Wednesday and Saturday. The fairs are on Fe- 
bruary 13, Holy Thursday, September 19, and December 1 9, 
for cattle. The population of the borough, in 1 83 1 , amounted 
to 2G75, of whom 1444 were females, according to the Popu- 
lation Abstract; but the recent report on Municipal Corpo- 
rations estimates tbe population at only 2497. 

(Pennant's Tour in Wales; Grose's Antiquities of En g^ 
land and Wales, vol. iv. ; Beauties of England and Wales, 
vol. x\ii. ; Boundary Reports, partviL; l^eport on Mum- 
cipnl Corporations, &c.) 

B K AUMONT* the name of above sixty towns and villages 
in France, as we find by a comparison of the Dictionnaire 
des Gaules, ^., of Bxpilly (Paris, 1762), with the Diction- 
Viiire Universel de la France (Paris, 1 804), of which only 
tlie following are of sufficient importance to require notice. 

Bpattmont-de-Lomagne (so called, as being in Lomagne, 
a <li>^trict of the antient Armagune), a town in the depart- 
ment of Tarn et Graronne, on tbe road between Montauban 
'and A uoh. It is on the loA bank of tbe little river Gimone* 



B E A 



110 



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load from Mons to Chimay, is built on the iummit of ■. 
pratty high hiU, at the foot of which maaset of rock are 
neaped together. Thia town is remarkable for the beauty 
of its site, which commands extensive views over a diversi- 
fied country. A cattle market is held here on the 1 7th of 
every month, and four fairs during the year* at Easter, 
June, September, and Novemher ; there are, besides, two 
markets weekly. 

Beaumont, formerly called Bellomontium, was, in the 
1 Uh century, the capital of a considerable lordship. The 
town was strongly fortified in the middle of the 16th century. 
It suffered much in the wars with France, and its castle 
was burnt by the French general. Count de Grand Pr^, in 
1660. The Spaniards ceded the place to the French in 
16B4; but by the treaty of Utrecht, it came into possession 
of the House of Austria. The English having taken the 
town in 1691, blew up the fortifications, of which nothing 
now remains but some towers and subterraneous passages, 
which show the former strength of the place. 

To the north, west, and south of the town, is a group of 
steep hills, the sides of which would be inaccessible but by 
means of zi(;zag roads. Nearly the whole surface of the 
commune is broken by hmestone and schistose rocks. The 
land fit for cultivation is of various qualities ; the most pro- 
ductive consists of a melTow clay on a substratum of calca- 
reous rock ; in other places the soil is composed of decom- 
posed schistus on a substratum of the same in an undecom- 
posed state. The productions are wheat, rye, meslin, barley, 
oats, vouches, beans, potatoes, and various garden vegetables. 
Soils of the best quality are cropped without intermission 
during three, four, or five years, but other lands lie fallow 
every third year. 

A limestone quarry, in which building stone is worked, 
gives employment to many of the inhabitants ; others are 
employed in sawing blocks of marble brou<i;ht from Bar- 
bancon and Cerfontaine, in Namur. Serges, and other 
woollens of coarse texture, are woven ; and blond lace also 
is manufactured in Beaumont The population in 1 831 was 
1869. (Meisser's Dictiomuiire Geogra^iique de la Pro- 
vince de Hainault, 1 833.) 

BEAUMONT. FRANCIS, the dramatist, third son of 
Francis, one of tlie judges of the Court of Common Pleas, 
and of Anne, daughter of George Pierrepoint, of Holme- 
Pierrepoint, in the county of Nottingham, was bom at the 
family seal at Grace Dieu, in Leicestershire, 1586. The 
Beaumonts were not only an antient stock, probably of 
Norman origin, to judge from their name, but claimed to be 
descended of the kings of France, a claim which antiquaries 
have disputed. By an easy process, a like claim was made 
to coaaexion with the blood royal of England. Neither of 
the pretences, perhaps, had better foundation than in the 
lilies and lion rampart which they bore in their ooat of arms : 
but whether just or not, the glory of the family consists in 
its Uterature ; and the point, except as a matter of antique 
colouring, would not be worth mention, but that everything 
becomes interesting in connexion with a great name. We 
should look with curiosity upon the fomiiy seal of Beaumont, 
if we had it in our hands, just aa we do upon the speare ia 
the arms of Shakipeate, Our author's shield ia the same 
aa that which is borne by the family at present, and may be 
seen in any Baronetage. 

At ten yeara of age (for people went earlier to the univer** 
sity in those days) Beaumont waa admitted a gentleman* 
commoner at Broadgate's Hall, now Pembroke College, Ox- 
ford. He afterwards became a student in the Temple ; mar- 
ried Ursula, daughter and oo-heir of Henry Isley, of Sun- 
dridge, in Kent, by whom he had two daughters; died 
before he was thirty, in the spring of the year 1615 ; and 
was buried at the entrance of St. Benedict's Chapel, in 
Westminster Abbey, without any mscription. One of the 
daughters of Beaumont, Frances, waa Uving at a great age 
in the year 1700, at which time she enjoyed an annuity 
of jj^lOO from the Duke of Ormond, in whose family ^e 
had resided (say the biographers) as a ** domestic;*' by 
which ia meant, perhaps, a companion: though, from the 
greater dispersion of the younger branehea of fismiliea in 
tlioae days, and their inability to pin themselves on public 
offices and pensions, we hear of them oftener in trades, and 
other humble situations, than we do now. This lady ia said 
to have hod in her possession several poems of her father's 

-iting. which were lost during a voyage she made firom 
and. 
ho race of tho Beaumonts^ like that of th* Sletehors, 



which is an interesting ooineidenoe, appears to bate abonnd* 
ed in the love of poetry. The biographers have notired 
that there were four Francis Beaumonts all living in 1615. 
and that at least three of them were poets — Francis tbe 
dramatist ; Francis, his cousin, master of the Charter 
House; and Francis a 'Jesuit;' the same, we presume, 
as Francis, one of the sons of hia elder brother 8ir John, 
probably too young to be a Jesuit at that time, but who 
became one aftw his father s death. This Sir John Beau- 
mont, author of Boeworih Fields was a poet of real merit, 
as the reader may see by the ooUection of his verses in 
Chalmers's English Poete, Hia son and sttcoeasor, another 
John, inherited his poetical tendency. Dr. Joseph Beau- 
mont, master of Peter House, Cambridge, who lived in the 
time of the Charleses, and was of a branch of the faiuih« 
though son of a woolsta|4er in Suffolk, is also known to 
poetical antiquaries as one of the writers from whom Pope 
thought a man might * steal wisely.* He is furthermore 
commended for his Latin style, and for his taste in paint- 
ing. Some pictures of bis, we believe, are still extant in 
Peterhouse Chapel. The grandmother of the witty V illier«, 
Duke of Buckingham, was a Beaumont, of the same antieM 
stock; the late Sir John Beaumont, the representative vf 
the race, and the Iriend of poets and artists, was himself an 
artist ; and as if all the blood connected with our dramatist 
was destined to be sprightly, the fiunous Lady Wortltr 
Montague was a Pierrepoint, of the same race as Anne 
Pierrepoint, Beaumont's mother. 

As Beaumont's life was so abort, and his writings appa* 
rently so numerous, it is naturally supposed thai he paj-l 
little attention to the law ; a conclusion which mi^ht W 
diawn from his poetical genius. He probably gave him^c^t 
up to the literature and amusementa of the town. Ue 
records, in a celebrated epistle, his intimacy with Bcc 
Jonson, and the other men of genius who assembled at U c 
Mermaid Tavern ; where, he says, they used to leave an a;: 
beluad them, sufficient to make th» two next companies witt% . 

' Methinks th« Uttia wit I luul u lost. 
Since I saw you : for wit is like a tmtt 
Held up at lennis, which men do the best 
With the best gamesters. What tUinn have we aaea 
Done at the Mermaid 1 heard words trnai hava bam 
So nimhle> and so full of subtile flame. 
As if that eTtry one from whence they cune 
U«d meant to pot his whole wit in a j«st. 
And had lescdved to live a fbol the rest 
Of his dull life ; then where there had bMO thrown 
Wit able enough to justify the town 
For three days past.— wit thnt mif ht wansst \m 
For the whole city to talk foolishly. 
Till that were canceird ; and when that wms gone. 
We left an air liehind us which alon» 
Was able to muke the two next aompailiM 
Hight witty :— (hough but downright fools, mere wieci* 

At this greatest of all literary clubs, he would meet wiih 
Shakspeare ; and perhaps it waa here he became sc- 

3uainted with the illustrious friend with whom be «i'» 
estined to become all but identified. The date of tl;c;r 
first olay is 1607, when our author was one-and-tweniv. 
Fletcher waa ten years older. Aecoiding to Aubrey, t:i« 
Bos well of those days, their oonnexion was, in every respect. 
singularly close. He says they not only lived in the same 
house, which waa near the theatre, on the Sumy side oi 
the river, but had their clothes, cloak, &c., between theni, 
with other things in common, for which the curious reader 
must consult the original, which gave rise to a ludicrous in- 
stance of pious fraud on the part of Mr. Chalmers* whca, 
with the alteration of a single, but important letter, he traD&- 
ferred the account to his General Dictionary , and his editioa 
of the English Poets. Aubrey was credulous, and perhaps 
only repeated scandal which others laughed at ; and as ta 
the clothes and cloak, the two frienda might have beeo 
seen to use them accidentally, upon some one or two occa- 
sions, which would have been quite enough ibr rumour U) 
convert into a practice. Not but that a community of pr^/- 
perty in such a respect, between two such men» would be 
very possible, and an evidence of afiection. The liiead»lip> 
of that age were of a more romantic cast than at pre^nt 
Its poetry fell with more vigour into the prose of comm^'Q 
life, and tinctured the whole stream. 

A natural curiosity has existed, to know what wen the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of the portions liimished to their 
common writings by these illustrious friends. It has gene- 
rally been believed that Fletcher oontributed the vivactt} , 
and Beaumont tbe judgment. We can discover no founda- 
tion for this opinion, except the report ; and suspect that 
. there never was any. * I have heacd»* says Aubmy, * Dc 



that his 

pbiy^ inwbicb hia (tenius is quite a« exuberant as If ielcber'a. 
Tln'ir editors in general are divided aa to the property ; tradi- 
Iiiiii Recmg to have distributed it between them at random ; 
nti'l Mr. Seward, in Ui elaborate allempt to discriminate it, 
lioivildera himself in refinemenls which end in giving them 
c;irh other's qualities inCeTchangeably. and protesting .igninst 
his DWD distinction. If the miscellaneous poems attri- 
liiili^d to Beaumont be his, especially the Henftaphrodile, 
(wiiich CleavelanJ claimed as ajoint eoraposition of himself 
and Randolph), there would h« reason to suspect that his 
ji-nins was naturally more exuherant than Fletcher's : and 
niilfjing from the works which they are known to have pro- 
diicod sepamtely, such as the Paiihful Shepherdess, the 
Maffjiie, and the Epirtle just quoted, it appears to us that 
tliire is nothing to show ^r concluding that each might not 
]a\B written either; except, indeed, that in the only undra- 
m:\\ir, copy of verses extant in Plelrher's name (Upon an 
Honest Man'i .Rw(one), his muse is the graver of the two. 
7'lic! Maxque is shorter than the Pastoral; but contains 
evidences of precisely the same moral and poetical ten- 
dtneies, such as wa shall speak of presently, wli^n we cha- 
r^K-lurize their common genius. Perhaps Beaumont, upon 
the whole, was the less lively of the two in company ; nnd 
liunce a fallacious conclusion might liave been di-awn, that 
ho was the more critically judicious, Tho versos we have 
quoted do not look like It ; and Shirley has ted a testimony 
which argues for an equal division ofpropertj-. 



Gontlemen that remembered them,' he sa^s, ' declar 
every occasion they talked a 



Ihnt 



n^y." V 



LUbrey 

(;nvu for tlieir strong personal attachment, applies with 
cf^iial fiirco to this quc^iion, and settles it in favour of our 
ciiiitliision. "Tliere was a wonderful consimiliiy of phansy,' 
hl^ says. ' between him (Beaumont) and Mr. John Fletcher, 
" hii'h caused the deurenesse of friendship between them.' 
The ' wonderful consimility of phansy' was seen in their 
1 . icndship, and in their plays. They loved one another fully 
mid entirely, and exhibited the only great spectacle existing 
III' tuo men writing in common, and puzzling posterity to 
liiiiW which was which, precisely because their faculties 
« cro identical. The case may be thought unlikely ; in other 
woi'di!, the coincidence ia unique; but who will deny that 
siu'li chances of coincidence roust exist ? fn this instance 
iliL'iivomenactually happened to meet i and here, we think, 
■ciiifs the whole mystery. 

nir. Lamb, in his Dramatic Specimen*, has assumed that 
riL-[i her is the author of many plays which have been attri- 
l>nti'd 10 both writers ; and he has criticised him by himself 
ni'r.trdingly ; we know not on what ground; probably from 
lukin:> the authority of some edition for granted, fur he is 
ii'it likely to have read alt the plays through, aa Seward did, 
fur the purpose of assigning the respective property ; though 
nubiHiy could have brought the question to a likelier con- 
clii>ion. had lie done so. 

1 praises lavished by the 
thine limes upon the decency and chastity of a muse, which 
to our eyes appears the strangest mixture of delicate aen- 
liiiiL-nt and absolute proslitulion. BcaumlTnt and Fletcher 
arc Iho dramatists of all others whom a liberal modern 
ri';\dor could tlie best endure to see in a castigated edition. 
I'litir ideas are sometimes even as lojthsome as they arc 
licentious. Schlegel has expressed his astonishment, how 
tno pot'Is and gentlemen could utter the things they do, 
nny, nhole scenes; in some measure, whole plays; and 
Oriden, who availed himself in his dramas of all the license 
of the time of Charles II., said, in defending himself on 
that point, that one play of Beaumont and Fletcher's (the 
f'list'im q^ ike Country) contained more indceeiiey than all 
hill put together. Yet those are the writers whom their 
conii'mporwies, including divines as well asfino gentlemen, 
ciiinplinient in the roost emphatic manner upon their de- 
CiTura and purity. Harris, then or subsequently Greek 
pr.il'vssor at Oxford, and called a ' second Chryaostom,' 
i>iiiii-i;yri»es their muse for being ' chaste.' Dr. Maine, ccle- 
hr.ncd for his piety as well as wit, speaks of their 'chaste 



with declaring that Beaumont's wit is ' untainted with ob- 
scenity,' protests that his writings are too 'pure,' and 
' chaste,* and ' sainted,' to be called plays. 

The solution of this mystery gives us an extraordinary 
idea of such plays of the time as have not come down lo 
posterity, and of the distinction drawn by our ancestors be- 
tween license of speech and conduct ; for the panegyric ap- 

to bo almost wholly founded upon the comparative 

— of double meanings. 



cries the gallant Lovelace, (he Sir Philip Sydney of his 
day, speaking of the very comedy above-men tiuned, — 

■VinliirrailDOKllioiiglituldiiltli inch a ctnco, 
MinPiv4 mlBhl hiivr >iK,lii! in V.nii.' (Brui 
So «,'ll d»E<ii>'<l. ili^i twBn «id«1hiI hy bom, 
But Cniiiil lud DiiDi'i Ibun oui' 

and SO he goes on, objecting nothing to the thought, hitt 
holding the example to be spotless, and desiring it tospre:id, 
as if for its own sake. It thus appears, that olher writers 
used language,— homely words, or grosser imagus.— such 
as Beaumont and Fletcher never uttered : and if it were ob- 
jected that Shakspoare, as well ai several other dramatists, 
did not allow themselves a twentieth part of the license 
even of Beaumont and Fletcher, the reply would be, that 
the accompliaiied duumviri more expressly set themselves 
to represent the manners and conversation of hi^'li life and 
the town elegance, and that their ingenuity m avoiiling 
cause of offence was therefore tho more singular and me- 
ritorious. In truth, the languane permitted in the circles of 
those days was very gross, anil the license of behaviour dir- 
responding. It is a great f:illacy to suppose that loose 
manners among the Kiiglisli gentry originated with the 
court of Charies II. That of James I, was extremely 
licentious ; and the consequences of it were only suppressed, 
and that chiefly in appearance, by the greater personal de- 
corum of bis son, and the powerful discountenance oF tho 
Puritans. It was nothing but the old stream that burst 
forth in the reign of Charles II., taking advantage of Ihe 
weak points and fallen inlliicncoor the Puritans, to contrast 
its candour with their al1e<.'ed hypocrisy, and pretend tliat 
impudence itself was a virtue. 

Beaumont and Fletcher were two open-hearted men and 
genuine poets, spoilt by town breeding and the \o\e of ap- 
plause. It is a pity tliat two such poets could have been so 
spoilt ; but still, in the best part of their genius, Ihcy mir- 
vivcd the contamination, strong in their sympathy with 
the great nature that bestowed it, and 'pure in the last 
recesses of the mind.' Their muse is like some fair creatm-c 
of exuberant temperament but invincibly good heart, who 
has retained the fineness of her disposition in spite of her 
bad habits and of the very superiority of her animal spirits 
to remorse, and who, in the midst of a vicious lifo, has stdl a 
belief in innocence and virtue. Even the purest characters 
in their plays are not free from an intermixture of things 
which they ought not to know or talk about ; while tlio 
practical ehasti^ is overwrought, and put to absurd and 
gratuitous trials, as if there could be no faith in it hut from 
the most extravagant proof. In short, a something not en- 
tirely true to nature pervades almost all their writings, 
runningsideby side with the freshest and loveliest pnss:tgcs; 
and while one half of a scene, or sometimes of a speech, or 
even a couple of sentences, gushes out from tho auttiurH' 
heart, the other is brought from some fantastic founiain of 
court manners and talk, and produced for the sake of town 
effect. In this, we conceive, lies the whole secret of tho 
inferiority of Beaumont and Fletcher to Shakspeare, and 
in some respects to Webster and othera. To be sure, tliey 
may have wanted, hy nature, a certain robustness of moral 
constitution like his, not unconneeld perhaps «iih physical; 
but unhke any other great dramatists of their lime, they 
were horn and bred ' flue gentlemen," educated in all the 
conventionahties and artificial manners of their lime; and 
the applause that they gained from the world of fashion 
had too great au effect upon them, and divided their inspiia- 

A selection from the works of Beaumont and Fletcher 
would make aa ex<piisite a volume, or two volumes, of refined 
sentiment, lofty and sweet poetry, excellent sen.se. humuur 
and pathos, as any in the language, excepting Shakspearo 



B E A 



112 



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and Chaucer. Nothing can surpass the tender delieacy of 
the pace's scenes in * Philaster/ the dignified sentiment in 
the * Elder Brother/ the wit and happy extravagance in the 
• Woman Hater' and the • Litile French Lawj'er,' the pas- 
toral luxuriance in the * Faithful Shepherdess/ or the ex- 
quisite and virgin poetry scattered throughout the whole 
collection, sometimes in the midst of the most artificial and 
even disgusting passages. 

In lyrics they have no equal, not Sbakspcare himself, 
nor Milton. A miniature volume of the truest lyrical poetry 
might be collected out of their dramas, — of compositions 
which sing their own music. (Dramatic Works of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, 1778; Bi agraphia Hritannica; Chal- 
mers's British Poets; Aubrey's Letters and Lives of 
Eminent Men, &c. &c. ; and Lamb's Specimens of English 
Dramatic Poets, which contains some masterly criticism on 
those writers). 

BEAUNE, a town of considerable size, and the capital 
of a sub-prefecture, or arrondissement, in the department 
of Cote d'Or, in France. It lies nearly under the S.E. slope 
of the ridge of Cote d'Or, and upon the little stream the 
Bouzoise*, which rises just above the town, and uniting 
with the Meuzin, flows into the Saone. It is 23 miles 
S.S.W. of Dijon, and 206 miles S.E. of Paris; in Al^ 2' N. 
lat., and 4** SO' E. long. 

Beaune is situated in a fertile and agreeable country, 
celebrated for the wines which it produces. Both the red 
and white Beaunois wines are considered amone the best in 
this part of France. They include the growth of Meur- 
sault, Mont Rachct, Pomard, and Volnay. The town itself, 
considered apart from its suburbs, is of an oval form, sur- 
rounded with an old wall ruined in many places, but the 
ramparts aflford to the townsmen a good promenade. Our 
old authorities speak of four gates, those of St. Nicholas, St. 
Martin, La Bretonniere, and La Madeleine. Millin ( Voyage 
dans les Dip, du Midi de la France, Paris, 1807) speaks 
of the * new gate,' which, he says, is of tolerably good archi- 
tecture. This is either a new entrance, or a re-erection of 
tho gate of St. Nicholas. 

The town is well built, with streets which are described 
by M. Millin as spacious. Before the revolution (we know 
nut what change has taken place since), the town and 
suburbs consisted of five parishes, two in the town, and three 
in the suburbs. The parish church of Notre Dame, in the 
town, was collegiate before the revolution ; it was the most 
autient in the diocese of Autun (in which Beaune was in- 
cluded), and one of the handsomest in the kingdom ; but 
whether from any injuries sustained by it during the revo- 
lution, or from some other cause, it is now considered to be 
surpassed in beauty by the church of St. Pierre (or St. 
Peter), also in the town. Before the revolution, Beaune 
possessed several religious establishments. There were mo- 
nasteries of Carthusians, Jacobins or Dominicans, Corde- 
liers, Capuchins, and Minims; nunneries for Carmelites, 
Dominicans, Ursulines, and nuns of the Visitation ; and an 
abbey for Cistertian nuns. There was also a college, large 
and well built, conducted by the priests of the oratory ; as 
well as a commandery of tlic order of Malta. Several of 
these establishments were in the suburbs. 

Besides these institutions, now wholly or in great part 
suppressed, Beaune possessed two hospitals, which, so far as 
we can gather, still remain. One of these, for the sick, 
founded in 1443 by Nicholas RoUin, chancellor of the Duke 
of Burgundy, and farther enriched and embellished by his 
■on Cardinal John Roll in, bishop of Autun, is of vast extent. 
Its architecture contains some remains in the Grothic style; 
and it constitutes the most remarkable edifice of Beaune. 
In the Dictionnaire des Gaules, &c., of Expilly (Paris, 
1762), it is dcHcribcd as consisting of nine wards (salles), 
five of which were for the sick of the humbler classes, and 
fuur for invalids of a wouUlncr class, who paid for the 
ationdanco given them. How far this arrangement is still 
iututmuod wo arc not aware: but a later authority, M. 
Millin, who travelled in 1804, attests that the hospital was 
tlt4rn v«rv well kept up. Louis XL, king of France, when he 
Hit* Uuking over tins hospital, is said to have replied to 



• T.., umnm tA lU rl»w w* |flv# from t1t« rrtti Mnp of Fmnet, hy MM. 

It !• riillM in M*vi*riiT of otir nulhorilifs. Boufpoiie. 



il» •>4l<« I. 'Ml 



ItUilitllnrliy ■Uldtl by Martlni^reona Exi 



piUy. that 
** ' **' «M«i iM'irin ihry ntfi ■uptMJtictl by Maralili auA Cas^^im t 
I, .' I. t\^ ,, .,^ ..f A II ijmi.., (Vur\9, IHlH.i nnil of tho HoeJrty for Ihe Dlf. 
|..»..ib Mf I •^ul K.«,-U#l<* lu iivmt !■ ealliNl Uouioiro. atiil It Dot macia to 

|m*« ».ii I. I..J v» itM.« u „f iWnHW. ThU liut aierrvpaticy probably 

a# M-. !. M Om ii*i«. «*..»<-...„ |„ ,|iff.,„„t liranrhft of thi» lome Mreani, 
•tMi lUi Uut d^»i. M iIm. Hm«««4«« In ilM fliapt of Urtt4 and th« Society it 

•iliUtily tW p«iM4j)M»i. 



some one who was praising the charity of its founder, the 
Chancellor RoUin, ' It is just that he, who has made sa 
many poor, should provide an hospital for their reception/ 
The duties of attendance at this hospital were performed by 
females bound by a religious vow, which they took only f'^r 
a year, and when any one of them took her vows for the first 
time, she presented the establishment with twelve doz<n 
turkeys, and the same number of chickens, of pigeons, of 
partridges, and of hares. 

The other hospital is for orphans of both sexes, and fur 
such poor persons as cannot maintain themselves. The 
inmates are employed in carding and spinning wool. There 
was formerly an establishment called 'La Chambre de^ 
Pauvres,' for affording relief to those destitute persons who 
were ashamed to beg, and to teach children of both sexi» 
some trade. We know not whether it still exists. 

Besides the hospitals, Beaune has a library, but it doe« 
not contain any valuable treasures (M. Millin) ; a college, 
or high school ; an agricultural society ; a theatre ; and a 
Vauxiiall. It has a Tribunal de premiere instance, a court 
of justice which may perhaps be compared with our quarter 
sessions, and a tribunal de commerce, a committee of lead- 
ing merchants or dealers, which takes cognizance of disputes 
in commercial affairs. Woollen cloths, serges and druggets, 
leather, cutlery, casks, and vinegar are among the articles 
manufactiured here. There are in the neighbourhood quar- 
ries of granite, and of what our authority (the Dictionnaire 
Vhiversel de la France) terms, ' pierre polie,* polished stone, 
perhaps marble. 

Beaune has been asserted by some, but without reason, t^ 
be the Bibracte of Caesar. {Comment de B. G,, lib. L and 
vii.) It is not known to have existed in the time of the 
Romans, and is first mentioned in the Chronic/es of thf 
Monasteries of Burgundy, There are traces of a Romaa 
road in the neighbourhood running east and west (on tlic 
east as far as the river Doubs), hut this passed to the north 
of Beaune. The district was known under the designatu u 
of Pagus Belnisus, in the time of the kings of France ..f 
the Carlovingian race. Beaune was raised from being a 
mere petty place, or a castle, to the rank of a tovk-n, hv 
Eudes IIL, duke of Burgundy, in the year 1203. Several 
of the dukes of Burgundy belli their court here ; and here 
also the parliament of Burgundy at one time sat. TVbe-: 
the Burgundian States came into the hands of the Frei.-h 
kings, Louis XII., king of France, built a caslle here, wbich 
was considered the strongest place in Burgundy ; hut it wai 
dismantled in 1602, by order of Henry I v., who feared thit 
the party of the Mar^chal de Biron would avail themsehts 
of it in their projected revolt Only the ruins of it no# 
remain. 

The inhabitants of Beaune amounted, in 1832, to 92 Ti 
for the town, or 9908 for the whole commune. They are 
reproached by the inhabitants of Dijon for their stupld.t\. 
and the most ridiculous stories are current respecting them. 
Piron, the dramatist, a native of Dijon, nearly lost liis Ufe 
when on a visit to Beaune ; so much had he irritated iL« 
Beaunois by his sarcastic witticisms. 

The arrondissement of Beaune comprehends 199 squan 
miles, or 127,360 acres, and had, in 1832, a population of 
1 17.996. There are in it 10 cantons, and 203 communes or 
parishes. (M artiniere ; Expilly j Millin ; Dictionnaire Vm- 
versel de la France.) 

There is a small town (bourg) called Beaune (with the 
distinctive appendage la-Rolande, to distinguish it from the 
foregoing), in the arrondissement of Pithiviers, in the depart- 
ment of Loiret. It is on the road from Pithiviers to Moa- 
targis, and upon a small stream which falls into the Loing, 
an affluent of the Seine: in 48* 5' N. lat, and 2' 26' E. 
long. 

It is said to have been once a place of greater importance, 
and to have belonged to the nephew of Charlemagne. tl>c 
chivalric Roland (the Orlando of Ariosto), who gave it to 
the monks of the abbey of St. Denis. Tho growths of w.ne 
in the neighbourhood, though tolerably ^ood, are yet far in- 
ferior to those of Beaune in the department of Cote d Or. 
The population given in the Dictionnaire Universel tU u 
France (Paris, 1804). was 2028. We have no later account 

The name of Beaune applies to several other places, all gf 
inferior imnortance. 

BEAUNE, commentator on Des Cartes. [See Des 
Cartes.] 

BEAUPRE'AU, a town in France, the capital of a sub- 
prefecture or arrondissement in the department of Maine 
ttt Loire; perhaps about 213 road miles fh>m Paris, li U 



B E A 



114 



B E A 



■oundfl, in consequence of conventional tpeech. In this 
vay they every moment present pictures to toe imagination ; 
and we apply to the description as to the thing oescrihed 
(with haidly any consciousness of speaking fif^uratively) 
such words as lively, glowing^ luminous, splendid, piciw 
resque, * To these considerations should be added (as the 
same writer justly obser^'es), as a cause conspiring power- 
fully to the same end, the intimate association which, in 
our apprehensions, is formed between the eye and the ear, 
as the great inlets of our acquired knowledge, as the only 
media by which diflferent minds can communicate together, 
and as the organs by which we receive from the material 
world the two classes of pleasures which, while they surpass 
all the rest in variety and in duration, are the most oom- 
pletelv removed from the grossness of animal indulgence, 
and the most nearly allied to the enjoyments of the intel- 
lect. The unconsciousness we have in both these senses of 
any local impression on our bodily frame may perhaps help 
to explain the peculiar facility with which their perceptions 
blend themselves with other pleasures of a rank still nobler 
aod more refined/ (Ibid, cvi.) 

But although the epithet beautiful is never applied to 
the perceptions of any sense except those of seeing and 
hearing, yet it is extended to the results of some intellectual 
processes, as when we speak of a beautiful chain of reason- 
ing, a beautiful poem, a beautiful metaphor, a beautiful 
language, a beautiful machine, a beautiful contrivance of 
nature, &c. When the word beauty is thus employed, it is 
merely a vague term of praise, and is nearly synonymous 
with admirable, * The word beauty (as Mr. knight re- 
marks) is often applied to a syllogism or a problem ; but 
then it means clearness, point, or precision, or whatever elue 
be the characteristic excellence of that to whicli it is ap- 
plied.* (Inquiry into the Principles qf Taste, p. 259.) As 
the effect of beauty in visible objects is to proauce admira- 
tion, all beautiful objects are also admirable ; and thence it 
was an easy step to apply the epithet beautifhl to things 
which produced admiration, although this feeling did not 
arise from the cause which produces it in the contemplation 
of visible objects. Similar transfers may be observed in 
other words : thus the word law properly signifies a general 
command given by one intelligent being to another ; but 
because the effect of such a command is to produce an uni- 
formity of conduct in the persons to whom it is addi«ssed, 
the term law has been extended to those operations of na- 
ture in which an uniformity of phenomena prevails, although 
the caf4se of the unifiirmity is altogether different. [See 
Analogy.] 

In the following remarks on the nature and causes of 
beauty, we shall limit ourselves to the original and appro- 
priate meaning of the word in question, viz., the beauty of 
visible ol^ects. 

The beauty of visible objecU consists of two parts, vii., 
the beauty o/ colour and the beauty qf form, which, al- 
though closely connected with each other, arise from dif- 
ferent sources, and from sources of a different character, 
inasmuch as the one appears to be, in most cases, a simple 
emotion, and therefore an ultimate fact, of which no expla- 
nation can be given, while the other is a pleasure derived 
from association, which is susceptible of analysis. 

There cannot, in our opinion, be any doubt that certain 
colours, and certain arrangements of colours, are naturally, 
and in themselves, phsasing to the eye. Children are ob- 
served to take delight in brilliant colours before they have 
learnt to conuect any agreeable ideas with them. The 
analogy of the other senses would, d priori, load to this 
eonclusion: fijr as there are certain odours, tastes, and 
sounds, which are naturally pleasing or displeasing to the 
nose, the tongue, and the car, so it may be presumed that 
there are certain colours, and combinations of colours, which 
are naturally pleasing or displeasing to the eye. Although. 
as will be presently shown, one branch of beauty is entirely 
founded on association, the feeling of beauty cannot be de- 
rived from association akne. 'It is the province of asso- 
eiatioo (as Mr, Stewart has justty obser%'ed) to impart to 
erne thing the agreeable or disagreeable effect of another ; 
out association can never account for the origin of a class 
of pleasurss different in kind from all the others we know. 
If there was nothing originally and intrinsically pleasing or 
beautiftil, the associating principle would have no materials 
*"'rL ' ** *^^* operate.' {Euay i c. 6. ) 
Tins origin of the feeling of beauty appears to us to eon- 
n t^ plsMuri derived from the contemplation ef eofeurs, 



a pleasure, in most eases, purely sensual and oi]ganie» and 
as incapable of explanation as the pleasure derived to the 
mind through the medium of the ear from the harmony of 
sweet sounds. An instance of purely sensual beauty i^ 
afforded by precious stones, which all ages and nations, an- 
tient and modem, barbarous and uncivilized, have agre^-l 
in admiring. That their bcautv does not arise from any 
collateral associations of their aurability and hardness i» 
evident from this, that in the unpolished state, when the) 
are equally hard and durable, they excite no admiratu.'n 
The precious metals also are bcautiftil for the same rea^< n : 
though they have other qualities besides their beauty whi. h 
give them exchangeable value : whereas the value of pre- 
cious stones is almost exclusively owing to their beaut}. 
Flowers, the plumage of birds, the rainbow, the setting sun, 
the clear blue expanse of the sky or the sea, also dcn\e 
their beauty in great measure from the mere sensual i:l.- 
pression on the organ of sight. Indeed, there are only a few 
cases (such as that of the beauty of complexion, which wi 1 
be mentioned below), in which the beauty of colour ia de- 
rived from association, and therefore admits of a reaolutios 
into simpler elements. 

The beauty oi form belongs altogether to a different ca- 
tegory, and IS derived (as we shall attempt to show) from 
an association inseparably connected with the form of aur 
object, and necessarily and instantaneously suggested b} 
it, viz., its adaptation to the purpose which it is intended t> 
fulfil. The beauty of form, as arising fVom this sourc».s i% 
however subject to certain cx)nditions, the chief of whirh *&. 
that the object should either possess the beauty of cnl.iu.-, 
or at least should be of such a colour as is oompleui. 
inoffensive to the eye. The manner in which the ar«^::.^' 
emotion works back upon the pleasure of association i» «l^ 
illustrated by the following remarks of Mr. Payne Kmgbt 
— ' The habit,* he says, * which we acquire of spontaneously 
mixing associated ideas with organic perceptions, in oox.- 
templating objects of vision, is the principal reason why i.c 
merely sensual pleasures of this organ are in adult per> r.t 
very limited and feeble. Children are delighted witn even- 
gay assemblage of colours, hut as the intellect and imain ela- 
tion acquire strength by culture and exercise, they ootam 
so much intluence over the sense as to make it reject ahout 
every gratification in which one of them does not part < i- 
pate. But nevertheless the sense acquires a similar neji- 
tive power, in its turn, by the same habit of associatiuL ; 
and if there be anything in tlie object of contemplation to 
oflfend or disgust, it effectually mars the gratification 'f 
every other faculty. Thus, in the higher class of landscaprs 
whether in nature or in art, the mere seMsual gratificun :. 
of the eye is comparatively so small as scarcely to be at- 
tended to ; but yet if there occur a single spot, either itj 
the scene or the picture, offensively harsh and glaring, \.i 
the magic instantly vanishes, and the imagination avenjrcs 
the injury offered to the senie. The glaring and inh^- 
raonious spot, being the most prominent and obtruM\e. 
urresistibly attracts the attention, so as to interrupt the re- 
pose of the whole, and leave the mind no place to rest upon. 
It is in some respects the sams with the sense of beam ,:. 
The mere sensual gratification arising firom the melo«lv wf 
an actor's voice is a very small part, indeed, of the p]easu.-« 
which we receive from the representation of a fine drama ; 
but, nevertheless, if a single note of the voice be abaolutciy 
cracked and out of tune, so as to offend and disgust the ear. 
it will completely destroy the effect of the most akilful 
acting, and render all the sublimity and pathos of the finest 
tragedy ludicrous.' — ^p. 96. 

The beauty of form, although in strictness not connected 
with the colour of any object, is nevertheless so far dependent 
on it, that if the colour should be oflSensive to the eye. the 
pleasure derived firom the beauty of form is much unpairvl. 
or is even destroyed. Beauty of form, as arising from th^ 
fitness of the form fat its end, requires that the colour uf 
the object should be such as shall not interfere with the 
effect produced by the mutual relations of its ]Mrt8. 

There is, however, another oondition for the existence of 
beauty of fcrm, beyond the perception of its fitness to its 
purpose, the statement of which will complete our definitii>n 
of this kmd of beauty. If, then, those odours are either 
absent or present, whose absence or presence is essential to 
the perception of beauty in any object* simply as an orftanic 
impression, the beauty of fhrm in any object mainly depends 
on our sense of its adaptation to the end for which u is 
\ provided that this end is agreeabk to cmtatsplass^ 



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aniiMl, exalting m tti strength and agility, which are 
oceatiimed hj tut uaahackled movements of the hone, the 
antelope, or the stag. (See the comparison of the horse 
at the end of the tfth JUad.} Hence hkewise all deformity 
in animals is ioeansistent with heauty, and is ugly in pro- 
portion as the shape of the limb or body deviates nom the 
standard form, and is unfitted for the purposes for which it 
is intended. ' The disgust,' says Mr. Stewart. ' which mon- 
strous animal productions produce seems to arise principally 
from some idea of pain or suffering connected with their 
existence ; or from the obvious unfitness of the structure of 
the individual for the destined purposes of his species. No 
similar emotion,* he continues, * is excited by an analogous 
appearance in the vegetable or in the mineral kingdoms ; or 
even by those phenomena which contradict the uniform 
tenor of our past experience with respect to nature's most 
obvious and familiar laws/ (c. 7.) The reason of this dif- 
ference is, that in inanimate objects which deviate from their 
onlinary and natural form there is no cause for painful 
sympathy, as the object is unconscious of its defective strue- 
tuie. In the cultivation of flowers and ornamental trees, 
the object indeed is for the roost part to produce an arti- 
ficial, and to a certain degree a monstrous sise ; which all 
must admit to be more beautiiul than the natural and unim- 
proved state of tbe plant But even in this respect there is 
a limit; and although the size consistent with beauty in 
the vegetable kingdom is indefinite, it is i\ot quite unlimited. 
An oak as high as a mountain would probably cease to be 
beautiful ; and even the diseased growtl^ and protuberances 
in trees would become displeasing to the sight, if they were 
enlarged to an excessive size. 

For the same reaaoirthat deformity in animals is incon- 
sistent with beauty, all appearance oi disease, decay, and 
death is loalhaoroe and hideous : as the ghastly look of a 
bleeding wvund, the convulsive movements of agony, the 
pale, livid, or emaciated countenance of a person expiring 
under the rapid progress of a pestilential disease, or wasting 
away with famine, atrophy, or consumption, the mouldering 
remains of a dead body, or tbe empty frame of a skeleton. 
Hence, when Romeo is described by Shakspeare as de- 
scending into the vault, in order to see Juliet's corpse, he 
says, on disoof ering that the bloom had not faded mm her 
lace, 

*0 my lore I nyvilbl 
Death, that hath suek'd the honey of thy hreath. 
Rath had no power yet apoD thy beaaty. 
Thou art not oononeinDd : beauty's endf n jret 
le criauoB in thy Itpe. and in thy cheeks. 
And death's pale flaf Is not adranoed there.* 

The same feelings are transferred by us to the vegetable 
kingdom, though with a great diminution of their intensity : 
thus the yellow or brown colour of the faded leaf is for ^e 
most part less beautiful than the brilliant and vivid green 
of spring and summer vegetation ; nevertheless, there is 
probably no person at all alive to the beauties of external 
nature who has not admired the rich and varied tints of an 
autumn landscape, produced by the irregular discolouration 
of the leaf. ^When* nowever, decay has completed its work, 
all beauty vanishes; and a tree quite bared of its leaves has 
nothing more to recommend it to the eve than if it were 
actually dead. And when a tree has through age or by 
accident undergone a partial decay, its beauty is impaired, 
though its wreck mav still suggest agreeable notions of 
power and grandeur, the memory of former vigour, of resist- 
ance to time and the elements, or to the destructive agents 
of nature. Such are in part the feelings excited by the 
sublime picture of Milton : — 

' Ai when h( nren's fire 
Httth scathed the ftirest oaks or mouotain piapt, 
With tinged top tlieir stately growth, though bare. 
Stands on the blasted heath.^ 

Jn general, however, all appearance of poverty, meagre- 
neas, or decline of vegetation is, unless compensated by 
countervailing cireumstances, unfavourable to beauty. (See 
Price's Essay on Beautv, p. 29.) 

The beauty derived from a perception of utility is not 
confined to the works of nature, but u common to tne worits 
of constructive art, in which the adaptation of means to eiuis 
is equally observable, and in which there is a similar cor- 
resDondenee of the constituent parte. Thus in buildings 
each different part has a manifest and visible purpose— as 
tbe column to support a weight on the ground, the areh to 
support a weight over an opening, the windows to admit 
light and air, the projectwn of the roof to throw the rain- 
water from the walls, &e, £very part of a building has 



therefore its peculiar fbm and beauty, dependent on iu 
destination. And the same is the case with different Aiv"/« 
of building : the disposition of parte which would be beau- 
tiful in a church or a palace, would be displeasing mnd ab- 
surd in a cottage or a fortified castle. ' Grecian temple**. 
Gothic abbeys, and feudal castles,* says Mr. Payne Kni;;Lr, 
'were all well adapted to their respective uses, cirru in- 
stances, and situations : the distribution of the parts suK- 
senient to the purposes of the whole ; and the omaca<*ri« 
and decorations suited to the character of the parts, and to 
the manners, habite, and emplovroente of the persona v h>.> 
were to occupy them : but the house of an English noble- 
man of the eighteenth or nineteenth century is neither a 
Grecian temple, a Gothic abbey, nor a feudal castle ; atsfl 'f 
the style or distribution, or decoration of either be en - 
ployed in it, such changes and modifications should l\> 
admitted as may adapt it to existing circumstances ; oth«:r- 
wise the scale of ite exactitude becomes that of its inr r- 
gruity, and the deviation from principle proportioned to tie 
fidelity of imitetion.* (On T<ute, part \L ch. 2. §. 54 : bi-o 
also Lord Aberdeen on Grecian Architecture^ p. 26-35.) 

For a similar reason all ornament in architecture shoul I 
be subordinate to use, and should grow out of and be t^ui:- 
gested by it : whence professed architects, with whcm x\\ • 
idea of decoration is predominant, often fail in their attemf ti 
to produce beauty, and in many cases seem rather to ad^pt 
the building to the omamente than the ornaments to th«> 
building. Accordinglv it may be observed, that en|;inef"« 
whose attention is solely directed to the iM0of that whtrfi 
they plan, often construct more beautiful buildings than 
persons with whom beauty is the chief consideration. An 1 
generally it may be observed, that all ornament, if acctimti- 
lated to an excessive degree, either from a love of gaudr 
magnificence, or for the sake of ostentation, is devoid • f 
beauty. 

* Tis use alone that sanetlOes expense. 
And splendour boirovs all her rays tarn aenee.* 

For the same reason that neatness, freshness, and rezM- 
Isrity are pleasing to us in buildings, as being associate 
with the ideas of comfort and enjoyment, ' we require,* u 
Mr. Knight has observed, *that immediately adjoining tb« 
dwellings of opulence and luxury, everything should assuinf 
its character, and not only be, but appear to be dressed sr.i 
cultivated. In such situations neat gravel walks, ninvti 
turf, and flowering plants and shrubs, trained and d:stn- 
buted by art, are perfectly in character.* (ii. 2. 29.) In 
laying out the direction of roads or walks, the beauty of th? 
lihe is likewise determined by ite fitness. Thus in an o^-tx 
and level plain a straight line is most agreeable to tbe e\o : 
in broken and irregular ground, the line which adapts ix^.i 
to the shape of the country, by constantly keeping the sair? 
level, is to be preferred. The pleasure which is felt in f - 
lowing the windings of a road carried through a mountair.- 
pass, and creeping round the declivities of the rocks, \% 
enhanced by a sense of skill in the contriver and execut* r, 
and of difficulty successfully overcome. 

The beauty of furniture and dress is likewise in a pTzt 
measure derived from their fitness ; though, with regard to 
dress in particular, our taste is liable to be determined \ \ 
manv independent, and often conflicting, considerations, a« 
novelty, fashion, &c., some of which will be mentioned be- 
low. Symmetry of parts, which the eye often so ripl!? 
exacte in architecture, in gardening, in the internal dect)ra- 
tion of a house, in dress, &c., arises in great measure fit^m 
a sense of utility : thus, for example, in the construction of 
a house, the entrance is obviously best placed in the centre 
of the wall, as it affords tbe easiest communication to the 
various parte of the building : the windows are most c^m- 
venient if they are at nearly e(^ual distenoes fkt)m each other, 
and are not crowded together m some places and separated 
by wide intervals in others : the columns best perform their 
work if they are separeted by equal spaces, and therefore 
support equal weighte*. The pleasure derived fiom sym- 

• The mindple of the t^ffici€^t rtamm by which Mr. Stewart, e. 9 a»a 4, 
explains Uie beautv of s)mmetry in works of art, appears to us to be includ*^! 
in that of fitness; for If there b no reason why a door should beplaeeA nor-r 
one than the other end of a Iiouse. why a picluie shouM be hnnf nemtwr cae 
then tbe otlier end of it room, the middle is evidently Ihr fittest place. Ilear« 
in cases where there Is an evident fitness In Irregularity, eyninietry ts »> t 
beantiftiL • An trregulAr esstelUted edifice (says Mr. Stewwit) act down r ■ 
a dead flat, eonyeys an idea of whim or fi*lly in tlie designer. . . . Tt»e 



or yet greater irregularity, would not only satisfy but deiitfht the eye ia .in 
aatienteitariel. whose fronndwork nnd eWraUons followed the rugeed stiH^««- 
and fantastic pi«»)ectloas of the rock on which It Is bnitt. Tbe oblMee pMition 
of a window in a house would be Inlolprable ; but uUUtv, or tathe? oc^rsai'T. 
reconciles the eye to it at once in the cabin of a ship.'^ % 



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118 



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eails, scndding along iU surface, add not only to the interest 
but also to the beauty of the scene I 

Some writers have thought that a certain size is an es- 
sential element of beauty : thus Aristotle, in his Poetic, 
says, that beauty consists in magnitude and proportion ; 
and, therefore, a very small or a very large animal would be 
devoid of beauty, the former because the eye could not diV- 
tinguish, the latter because the eye could not comprehend 
its part^*. This notion of Aristotle's doubtless arose from 
his predominant love of making the excellence of everything 
to consist in a mean between two extremes ; but in the case 
which he puts the mean is the beautiful form, because it is 
the best suited to the nature and wants of the animal. That 
beauty generally does not depend on the size of the object 
which makes the impression on the sense, is proved by the 
admiration which we equally bestow on the delicate frame 
and brilliant plumage of a humming-bird, and on the vast 
expanse of an Alpine view. Burke, on the other hand, 
makes smallnese an essential element of beauty {Sublime 
and Beautiful, part iii. $ 13) ; but the arguments which he 
adduces are equally untenablet as being founded on a par* 
tial view of the subject. Among other considerations he 
alleges the practice of giving diminutive names to the ob- 
jects of our afiection ; but this arises not from any sense of 
the connexion of beauty with smallness of size, but from 
the incompatibility of the passion of love witli that of fear — 
that is, so far as fear means an anticipation of evil ; for by 
using diminutive names, expressive of weakness and infe* 
riority, men signify their consciousness that the persons 
whom they love are things in their power, of which they 
entertain no apprehension and do not stand in awe. [See 
Fear.] 

The feeling of beauty is, moreover, increased, if not 
awakened, by antient recollections, which spread a charm 
over places illustrated by the arts, the learning, and the civil 
and military glories of former ages. It is, however, neces- 
sary to distinguish between the quality of ^au/^ and tlie 
feelings excited by interesting historical associations. There 
is no doubt that the first time that a scholar beholds Athens 
or Rome, he is affected far more powerfully and agreeably 
than a person to whom antient history is a blank. But 
these emotions cannot be considered as arising from the per- 
ception of beauty. It seems to us quite conceivable that a 
painter who did not know that Pericles or Socrates were 
Athenians, or that the Parthenon was the Temple of Mi- 
nerva, should be as much alive to the beauty of the view of 
Athens as the historian, though his feelings would not be 
so btrongly moved by the sight before his eyes. (See 
Knight On Taste, part 2. ch. ii. } 70-73.) This distinction 
between as^iociations which give an interest to an object, 
which make us curious to see it, and those which make 
it beautiful, has not always been sullicieutly attended to. 
Tlius Mr. Alison cites Runnymede and the Rubicon as 
instances of beauty conferred or enhanced by historical as- 
8o<iations, (Vol. i. pp.25, 27.) But beauty never arises from 
such a source as this. No man would think a plain green 
fi' 1(1 or an ordinary sstreara more beautiful than any other 
such field or stream, simply because King John had signed 
Maffna Charta in the one, or Julius CcDsar raised the stan- 
dard of rebellion on the banks of the other. A sincere 
U'>man Catholic might be led into trains of the tenderest 
pHlhos and the loftiest religious enthusiasm by the sight of 
a fruumont of the true cross, but would find no beauty in it. 
Tim* iron crown of Charleraaune, or the stone on which the 
S ' U\A\ kings were crowned at Scone, would hu^'ijest histo- 
ry al re<-olIv.'rtions of deep interest, but would Ixj devoid of 
1' -iiuty. The same may be said of bad;res of difctinrtion, as 
01 .ler-j, crowns, coronets, mitres. &c. : the> may call up ideas 
of nobility, magnificence, grandeur, couraue,or power; and 
yet they may not be beautiful. No one probably ever found 
any beauty in the Garter or the Cross of the Legion of 
Honour, Iiowevcr lofty or agreeable their associations may 
be. Feelin:,'s of this kind may make the mind susceptible 
t > impressions of beauty, but cannot alone produce it. What 
« ' . K ive 1c>s pretensions to beauty than a modem fortress, 
* J » bare walls and heavy unornamented masonry ? Yet 
•■•rparably connecle<l with all those ideas of power, 
', nnrtial pro'.'.e»» and couraue, to which Mr. Alison 
• * • rders tiie origin of beauty. 

,, -.^/ w t, fttyifu *«. rmln irr't^ Ac, P^tt. chap. >ii.; %ni tm 
••• f!l, 1.JI- •• ..- r'.l ]p.i >«&.•(•« ar" f'iifA »h<;«;n4 l',*. 
• ■ v» '.-f t\ ,^ rr uttfxi'in of l»rji tii^ i-ul ♦^ i ••, . 
r, inciodtt aa kka of aia* *b«r« tU ordV \ 



r 



Having thus attempted to ^ve a general account of t>-* 
origin and causes of beauty m outward objecta»we sb:... 
next consider the itate ofmxnd which is most faTOforabie x^ 
the perception of it 

In the first place it may be remarked that a certain .' 
gree of cultivation is necessary to the perception of be a 3* . . 
Savage nations appear to be nearly or quite destitute of ai^i 
notion of it, in the works both of nature and art» or at le; -* 
their admiration, as in children, is confined to gaudy i . 
shining trinkets and ornaments of the person. The pract: 
of tattooing, however, is doubtless founded on noCi< as 
beauty, more mistaken even than those which led the U^Lf-i 
of Europe to cover their hair with powder and pomatum. 1 
the lower orders of civilized nations the same indifference \ 
beauty may be generally observed, in proportion to tb • r 
coarseness and ignorance. The early aevelopment of t . • 
sense of beauty among the Greeks, which is so strikir. - - 
shewn both in their mythology and poetry, and in their vi * • # » 
of art (see Philological Museum, \o\, ii. p. 16S-16C), :^ - 
proof of their early culture and of their great supcnonii. 
even in a half savage state, to the barbarous nations > 
which they were surrounded. 

Another th'm^ essential to the perception of beaut\ 
sensibility of mind, arising from tne development o(\.e 
social affections, and the cultivation of the benevolent ly- 
ings. The custom, prevalent in some countries, of plant:: ^ 
flowers on graves, and of offering nosegays to the imai;c.> .:' 
saints or of the Virgin, is a mark at once of a leelinK . 
beauty and of sensibility of mind. On the other hand, p* 
sons of a sour, plUegmatic, morose, and misanthropic t>- • 
perament, are little alive to the beauty of outwara objv^ 
or works of art. It was, doubtless, from a sense of the :.h 
compatibility of a feeling for beauty with absence of all ^ ic.a. 
and benevolent sympathies, that Milton represents t..e 
Devil as insensible to the beauties of Paradise : 

• The Fiend 
Saw nndeligltted all delight, all kind 
Of Ikiug creatures, new to sight and stran^* 

As on the one hand, all the antisocial passions, as ar^rr. 
jealousy, envy, fear, &c., are inconsistent with the pcro 3. 
tion of beauty ; so the social passions sharpen and facil:: ** 
it, as love and pity, which, as Dryden says, • melts the v :.: 
to love.* Hence loveliness in the human race is intimaui^ 
connected with beauty, as the desire of sex is heighttr.; ! 
and stimulated by the beauty of form, colour, and expr-^- 
sion ; but it is not identical with it, for lovers are often ;. : 
only blind to the defects of their mistresses, but sometirrr^ 
even admire them on that very account * : whence love a 
proverbially said to be blind. 

A third requisite to the perception of beauty is sfr^'-: 
and cheerfulness of mind, and the absence of overpower rj 
care or affliction, which engrosses the faculties and prcAc/i 
them from taking pleasure in the relations of outwanl b- 
jects. This inconsistency is well illustrated by the reflect n% 
of Hamlet, when he is oppressed with a sense of tho pairifcl 
task imposed upon him by his father's spirit. (Act ::. 
sc. 2.) (See Alison On Taste, vol. i. p. 10.) 

On the relation of the beauty of outward objects to t>c 
beauty of works of art, more will be said under tho hejd^ . f 
the several arts. Here it is only necessary to observe, that 
of the three arts of design, viz., architecture, sculpture, a* •! 
painting, the two last are purely representative arts, w b* ' 
the first alone creates objects which have a use beyond t' -^ 
mere gratification of the taste. The beauty of build ir.« 
therefore belongs to the class of objects which wo hare bci: 
above examining; while the beauty of pictures and stiirrs 
though closely connected with the same range of idea«, )v-: 
forms a class apart, and requires the consideration pf id.:.- 
tional elements peculiar to itself. These are derived t.: 

freat measure from the capabilities of the respective arts, if 
ependent on the materials which they work with and the 
effects which they are thus able to produce. There are manr 
objects beautiful in nature which cannot be represented t(i:h 
advantage by the painter or sculptor ; on the other ban I 
there are many objects disagreeable in nature trhich a-e 
beautifiil in a picture, because a picture is an abstraction, a 
representation of the colour and outline of an object, wiihotit 
any of those accompanying circumstances which in the r • 
ality may cause disgust to the other senses, and thus prevent 
the mind from enjoying that pleasure which it might other 
wise derive through the organ of sight alone. Hence tht>«c 

* • • ■ • ^ yu^ X^mrt 



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Noyon, both in the same go^eronient ; and on the west, the 
Vexin Norroand, in Normandie. (Maps in the Atlas of the 
Eneydopedie Mithodique.) 

The Beauvaisia is watered by the Oise, which bounds it 
on the south-east ; by the Epte, which bounds it on the 
west ; by the Th^rain, and some other streams of less im- 
portance. The air is rather cold, but healthy ; the surface 
unequal, made up of plains and hills, fertile in corn, but 
producing little wine. There is no want of wood, and the 
pasturage is abundant. A considerable number of sheep 
are fed, and the butter and cheese made here are in great 
request. There is plenty of game, poultrv, and fish. Flax 
and hemp are grown in great quantity. iVe have seen [see 
BsAUYAis] that the linen manufacture is one important 
branch of industry at Beauvais. There are some mineral 
springs. The principal places in BeauTaisis are, Beauvais, 
the capital (population in 1832, 12,867), and Clermont 
(population in 1632, 2715 for the commune, 2594 for the 
town itself), on a small feeder of the Oise, east by south of 
Beauvais. 

BEAUVOIS, AMBROSE MARIA FRANCIS JO- 
SEPH PALI SOT DE, a celebrated French naturalist and 
traveller, was bom at Arras on the 27th of July, 1 752. His 
father, who was an advocate, educated him for the legal pro- 
fession, but his bias for the study of natural history was so 
strong that from an early age he was more frequently in the 
fields with his friend and preceptor Lestiboudois than in the 
courts of law. In the year 1772 he was appointed receiver- 

feneral of crown rents, which be held for about five years. 
Tpon the suppression of this office in 1777, he appears to 
have abandoned his profession, and to have determined 
upon devoting himself exclusively to his favourite pursuits. 
Tlie French government had planned an expedition to 
the west coast of Africa, for the purpose of founding a set- 
tlement which might serve as a counterpoise to the mer- 
cantile influence of the English in that part of the world. 
Palisot de Beauvois eagerly embraced what appeared a fa- 
vourable means of exploring a country rich in every branch 
of natural history, and never before trod by the loot of an 
European naturalist: without regarding the extreme in- 
salubrity of a climate from which scarcely more than one 
European in four ever returns, he obtained permission to ac- 
company the expedition at his own charge. On the 1 7th 
July, 1 786. he sailed from Rochefort for Benin, in which, 
and the neighbouring kingdom of Oware, he spent about 
fifteen montns, investigating its natural productions with 
a zeal that even the dreadful fevers of tne country, with 
which he was attacked, were insufiUcient to destroy. While 
here, he planned a journey across Africa to Abyssinia ; but 
after having penetrated the interior for a considerable dis- 
tance, he was compelled to return in consequence of the 
timidity (prudence?) of his companions, who were fright- 
ened at the dangers of the route, and at the multiplying 
difficulties by which they found themselves opposed at 
every step. On his return to the coast, ho was attacked 
so severely by scurvy and yellow fever, that, to use his own 
words, after seeing more than five-sixths of his companions 
perish, and having been himself several times in the very 
jaws of death, it became indispensable for him to abandon 
the country, leaving behind him the principal part of his col- 
lection, which consisted of skins of animals, insects, dried 
plants, and minerals, to be forwarded to France. Fortimately 
a part of these had previously been sent to M. de Jussieu, and 
a part was put on board the ship in which he embarked for 
St. Domingo, otherwise the whole fruit of so much zeal and 
suffering would have perished ; for what he left behind him 
was soon alter burned, along with the settlement, by an 
English expedition. Upon his arrival at Cape Frangois in 
St. Domingo, in 1788, his health became speedily re-esta- 
blished. Here having an opportunitv of witnessing the prac- 
tical working of the slave system, he formed an opinion so 
decidedly adverse to emancipation, that to his latest hour he 
continued to oppose the granting of freedom to the negroes, 
except under very strict conditions, and after the lapse of 
a considerable number of years, during which they might 
be gradually prepared to make a proper use of their liberty. 
He seems to have been always extremelv tender of the 
interests of the colonists, from whom indeed he had re- 
ceived the greatest kindness during his residence in the 
island. When it was found impossible any longer to keep 
the blacks in subjection, M. de Beauvois was deputed by the 
French authorities of St. Domingo to proceed to the United 
fiUtef, in the hope of obuining assiaUnce from the Ameri- 



can government. Upon his return from this fraitlefla missKHi 
in 1 793, he found the island in oonfUsion ; his eollection«, 
which had become very large, were consumed in the confUr* 
gration of Cape Fran9ois ; and the negroes, now beooiae 
the masters, who naturally saw nothing in him but a per- 
secutor, threw him into prison. 

While lying in prison, in dailv expectation of being taken 
out for execution, he was enabled to escape bv the faith Ailnc^v 
of a mulatto woman, to whom, some time before his departure 
for the United States, he had humanely granted her fnv- 
dom : she not only effected his liberation, but procured h.us 
the means of reaching the United States, xhus wais h>« 
life preserved by the devotion of one of that very race whi-h 
he thought worUiy of little short of eternal bondage. On h 'i 
arrival at Philadelphia, penniless and friendless, he leam<^I 
that his name had been inserted in tlie lists of prober :t.- 
tions, and that it was no longer safe to return to FratH-r. 
One of the great traits in De Beauvois* character was 1.^ 
unconquerable perseverance, and an elasticity of sp.^.t 
which no misfortunes could destroy. Undismayed at h'^ 
apparently hopeless condition, he bethought him' of accom- 
plishments which in his happier days had made him :-.r 
delight of his friends, but which he had never dreaui^^: 
might be the only resource for procuring a morsel of bread. 
By the teaching of music and languages he supported hlra- 
self honourably ; and soon succeeded in attracting the t'^- 
tice of the few persons who at that time, in North Amenr^ 
occupied themselves with natural history. 

Upon the arrival in the United States of the French 
Minister Adet, De Beauvois no longer found himsdf strjjt- 
ened for means. He forthwith abandoned his occupatioDs, and 
determined upon exploring the more remote parts of Nortk 
America. He accordingly examined the Appalachian Moun- 
tains, and penetrated into the country of the Creek and Chero- 
kee Indians, still collecting objects of natural history in all ;t« 
branches. Among other things he discovered the jaws txA 
molar teeth of the great mastodon on the banks of the Ohi\ 
and he brought the tooth of a megalonyx from the west of 
Virginia. Upon his return to Philadelphia loaded with >?• 
quisitions, he learned that his proscription had been era^.i. 
and that, by sing^ar good fortune, his patrimony had n < 
been sold. He immediately repaired to France,' where i:<f 
found his affairs in lamentable disorder, and his wife un- 
faithAil. He divorced his wife, sold a portion of bis \ r>> 
perty in order to free the remainder from incumbrai:r»^ 
renounced the perils of travelling, and thenceforward ilexote-i 
himself to the examination and publication of his cd lectin .^ 
But of these he found only a miserable wreck. The Envj ).«..* 
in Benin, and the negroes at Cape Fran9ois, bad destro. '.-d 
everything ; he had only what he brought with him tr l 
Philadelphia, and the small collections which he had f t- 
warde<l while in Africa to M. de Jussieu. These, ]towe>er. 
sufficed to occupy him, in conjunction with general qaei- 
tions of natural history, for the remainder of his life. In 
1806 he was called to the Institute as the successor of 
Adanson ; in 1815 he was created titular councillor of tji> 
University of Paris by Napoleon, upon his return from Elba . 
and in January, 1820, he died firom an attack of diarrfatra. 

Afrer his return to France, Palisot de Beauvois was tho 
author of a considerable number of works, some of « birh 
were inserted in the transactions of learned sodeties, S(.a.e 
in the Enqfclop^die Methodique, and the remainder mre 
published separately. All these, except his jEthtngamt^, 
may be supposed to have contributed more or less to tbc 
progress of science ; but the works on which his reputat4<m 
chiefly depend are his Flore d Oware and de Benin, pub- 
lished in twenty parts, in folio, between 1804 and 1821 ; hii 
Insects of the same country, of which fifteen parts in foVj 
appeared between 1805 and 1821 ; and \i\% Agrostogrcnht, 
which appeared in one volume 8vo. in 1812. In & tl:ra 
of Oware are several extremely curious plants, especially on« 
called alter the alithor Belvisia ; and the work abounds in 
good obser\'ations, showing De Beauvois to have been w«U 
versed in some of the more difficult parts of botany. It 
is scarcely fair in an English biographer to say that the 
book is extremely meagre in species, considering that the 
bulk of what he had collected for it was destroyed by our 
own countrvmen, in their zeal for crippling the lesourres. <^ 
France by the destruction of the propertv of peaceable French 
subjects : or to complain that it affbros no general view of 
the vegetation of this still unknown and most intere&ti- c 
country ; for the work itself was not completed when the 
author died. Whatever defects may be found in the H.*rd 



BE A i: 

ttf Omu« wm mora thtn oompeiiMted b; Uie mariu of the 
Jgrattographit. At tho time of iCa publioction all Uiat 
rekled to the ayKtsmotia urangemeiit of grtuuu wtu in 
Kreat duonler. The genera of thii imporUnt natural 
oidar, with the exception of what bad been done by Dr. 
Itobert Brown in hii Prodromia Flora Nova HoiUmdia 
(anil ihia bad been well done), were nearly ■■ tbe; had been 
lull by Linnraus, allhougb the numbec of gpeciea bad prodi* 
Kioiuly increaied. It wm necuiary to recoat the whole 
order { in doing wbich uew principles had to be eitabljahed, 
ami anlient prejudicei to bo uDspahngljr attacked. Thia 
wag done by F^isot de Beauvoit in a manner which re- 
ducted the greatest honour both upon bis akill and know- 
ledge. It ia true tluit men like Smith, and those of hii 
retru^esaive tuboal, cried out at the innovations of this 
buld refuniier.and were amaied at the unceremonioua n 
net with which what they bad imagined imperishable 
assailed : all their criticigniB, pratestj,atHiers, and anathemas 
w«re in vain ; the public accepted the now arrangement, 
■nd it has become the basis of the more perfect system, 
which at this day saema to be everywhere recognized as 
the roost coofonnable to reason nnd to nature. 

If Palisot de Benuroia cannot be said to have been one 
of llia great lumimLriea which caat a light over the whole 
extent of science, ha certainly deserves the praise of having 
been a sensible, welMnformed. and skilfbl naturalist, who 
did ivcH what ho undertook, and a most xealoua and intrepid 
Inivi^Uer, whom neither danger nor difficulty could deter. 
Ho was handsome in person, gentlemanly in deportment, 
mild in manner, and iudefatigable in his labours, ond he 
dcrit'tvcs to be recorded as one of those who have the most 
contributed to the progreaa of natural science in these latter 

His biography, strictly speaking, ought to have been 
giv>;ri under nlisot ; hut we are unwilling to separate it too 
widely from the genus (BiLViaiAJ which baa been (0 lutmed 
til roinmemorate his merits. 

iJiifigrap/Ue UiiiverttUi ; Flore iOwara; and Eilai 
dune Nouvelle Agrottographit.) 

Bli.WER (Zoology), the English name tor the genus 
Cii.vfur(Cuv.),oneof the orderof rodent or gnawing animals 
i_ linden tia, Cuv., Oliret, Linn.), with two incisor, or cutting 
toclb, and eight molars in each jaw, twenty in all; and 
iiarticularlv dbtlnguishod &om all the rest of that order 
by a broad, boriionlally flattened toil, tvbicb is nearly oval 
and covered with scales. Thore are Bve toei on each of the 
tcKt, but those of the hinder ones only are webbed, the 
nubs extending beyond the roots of the nails. The second 
toe of these lost is furnished with a double nail, or radier 
with two, one like those of the other toes, and anotlier beneath 
it, situated obliquely with a sharp edee directed downwards. 
There is also, as Dr. Richardson ooserves, t less perfect 
double nail on the inner toe of the hind feeL 

The Incisor teeth of the beaver are broad, flatlened, and 
protected anteriorly by a coat of very bard orange-ooloUFed 
unamel, the rest of the tooth being of a comparatively soft 
substance, whereby a Guttiug. chisel-hke edge is obtained j 
and. indeed, no edgo tool, with all its combination of hard 
Diid soft metal, could answer the pnrposa better. In fact, 
tlie beaver's incisor tooth is fashioned much upon the same 
priuciplo as that followed by tho tool-maker, who forma a 
cutting instrument by a skilful adaptation of hard foA soft 
materitili till be produces a good edge. 

But the natural instrument has one great advantage over 
tlie artificial tool ; for the firmer is so organised that, as 
fuel OS it is worn away by use, a reproduction and protrusion 
from tho base takes place, and thus the two pair of chisel- 
t«cth working opposite to each other are always kept in 
fiCKMl repair, with their edge* at the proper cutting angle. 
When injury <» disease destroys one of these incisors, its 
antagonist, meeting with no check to r«siat the protrusion 
from behind, ia puwed forward into a monstrous elongation. 
So hard is the enamel, and so good a cutting instrument is 
th« incisor tooth of the beaver, that, when Bxed in a wooden 
handle, it was, acceding to Dr. Richardson, used by the 
r^orthem Indians to cut bone, and fashion their honi-ti;q)ed 
spears, be, till it was luperseded by the introduction of iron, 
when the beaver-tooth was supplanted by the English Die. 
Tha powor of these natural tools is well described by 
J..ewis and Clarka who saw their effects on the bank* of 
the Missouri. 'Tlie ravages of the beaver,' tay they, 'are 
very apparent : in one place the timber was entirely pros- 
trutcd for a space of three acres in front on the river and 



1 B E A 

one in depth, and great put of it removed, althouglt the 
trees were in large quantities, and tome of them a* thick as 
the body of a man.' 

Dt. Riohardson thus speak* of this part of their opera- 
tions : 'When the beaver cuts down a tree it gnaw* it all 
round, cutting it however somewhat higher on the one side 
than the other, fay wbich the direction of ila fall is deter- 
mined. The stump is conical, and of such a height as a 
bea*er, sitting on his hind quarters could make. The largest 
tree I observed cut down by them, was about the thickness 
of a man's thigh (that is, six or seven inches in diameter), 
but Mr. Graham says, that he has seen them cut a tree 
wbich was ten inches in diameter.' The heaven have no 
canine teeth. F. Cuvier once thought that the molars had 
no true roots, but that they vrere increased from their bases 
like the inciaora. Tha source of hia error was n skull in 
which the molars were not entirely developed; but ho has 
since admitted that they have roots, and that Ihey ore iuca> 
pable of additional growth when once entirely formed. 

AlHRlCAN BSAVBB. 



CuUH Fibri.] 

The AiMrietm Btavar, Cattor Fiber of Linneui, CaUor 
Americanu* of F. Cuvier, Ammiih of the Cree Indiana, and 
Ttoulayi of the Huron*, ia the animal (^ whose sagocitv, 
and even social polity, such wonderhil tales have been tola. 
L* bean represented as an accompliabed arohitcet, gifted 
by Nature with a bead to design and instruments to execute 
well-plsnned houses containing chambers, each set apart 
for its appropriate purpose. The lovers of the marvellous, 
when they had once ^iven the reins to their imagination, 
soon converted its tail into a sledge and a trowel, and asto 
nished the world with an elaborate occount of the mode in 
which the plaster was laid on with this, aocording to them, 
inic iroplomentr nay. they even turned it into an in- 
nent of office. With it the overseers (aucb officcra, ao- 
cording [o the account* given of their civil institution*, it 
the custom of the community of heaven to appoint) 
said to give the signal to the labourers whose employ- 
ts they superintended, by slapping it on the surface of 
rater. All this, and more than this, has faded away 
before the light of truth. Their houses have sunk into ru^ 
huts, in the construction of which their tails are never used, 
their pile-driviuE (for, among other leats, they were said to 
drive stakes of Ue thickness of a man's leg three or four 
feet deep into the ground) haa turned out to be a mere fable, 
and their polity has proved to be nothing more than a com- 
bination of individutUs, auch as we see among many of ^e 
inferior animals, impelled by an instinct common to all to 
perfbrm a task in the bcncQt of which all participate. 

But, after discarding all exaggeratiotia, there remains 
enough to make the works actually carried on by thma 
animal* a subject of deep interest, as we shall presently see. 
Where there has Iteen so much fable it beoomea of im- 
portance to select that account of tho habits of die beaver 
which Bocwds with fad. Such an account, ftom the testi- 
mony of those best informed on the subject, ia to be found 
in Ucarne; and as Dr. Richardson, who had the beat op , 



No. 220. 



tTHE PENNY CYCLOPiBDlA.] 



Vot IV^R 



B E A 



122 



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portunities for fonning a right judgment, has given it the 
preference, we proceed to lay it before our readers in Heame*8 
own simple language : — 

• The beaver being so plentiful, the attention of my com- 
panions was chiefly engaged on them, as they not only fur- 
nished delicious food, but their skins proved a valuable 
acquisition, being a principal article of trade as well as a 
serviceable on© for clothing. The situation of the beaver- 
houses is various. Where the beavers are numerous they 
are found to inhabit lakes, ponds, and rivers, as well as 
those narrow creeks which connect the numerous lakes with 
which this country abounds ; but the two latter are gene- 
rally chosen by them when the depth of water and other 
circumstances arc suitable, as they have then the advantage 
of a current to convey wood and other necessaries to their 
habitations, and because, in general, they are more difficult 
to be taken than those that are built in standing water. 
They always choose those parts that have such a depth of 
water as will resist the frost in winter, and prevent it from 
freezing to the bottom. The beavers that build their houses 
in small rivers, or creeks, in which water is liable to be 
drained off when the back supplies are dried up by the frost, 
are wonderfully taught by instinct to provide against that 
evil by making a dam quite across the river, at a convenient 
distance from their houses. The beaver-dams differ in 
shape according to the nature of the place in which they 
are built. If the water in the river, or creek, have but little 
motion, the dam is almost straight; but when the current is 
more rapid, it u always made with a considerable curve, 
convex toward the stream. The materials made use of are 
drift-wood, green willows, birch, and poplars if they can be 
got ; also, mud and stones intermixed in such a manner as 
mint evidently contribute to the strength of the dam; but 
there is no other order or method ob^n'ed in the dams, 
except that of the work being earned on with a regular 
sweep, and all the parts beiof made of equal strength. In 
places which have beea kmg frequented by beavers undis- 
turbed, their dams, by fteqmnt vepairing, become a solid 
bank, capable of resisting a great force both of water and 
ice ; and as Uie wUlow, ponlar, and birch generally take root 
and shoot up, they bv degrees form a kind of regular 
planted hedge, which I have seen in some places so tall that 
birds have built their nests among the branches. 

' The beaver-houses are built of the same materials as 
their dams, and are always proportioned in size to the 
number of inhabitants, which seldom exceeds four old and 
six or eight young ones ; though, by chancei I have seen 
above double the number. Instead of order or regulation 
heing observed in rearing their houses, they ai« of a much 
ruder structure than their dams ; for, notwithstanding the 
sagacity of these animals, it has never been observed that 
they aim at any other convenience in their houses than to 
have a dry {>lace to lie on ; and there they usually eat their 
victuals, which they occasionallv take out of the water. It 
frequently happens that some of the large houses are found 
to have one or more partitions, if they deserve that appella- 
tion, but it is no more than a part of the main building left 
by the sagacity of the beaver to support the roof. On such 
occasions it is common for those aifferent apartments, as 
some are phased to call them* to have no communication 
vith each other but by water ; so that, in fact, they may be 
called double or treble houses, rather than different apart- 
ments of the same house. I have seen a large beaver-house 
built in a small island that had near a dozen apartments 
under one roof; and, two or three of these only excepted, 
none of them had any communication with each other but 
by water. As there were beavers enough to inhabit each 
apartment, it is more than probable that each family knew 
their own, and always entered at their own doors, without 
any fhrther connexion with their neighbours than a friendly 
intercourse, and to join their united labours in erecting their 
separate habitations, and building their dams where re- 

Suired. Travellers who assert that the beavers have two 
oors to their houses, one on the land side and* the odier 
next the water, seem to be less acquainted with these ani- 
mals than others who assign them an elegant suite of.apart- 
ments. 8uch a construction would render their houses of 
no use, either to protect them from their enemies, or guard 
|[iem aeainst the extreme cold of winter. 

•So far are the beavers from driving stakes into the 
ground when building their houses, that they lay most of 
the wood crosswise, and nearly horizontal, and without any 
-^ther order than that of leaving a hollow or cavity in the 



middle. When any unnecessary branches nwgect inward 
they cut them off with their teeth, and throw them in amnmr 
the rest, to prevent the mud from falling through the ro- f 
It is a mistaken notion that the wood-work is first complct-i 
and then plastered ; for the whole of their houses, as wc 
as their dams, are, from the foundation, one mass of nn i 
and wood mixed with stones, if they can be procured- Th.- 
mud is always taken from the edge of the bank, or tN- 
bottom of the creek or pond near the door of the house : and 
though their fore paws are so small, yet it is held close u^ 
between them under their throat: thus they carry bot\ 
mud and stones, while they always drag the wood with t\ • .• 
teeth. All their work is executed in the night, and th« t 
are so expeditious that, in the course of one night, I h»iv 
known them to have collected as much as amounted to &oxr.c 
thousands of their little handsful. It is a great piece ••-; 
policy in these animals to cover the outside of their houv ? 
every fall with fresh mud, and as late as possible in the 
autumn, even when the frost becomes pretty severe, as \ y 
this means it soon freezes as hard as a stone, and prevent* 
their common enemy, the wolverene, from disturbing ther. 
during the winter ; and as they are frequently seen to walk 
over their work, and sometimes to give a flap with thrir 
tail, particularly when plunging into the water, this hr.*,. 
without doubt, given rise to the vulgar opinion that thtr\ 
used their tails as a trowel, with which tney plaster tlieir 
houses; whereas that flapping of the tail is no more than a 
custom which they always preser^'e, even when they becuu.^ 
tame and domestic, and more particularly so when they ar^ 
startled. 

' Their food consists of a large root, something resemblir.i: 
a cabbage-stalk,* which grows at the bottom of the lak*.^ 
and rivers. They also eat the bark of trees, particularlv 
those of the poplar, birch, and willow ; but the ice prevent:: '^ 
them from getting to the land in the winter, they have n<^ 
any barks to feed on in that season, except that of su' 
sticks as they cut down in summer, and throw into the wat> * 
opposite the doors of their houses; and as they gimernliy 
eat a great deal, the roots above-mentioned constitute a pn:;- 
cipal part of their food during the winter. In summer tlnr 
vary their diet, by eating various kinds of herbage, and su^s 
berries as grow near their haunts during that season. Wh-. n 
the ice breaks up in the spring the beavers alwavs Ica^f 
their houses, ana rove about until a little before tfie faU ' 
the lea£ when they return again to their old habitation % 
and lay in their winter stock of wood. They seldom be^.a 
to repair their houses till the frost commences, and newr 
finish the outer coat till the cold is pretty severe, aa hath 
been already mentioned. When thev erect a new habitatioa 
they begin felling the wood early in the summer, but sekiotB 
begin to build until the middle or latter end of August, and 
never complete it till the cold weather be set in. 

* Persons who attempt to take beaver in winter should lie 
thoroughly acquainted with their manner of life, otherwise 
they will have endless trouble to effect their purpose, be- 
cause they have always a number of holes in the bankft, 
which serve them as places of retreat when any injur}* it 
offered to their houses, and in general it is in those hul^s 
that they are taken. When the beavers which are situatid 
in a small river or creek are to be taken, the Indians some- 
times find it necessary to stake the river across, to prevent 
them from passing ; after which they endeavour to nnd out 
all their holes or places of retreat m the banks. This re- 
quires much practice and experience to accomplish, and i» 
performed in the following manner: — every man bemz 
furnished with an ice-chisel, lashes it to the end of a small 
staff about four or five feet long ; he then walks along tW 
edge of the banks, and keeps knocking his chisel agaiu$t 
the ice. lliose who are acquainted with that kind of worK 
well know by the sound of the ice when they are <^po»iic 
to any of the beavers* holes or vaults. As soon as they 
suspect any, they cut a hole through the ice big enough i • 
admit an old beaver, and in this manner prooMd till thev 
have found out all their places of retreat, or at least i.« 
many of them as possible. While the prinoimd men &r.* 
thus employed, some of the understrappers ana the women 
are busy in breaking open the house, whidi at times is hj 
easy ta^ for I have frequently known these houses to It- 
five or six feet thick, and one, in particular, was more than 
eight feet thick in the crown. When the beavers find that 
their habitations are invaded, they fly to their holes in the 
banks for shelter ; and on being perceived by the Indiani, 
• Nvfhar Ifdmmt ■cooidin; to Dr. Ridunlsooj a kind of wmt«r4Q^, 



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124 



B E A 



fVie gnotett boaTer taken, who, aeoording to Dr. Riehaid- 
ton, only trench the beaver dams of a particular quarter 
once in five yeare, and always leave a pair at least in a dam 
to breed, it is not likely that these animals can ever be so 
plentiful as they were formerly. The same author observes 
tiiat the Indians farther north, when they break up a beaver 
lodi^, destroy as far as they are able both young and old. 

In 1829 there was an increase; for in that year 72,199 
beaver skins were imported from the British North Ame* 
rican colonies, and 4200 from the United States. 

The earliest notice of the European beaver (c<S<rrii»p) is in 
Herodotus (book tv. c. 109), who describes it as inhabiting a 
large lake in the country of the Budini, a nation whom he 
places on the east side of the upper Don (iv. 21). He says 
that the skin was used for clothing, and the testicles (of which 
we shall presentlv speak again) for affections of the womb. 
Aristotle (book viii. c. 5) mentions the European beaver 
under the name of gatrr^ (castor), but only mentions it ; 
while Pliny (book viii. c. 30 and xxxii. c. 3, &c.) well describes 
it, and is diffuse on the subject of the celebrated castoreum, 
so much valued as a medicine among the antients, and which 
long held a high place in the materia medica of the moderns, 
causing the persecution of this unfortunate animal before 
its fur became an object of traffic. Pliny is very sage in 
pointing out the frauds of dealers, and shows thereby that 
ne did not know what the castoreum really was. ' Cas- 
torea testes eorum,* writes Pliny (book xxxii. c. 3), and the 
antients inform us that the animal used to bite off the part 
(the testicles) when hunted, well knowing that with the pos- 
session of the desired castorea the persecution would cease. 
The only objection to this tale, which however absurd is 
gravely stated by Plinv himself (book viii. c. 30), though he 
afterwards (book xxxii. c. 3) says that Sextius, who appears 
to have known something of the anatomy of the animal, de- 
nies it, is, that from the organization of the animal such a dis- 
tressing feat is all but impossible ; and we should not deem 
the absurdity worthy of notice did we not daily see attempts 
to revive old fables, and the success which not unfrequently 
ibllows, for a time at least, such attempts. Chivier gives 
the following account of the organs which secrete this sub- 
stance : — ' Db grosses poches glanduleuses qui aboutissent 
4 leur prepuce, produiasent une pommade d*une odeur forte, 
employ^ en medicine sous le nom de castoreum.* Dr. 
Richardson thus speaks of this substonce : ' I have not had 
an opportunity of oissecting a beaver, but I was informed by 
the hunters that both males and females are furnished with 
one pair of little bags containing caitoreutn^ and also with a 
aecond pair of smaller ones betwixt the former and the anus, 
which are filled with a white fatty matter, of the consistence 
of butter and exhaling a strong odour. This latter sub- 
stance is not an article of trade ; but the Indians occasion- 
ally eat it, and also mingle a little with their tobacco when 
ther smoke. I did not learn tbe purpose that this secretion 
is destined to serve in the economy of the animal ; but 
from the circumstence of small ponds when inhabited by 
beavers being tainted with ito peculiar odour, it seems pro- 
bable that it affords a dressing to the fur of these aquatic 
animals. The coitoreum in its recent state has an orange- 
colour, which deepens, as it dries into bright reddish-brown. 
During the drying, which is allowed to go on in the shade, 
a gummy matter exudes through the sack, which the In- 
dians delight in eating. The male and female catioreum 
is of the same value, ten pairs of bags of either kind being 
reckoned to an Indian as equal to one beaver skin. The 
easioreum is never adulterated in the fur countries.* As 
the animal alluded to by Herodotus, Aristotle, and Pliny 
was of course the European beaver, this part of the article 
night perhaps have been looked for under the European 
section ; but, as will be seen from the foregoing quotation, 
the subject is so intimately blended with the history of the 
American beavers, that it has been thought advisable to 
give it the place which it now occupies ^. 

Dr. Richardson, who says that the call of the beaver in 
the pairing season is a kind of groan, gives the following as 
the dimensions of a full grown beaver killed at Great 

* U Laadt't dcKriptfcm of the FrrM ItUwli k tbc fiillowtag aeeouni at a 
•MMwImI MtrMiffdinaiy •ppUcAtion of this drax. under the hmd of' B«l«na 
ll Mtl eeti H itamman or OrteiihUHl whek):— ' The Peroew flehenneii enter. 
%itN * ffnml dr%«a of these bimI other Urge whales, •■ they would easily orenet 
Iht^r boate aad daih th>MB in piecet. In order to drite away these otiwelcooie 
■•etta. thvy Ss a ■!»•• oCcasioffeiim to the iirk on whldi they wind np their 
idllnf -Uaei^ and It Uvm Mnatfcable, that when this Ibrk, with the cnstofonm 
•dhennc to It, le nUeed (a the water befort the boat, the whales plunfe im- 
— dUtely to jlyjoyw «»^ w neyefMiTe w— . Ofl of juniper la employed 




3 
6 



Slaye Lake, and now in the museum of the Zoological 
Society:— 

Inehea. 

length of head and body • . 40 
„ head alone • • 7 
„ tail, scaly part • • 11 
Distonce from tip of nose to ante- 
rior part of eye ... 2 10 
Distance from the posterior part of 
the orbit to anterior part of the ear 2 5 

He also gives the following account of the flesh » which. 
as much has been said of its delicacy as food, is interestinir. 
' The flesh of the beaver is much prized by the Indian^ and 
Canadian voyagers, especially when it is roasted in the skm« 
after the hair has been singed olt In some districts ic re- 
quires all the influence of the for trader to reatraio the 
hunters from sacrificing a considerable quantity of beaTer 
fur every year to secure the enjoyment of this luxury ; and 
Indians of note have generally one or two feaste in a season, 
wherein a roasted bc»ver is the prime dish. It reaemUes 
pork in its flavour, but the lean is dark-ooloured, tbe fat 
oily, and it requires a strong stomach to sustain a full meal 
of it The tail, which is considered a great luxury, consists 
of a gristly kind of fat* as rich but not so nauseating as the 
fat of the body.* 

Pennant says that the geographical range of the Amc^ 
rican beaver commences in latitude 60° or about tbe Ktrer 
of Sesds, in Hudson's Bay, and terminates in latitude 3i>^ m 
Louisiana ; but Say places their limit at the confluence 61 
the Ohio and Mississippi, about seven degrees further to the 
northward of Pennant's southern boundary. Dr. Richard- 
son observes that their most northern point is probably on 
the banks of the Mackenzie (the largest American river 
that falls into the Polar sea, and the best wooded, owing to 
the quantity of alluvial soil by which it is bordered), as 
high as 67^° or 68° lat. ; and that they extend east and 
west from one side of the continent to the other, with tbe 
exception of the barren districts. He further states tluS 
they are pretty numerous to the northward of Fort Franklin, 
and that, from the swampy and impracticable nature of the 
country, they are not likely to be soon eradicated from 
thence. 

The following are the varieties of the American beaver : — 

Var. a. Nigra, the black Aeover.^Heame aava thai 
these are more plentiful at Churchill than at any other fkc- 
tory in tbe bav, but that it is rare to get more than twelve 
or fifteen of their skins in one year's tnde. 

Var. /3. Varia, the spotted leaver. — Dr. Richardson did 
not see one of these, and Say records that an Indian during 
his whole life caught but three. They had a large white 
spot on their breaste. 

Var. y. Alba, the white beaver. — ^Heame saw hot one of 
these albinos in twenty years, and that had many reddish 
and brown hairs along the ridge of the back, though ia 
sides and belly were of a silvery white. Dr. Richardsoa 
says that when the Indians find an indiridnal of this kind 
they convert the skin into a medicine baff and are very un- 
willing to dispose of it: there is also a ydlowish variety. 

The little beaver, as it is sometimes odled, Caetor Zibe^ 
thicus of LinnsDus, Fiber Zibethieus of Cuvier, Ondatra of 
Lac^pede, the Mueh-rai of Canada, and Mtaqwuk of the 
Cree Indians, is an animal generically diilBrent fitom the 
true beaver. [See Musquajr.] 

EVROPBAlf BbATXR. 

F. Cuvier has pointed out some slight differences in the 
skulls of the European and American beavers which he bad 
examined, for tbe purpose of showing that they are distinct, 
but, in our opinion, not conclusively. Baron Cuvier, in the 
last edition of his Regne Animal, expresses his uncertainty^ 
notwithstending scrupulous comparison, whether the bea- 
vers which live in burrows along the banks of the Rhone, 
the Danube, the Weser, and other rivers, are specificaUy 
different from those of America, or whether their vieinity 
to man is the cause that hinders them from building. He 
does not appear to have been aware of the colony described 
by M. de Meyerinck in the Transaetione qf the B'^Un 
Ivatural History Society for 1 829, as having been acttl«d 
for more than a century on the small river Nuthe, a short 
distance above its confluence with the Elbe in a lonely can* 
ton of the Magdeburg district This little association, it 
appears, amounted in 1822 to fifteen or twenty individuals 
only; but they were co-operative and industrioua beyond 



B EC 

vrbit raight bkve horn axpaeted from their numben. Bur- 
rowt of tbiAj or tottj paces in length on a level with the 
river, having one openiag bene&th Ute mrface and another 
on land ; hnti eiglit or ton feet high, fainied of branohe* 
and trunki of trees laid Irregularly and covered with earih ; 
and a dyke of the some materiala, so well wrought that it 
raised tlie water more than a foot, were tho results of the 
persevering and ingenious labours of the little band. H. de 
Meyerinck, indeed, who seems to have had his ideas raised 
by the marvellous accoanta of tho architectural habits of 
Lhe American species, userts thitt bis colony diflered from 
ihem in many particulars ; bat, upon reading bis memoir, 
ind comparing it with tlie unvarnished account of those 
vbo have most truly related the bablts of the American 
beavers, we think that these Europeans, considering their 
lumbers and the materials within their reach, will he bund 
v>t a whit behind their Transatlantic brethren. 

In truth, the American beaver near the settlements is 
uul and solitary; his works have been swept away, his 
issociation broken up, and he burrows like the European, 
juch beavers are called terriert. Pennant indeed men- 
ions them aa a varied which wants either the aagacin 
ir the industry of others ; but he is much nearer the trutn 
rbcn he says, in the snme paragraph, * beavers which 
iscDpe the destruction of a community arc supposed often to 
leeonie terriers.' We have read somewhere (in Henry's 
Traveie, we believe) that these tialitaries are also called 
old bachelors.' 

If an additional proof of the sagacity of the European 
leaver bo required, we call the attention of our readers 
o the following anecdote related by Geoffrey St Hilaira 
n lbs twelfth vol. of the Mimoirei du Muiium tfHft- 
uire Naturellt. One of these beavers from the Rhone 
cos conSned in the Paris menagerie. Fresh blanches were 
egulorly put into his cage, together with his food, con- 
isting of legumes, fruits, Gcc., to amuse him during the 
light and minister to his gnawing propenEily, He bad 
<nly litter to shield him from the frost, and the door 
if his cage closed badly. One hitter winter night it snowed 
ind the snow hod collected in one comer. These were 
dl his materials, and the poor beaver disposed of them 
o secure himself ftnm the nipping air. The branches he 
nter wove between the bars of his cage, precisely as abaikct- 
nakcr would have done. In the intervals he placed his 
ittcr, his carrots, his apples, his all, fashioning each with 
lis teeth so as to fit them to the spaces to be filled. To 
top the interstices he covered the whole with snow, which 
rozo in the night, and in the morning it was found that he 
loil thus built a wall which occupied two-thirds of the 
litorway. 

Upon the whole evidence, we are of opinion that the 
\^merican and European beaver are only varieties of the 
a.mo species. 

That the beaver was formerly an inhabitant of the British 
slanda there is no doubt. Giraldus Cambrensis gives a 
Lhutt account of their manners in Wales; but, even in his 
imc (ha travelled there in HB3), they were only found on 
he river Teify. ' Two or three wateia in that principality,' 
ays Pennant, ' still bear the name of Llyn yr i^angc, or 
be beaver lake- * * * I have seen two of their sup- 
Hised haunts; one in the stream that runs through flant 
f-'ianeon, the other in the river Conwy, a fbw miles above 
LlanriDtt; and both places, in all pmtnbility, had formerly 
men crossed by beaver dams. But we imagine they must 
lavo been very scarce even in earlier times. By the laws 
if Howel dda, the price of a beaver's skin, Croen Llotllj/dan 
'broad-tailed animal), was fixed at a hundred and twenty 
>ence, a great (um in those da;*.' 

FoMiL Bkavirs, 

Castor fmgonlherium. — Fischer has established this spe- 
Mes from a single skull found in the beds near the sea of 
AKof. It is laid to preaant the most striking analogy to 
the cranium of the European beaver, from which it does 
not differ except in its increased dimensions. 

Fotril beaeer of the Upper Vol dAmo. — Lyell, upon 
the authority of Mr. Penttand, mentions a fossil beaver from 
theUpper Vald'Amo, as being amongthemammilersfroro 
that locality, in the museums at Paris. We have no means 
of judging whether Uiia differs from Fischer's species. 

BECCAFl'CO (Zoology), Oie Italian name for Beceafii 
or Fig-eater; Bec-tlgue of the Ftanch; Fieedula of t 
Latins ; and ZvmXlc of the GreeK>> This naae> as Cbules 



!5 B E C 

BonapaHe, Prince of Musignano, observes, in Iiis SptaJtio 
Comparalivo, is applied to different binls of the irenas 
Syltrta (Sylvan Warblen), whenever they are fat, and in a 
good stale for the table. These are generally fruifr«atet* 
in the ebbsou ; but the true beccaflco, with its ' earn* 
squiaito,' is, according to the Prince, the Sylvia horlentii 
of Becbstein. 

Tho Beccafigo, or I^g-eater, of Willughby ; Pietdula 
teptima AldrovaiuU, Pettichapa Bboraeeimbut, BeceafigQ 
Ilalis, of Ray ; appears to bo the Letter PettyehtqM, Sylvia 
hippotau of J.atham ; MotaeiUa hippolais of Linnseus. 
The bird described by Willughby was shot in Yorkshire, 
and, on disaeation, grape-stones and other seeds were found 
in its stomach. 



The Greater Peltychaps seems to have been first de- 
scribed as a British species by Latham, who received It 
from Sir Asbton l«ver. The bird was obtained in Lanca- 
It has since become better known, and its arrival 
with the other warblers in April and May, has been reeu- 
latly noticed. Montagu, who obaerves tbot be traced it 
through the greater part of England, Qxes the Tyne as its 
northern boundary ; but he is corrected by Selby, who aay*, 
" I have oRen seen it on the north of the river 'Tweed.'' 

All who have heard the bird agree in their praise of its 
song, which is little inferior to that of the nightingale. 
Montagu states that it frequently ain^ after sunset. 
" Some of the notes," says that ornithologist, " are sweetly 
and softly drawn ; others quick, lively, loud, and piercing, 
reaching the distant ear with pleasing harmony, some- 
thing like the whistle of the blackbird, but in a laon 
humed cadence." Selby corroborates this, observing thM 
its song, although inferior in extent of scale, almost equals 
that of the nightingale in sweetness. It is seldom seen; 
for, like the K%t of the tribe, it haunts the shadiest coverts, 
and usually sings from tho midst of aome close thicket. 
Lewin says that It makes its nest, for the most part with 
flbrei and wool, sometimes irith the addition of green moss, 
often in the neighbourhood of gardens, which it frequents, 
with the IVhite-thrwU and B&dt-eap, for the sake of cur- 
rants and other fruits. Montagu, who has recorded this 
habit, states also that it inhabits thick hedges, where it 
makes a nest near the ground, composed of gooso-gross 
[GWi'iun Aparine, Linn.) and otlicr Bbrous plants, tlimailv 
put together, like that of the common White-throat, with 
the addition sometimes of a little green moss externally. 
Selby gives much the same description. It lays four, some- 
times five eggs, about the sixe of a hedge-sparrow's, or 
hedge-warbler's, of a dirty white, blotched with light brown 
(Selby says wood-brown), the blotches being most numer- 
ous at the larger end. Its alarm-call, according to Selby, 
is very similar to that of the white-throat. Early in Sep- 
tember it leaves us, and C. Bonaparte notes it as common 
near Rome in the autumn. 

The following description of the Greater Pettycbaps, 
whose length Montagu rotdtes six inches, and its weight 
about five drachms, is by Selby. 

" The whole of the upper parti oil-green, with a shade of 
ash-grey. On each side of the lower part of the neck is a 
patch of ash-Erey. Throat greyisU-whito. Broait and 
(tanks yellowish-grey, inclining to wood-brown. BpUy and 



B £ C 



126 



B EC 



(vetki gnyish-white. OrbiU of the eyes white. Sides biown. 
Bill wood brown. Legs and claws bluish grey. 

The female is similar in plumage to the male bird. 

" The young of the year have the region of the eyes 
greyish-white. Head, upper part of the neck, back, rump, 
and wing-coverts, yellowish-brown, passing into oil-green. 
Quills greenish-grey, edged with oil-green. Cheeks and 
sides of neck yellowish-grey. Throat, breast, sides, and 
under tail-coverts, wine-yellow. Middle of tlie belly white. 
Legs, toes, and claws, pearl-grey.** 

** Beccafigos,*' writes Willughby, after describing " the 
fourth Bec<»figo of Aldrovand,** " abound in Candy, as 
Bellonius witnesses, and also in the island of Cyprus, where 
they are salted up in great numbers, and ti^ansported into 
other countries. With us in England they are called by a 
general name, Cyprus-birds, and are in no less esteem 
with our merchants for the delicacy of their taste, than they 
were of old with the Italians ; and that deservedly (saith 
Aldrovandus) ; fot feeding upon two of the choicest fruits, 
viz., figs and grape»» they must needs become a more 
wholesome food than othet birds, ^^ielding a better nourish- 
ment, and of more easy concoction. Beccafigos are ac- 
counted best, and most m season in the autumn, as being 
then fattest by reason of the plenty of meat that season 
affords them. At whieh time they are highly prized, and 
coveted by the Italians STen now-a-days.*' 

The passage m ArisMk, book ix. en. 49, where he speaks 
of the metamorphosis of birds, and says that the SvroXtc 
(fig-eater) is a SwrciXic at the commencement of autumn, 
but a 'Mt\ayK6pvfos (blaek-^'^p) at the end of that season, 
may very probably relate to the change of plumage in the 
Black-cap warbler^ * Atricapilla sive Ficedula Aldrov. 
SujcaXic et M€\ayc^p«*oc Grteeis. The Black-cap^ Ray ; 
the young males of which resemble the female in plumage. 
[See Black-cap.] 

BECCARl'A, CESARE BONESANA. MARQUIS 
OF, was bom at Milan in 1735. The political specula- 
tions of France having spread to Italy, co-operated with the 
instructions of Genovesi at Naples, and the perusal of the 
political works of Montesquieu, in directing Beccaria to the 
study of moral and political philosophy ; and the patronage of 
Count Firmian, the Austi'ian ^vemor of Lombardy, encou- 
raged Beccaria, Count Yerri, Frisi, and others to form a so- 
ciety in Milan, for the diffusion of literature and liberal 
x>pinions. In his 27th year, Beccaria published his first 
work, entitled Del diiordine e de' remedii delle monete nello 
statodi MtlanOt nel 1762, con 4 tavole, 8vo. Lucca, 1762: 
* Of the Abuses of the Coinage in the State of Milan and 
their Remedies.* In 1764 and Wes the society, in imita- 
tion of the * Spectator' of Addison, published // Caffe, a 
periodical, which was completed in two vols. 4to., and con- 
sisted chiefly of papers on men and manners, with occasional 
discussions of important moral and political topics. The 
best papers are by Beccaria — his most humorous is on 
smells, and his most original on style. The last is an 
attempt to prove that nothing but the practice of proper 
rules is reouired for the attainment of excellence in elo- 
quence and poetry. While this work was going on, Bec- 
caria read in 1764, to the literary society, the MS S. of his 
work on ' Crimes and Punishments,' and in the same year, 
at their request, published it under the title of Trattalo dei 
delitti e delle pene, 12mo. Tho work had great success. 
In Italy three editions were sold within six, and six editions 
within eighteen, months. In a few years it was translated 
into almost all the languages of Europe. It has been twice 
translated into French. The Abb<^ Morellet published a 
translation in 1766, which was undertaken at the recora- 
fnendation of Malesherbes; the translation of M. Chaillou 
de Lisy was publibhed in 1773, in 1 2ino. In 1797a second 
edition of Morellet's translation was published, with notes 
by Diderot; and St. Aubin's translation of Jeremy Bentham's 
* Theory of Penal Law.' Testimonials of approbation were 
4Msut to Beccaria by Catherine of Russia, the princes, and 
tho people of Prussia and Tuscany ; and a learned society 
of Berne, in Switzerland, sent him a medal. It was trans- 
lated, in 1802, into modern Greek by Cor ay, for the benefit 
of his countrymen. An anonymous Bnglish translation 
appeared in 1766, %vith a translation of a commentary attri- 
buted to VuUaire. 

The immethodical arrangement of this work renders an 
analysis difficult. In style it is clear, and occasionally 
^loc(uent. It breathos a fervid love of freedom and of hu- 

mity. In thotight it is 4eep and original We can only 



attempt to sketch its leadiBg doctrineu -Law is tbs 

imposed by society. Punishment is theooimter-actaoa wLirii 
society provides to prevent its members from violatiog its 
restraints. It ought to be a system of motives to counter- 
balance the motives to crime. The necessity of this ooanter^ 
balance creates the right to punish — a necessity by which 
punishment ought to be measured and regulated. The due 
proportion between punishment and this necessity oonsik- 
tutes justice. If punishment oversteps this neoeaaity ii 
becomes tyranny, and when it does not come up to H» tie 
motives to crime have a predominance, and crimes are caq- 
sequently produced. This proportion society alone by iii 
laws ought to determine. Henoe, siuce society, the maker 
of the laws, is always in existence, the laws ou^t not t« l'^ 
interpreted by any other than the legislative hodjr^ If iho 
interpretation of laws is left to judges, the rule of right be- 
comes uncertain. To have a preventive influence on criiDLv 
laws ought to be clearly expressed and well known. Tl t 
standard of crime is the injury which it does to society. T).<f 
best punishments are those which best prevent crimex 
X'ecuniary punishments are bad, in so far as they are apt : > 
induce exaction instead of justice. Punishments ought tj 
be immediate, to make the association between crime and 
punishment as close as possible. Transportation, by depn- 
ving the community, injured by the crime, of the example of 
the punishment, is therefore objectionable. The punt«L- 
ment of robbery ought to be pecuniary to counteract ti? 
cupidity, and corporal to counteract the violenco of i^ 
crime. Infamy ought to be the punishment of crimes a^ra a «t 
honour. Since fanaticism is increased by corporal puiit^i - 
ments, its punishments ought not to be corporal ; and t:..' 
proper punishment of persons who will not submit to the rv> 
straints of the community, is to send them out of it. Ccr • 
fiscation is unjust, because it falls upon the family or hLi % 
of the offender, who are innocent of his offence. If \\^ 
evil to the offender arising from the punishment is great* r 
than the good he obtains from the crime, an increase of iho 
certainty is more influential than an increase of the se^er.t* 
of the punishment. Severity destroys the sense of ju%t:. >. 
and produces impunity, a fruitful source of crime. Huuj 
the question of capital punishments. No one can gx\e lo 
society what he has not himself-— aright to take away hi» L.« . 
History shows that this punishment does not prevent cnn.e 
— the most sanguinary governments have always had 1.*.^ 
most criminal population. Capital punishment is not a c^s- 
tinned example of the evil of crime, and the character of in- 
dividuals and communities is not changed by moment^uy 
but by continued impressions. Capital puniuiments cau^ 
by their severity compassion for the criminal to predominsic 
over the terror of law and the fear of crime. For the be- 
nefit of every example, in the ease of capital punishment >. 
society first sufiers the injury of a crime, and at best Uhfr.* 
is only a succession, not a perpetuity of the examples of tu< 
evil resulting to criminals from their misconduct ; perma- 
nent examples of a long and durable punishment, such i* 
perpetual slavery, and hard labour, for instance, must nect-s- 
sarily have more influence than examples of short dnxativtw 
or examples scattered over different periods of time. Tl.e 
feeling of indignation which the punishment of death ex- 
cites, is evinced by the contempt everywhere felt for the 
executioner ; and since these truths have a universal bear- 
ing on the government of communities, Beccaria infers fiwn 
the aboliiion of human sacrifices, once equally prevalent, 
the triumph of his benevolent principles. 

Such is an outline of the principal doctrine of this work. 
It is far from being the only thing in the book, how- 
ever, which contains several chapters on subjecta net 
strictly connected with crimes and punishments. There are 
some valuable remarks on the processes and evidences en 
which convictions ought to be fbunded— the duties of na- 
tions to each other in regard to their criminals "-espionaire— 
suggestive interrogations— on the a^iurdity aa well as 
cruelty of torture — on the power of forgiveness with which 
the sovereign is clothed, and several other topiea: all uf 
which are handled with considemble acutoness and onari- 
nality. He concludes with urging the advantages of oxi 
improved system of education, and sums up in this ge- 
neral theorem : in order that a punishment may not be an 
act of violence of one or of many against a priyafee member 
of society, it should be public, imme<kate, and neeesaary ^ 
the least possible in the case given: proportioned lo the 
crime and determined by the laws. 
Beccaria's success in this publication waa not anal* 



B E C 



128 



B KC 



aocompany* h\ the capacity of phyndan, a Germaii noUe- 
man on a journey throttflfh Italy and Franco, and ramained 
with him for nearly a year at Paris. Towardii the end of 
1 829 Becker returned to Germany, and ettablished himself 
as physician at BerUn, and in the following year as private 
lecturer on medicine, in the university of that capital. His 
lectures on various branches of practical medicine, especially 
on general pathology, met with great approbation, and witn 
a success rarely experienced by public teachers in a German 
university, so soon after their first i^ppearance. In 1833 
the Prussian ministry for medbal affairs intrusted him with 
tlie superintendence of an extensive inquiry concerning the 
efficacy of vaccination ; and he was devotmg himself with 
the utmost zeal t# this difficult and important duty, when 
ho died, after a shM't illness, on the 22d of June, 1 834. His 
early loss was deplored by all who knew him, and his suc- 
cess in getting into extensive practice so early was the best 
proof of the estimation in which he was held. His only 
works, published separately, are bis inaugural dissertation 
De Glanduhs Thoracis atouede Thymo (Berlin, 1826, 4to.), 
and an essay De Huiorica Medicinee Explicatione (Berlin, 
1830, 8vo.), and also » very able pamphlet on Cholera, pub- 
lished in London expressly for the purpose of making 
known his ideas on the nature and treatment of that for- 
midable disease, derived from extensive observation during 
the zealous dutchar^e of bis dutv in attending a district of 
Berlin confided to bis care ; but his contributions to various 
German, English, and French periodical publications are 
numerous and valuable, and the pre&ce to his Grerman 
translation of Andral's Pathology (Berlin, 1832, 8vo.) may 
be considered as an original essay of high interest to me- 
dical science. Shortly before his dcMth, Dr. Becker had 
undertaken to furnish some medical biographies for this 
work : all that he lived to execute are Arcbiater, Archigenes, 
Aretflwis. Astruc, and Athenseus of Attalia. 

BECKET, THOMAS, was born of English parents, in 
London, in 1117, where his father Gilbert was a merchant 
He was first educated at Merton Abbey in Surrey, and 
afterwards in London, Oxford, and Paris. When employed 
in the office of the sheriff of London, his manners and 
talents recommended him to Theobald, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, an acuquaintanoe of bis father, by whom he was 
sent to study civil law, first under Gratian at Bologna, and 
then at Auxerre in Bur^ndy. On his return, his patron 
gave him the livings of Sl Mary-le-Strand, and Otteford 
in Kent ; and sent him to manage the business of the see 
of Canterbury at the court of Rome. His success in two 
negociations, in restoring the legatine power to the see of 
Canterbury, and in obtaining from the pope the letters of 
prohibition, by which the design of crowning Prince Eustace 
the son of Stephen was defeated — recommended him power- 
fully both to the archbishop and to King Henry II. Theo- 
bald made him archdeacon of Canterbury, provost of Be- 
verly, and a prebendary of Lincoln and St JPaul's ; and 
Henry made him chancellor in 1 158, Becket being the first 
Englishman after the conquest who was appointed to any 
high office. At that time the chancellorship bad no sepa- 
rate court of judicature attached to it ; yet the place was 
one of great trust and dignity : the chancellor sat in the 
courts of the justiciary, to seal royal grants, to take care of 
the royil chapel, to hold the custody of vacant baronies and 
bishopricks, to look af^r the exchequer and revenue, and 
to discharge the duties which now devolve upon the secre- 
taries of state. While performing these duties satisfactorily, 
Becket conformed himself in dress, manners, and splendour 
to the habits of a courtier. His table was sumptuous ; his 
retinue splendid. To please the military taste of the king, he 
accompanied him in a campaign into France ; headed his own 
1200 hone and 700 knighU ; took the command of them at 
so%*eral sieges, and with bis lance unhorsed in single combat 
a French knight of distinguished bravery and skill. About 
this time the king made him the tutor of his son. In 1 1 60 
Becket negodatei at Paris, advanUgeously for his master, 
a marriage between Prince Henry and Margaret, daughter 
of the king of France. 

When be had been little more than four years chancellor, 
the arthlNshop of Canterbury died, and the king, who was 
then in Normaady, took measures which almost compelled 

^ l*?^ *'*^. *^njy to «'^* Becket to the vacant arch- 
bishopric. Folioi, buhop of London, alone opposed him 
'—"•■' : the rest were overawed by the threaU of the king. 

Jy in deacon's orders, he was ordained priest the . ^ 

e he was coosccraled archbishop, in 1 16'2| in pre- j communication'^ of the English 



senoe of Prinea Henry and nuuiy of the nobility. Hia first 
step on receiving his pall from Pope Alexander III. wa^ t ^ 
send his resignation as chancellor to the king ; a bt<M> :l: 
which Henry showed his displeasure, on his return to ^:.;;- 
land, bv receiving him coldly, and compelling him to re>i;;^L 
his archdeaconry, which he wished to keep. 

Becket now changed his conduct. His biographers ascru<« 
his conversion to the Divine blessing on the oeremoiiy • X 
consecration. The courtier changed into the monk; K.» 
manner of life became austere; he submitted to mortifica- 
tions ; gave much away in charity, and W2shed the fee! 
of the poor. In 1163 he was received with great d:^ 
tinction at the council of Rheims, and laid a complaint U.- 
fore the assembly, on the usurpations by the laity of th? 
rights and property of the church of England. On 1ti« re- 
turn be prosecuted the usurpers, demanded the cust/Ml) « f 
Rochester castle from the crown, claimed the hom24|:c cf 
Earl Clare for the manor of Tunbridge, and even excotz* 
municated William, lord of the manor of Aynsford in Ke:ii« 
for ejecting by force of arms a priest collated to the rcctcry 
of that manor by the archbishop. 

He soon came to a rupture with the king. Henry, wh-i 
wisbed to subject the clergy to the authority of the ci\ •! 
courts for murder, felony, and similar crimes, endeavoureri, 
in 1164, to get the consent of the archbishop to the celr- 
brated Constitutions qf Clarendon. On Becket's refu&al 
Henry took bis son from under his care, and the archbish .p 
solemnly swore he never would complv. When the cot!.- 
pliance of several bishops, the threats of the nobles, and tie 
interference of the pope, at last compelled him to violaie 
his oath and set hb seal to these restrictions, he cxpressel 
his penitence by retiring from the court, and privately «.us- 
pendiug himself from officiating in the church, until be ob- 
tained the absolution of bis holiness. [See Clarexdo!*.] 
Finding himself the object of the king's displeasure, he 
attempted to escape to France, upon which Henry sum 
moned a parliament at Northampton, in 1165, and char^ 
him with breaking his allegiance. He was sentenced to 
forfeit all his goods and chattels ; a penalty which was im- 
mediately commuted into a fine of 500/. Next mommj 
he was ordered to refund 30 u/. of the rents which he huA 
received as warden of Eye and Berkbamstead, and 5* <■*' 
which he had received from the king before the walls if 
Toulouse. On the third day he was requested to ^*ve am 
account of all his receipts from vacant abbeys and bisliopt:<^ 
during his chancellorship; the balance due to therit>«c 
was said to be 44,000 marks. Becket appealed to the pu|« 
in vain, and his episcopal brethren deserted, abused, anj 
opposed him. Durins the trial, when many of his retainer^ 
left him, he invited all the beggars in the neighbouHiood t» 
his table ; and on another occasion he entered Uie parita* 
ment carrying the cross, to signify that he had put himself 
under its protection, and refbsed to listen to the sentence of 
the parliament When all went against him, be escaped 
from Northampton by night, and after lurking some bice 
on the coast, embarked at Sandwich in Kent, on the lotk 
of November, 1164, and reached Gravelines in Holland. 
After several changes, he lived for nearly two years at Fm- 
tigny in France. 

On his escape Henry confiscated his revenues, and used 
all his influence to get him banished from Flanders and 
France. The king of France and the pope, however, took 
up the cause of Becket, though Henry sent a splendid em- 
bassy of bishops and nobles to advocate his cause at Hut 
court of Rome. In an interview with his holiness, BcrkH 
resigned his see into his hands, which was immediately iv- 
stoied to him. During his retirement he occupied himskf 
in reUgious exercises, but this was not suflkient to ki^ 
bim employed : he wrote to the king and the prriates of 
England, telling them that the pope had annulled the 
Constitutions of Clarendon, and he excommunicated seveta! 
violators of the rights of the church, not sparing aome of 
the principal ofiicers of the crown. Rxaspemted mx this. 
Henry erased his name from the liturgy; bantshed all 
his relations to the number of 400, binding them fay c«tk 
to show themselves to their kinsman ; (breed the Ctstertiaa 
monks to turn him out of the shelter they gave Ilim, h% 
threatening to seise their property in England, and made k 
a criminal ofience to write or correspoml with bim in anr 
way. Becket, on his part, wrote letters of severe vecrimiiu- 
tion to the prelates of England ; and about the beginnni^ 
of June, 1 1 66, prepared Umself by religious riles Ibr the ex- 

ai4y 



BED 



130 



BED 



KotaUes. The resistance to this measure» and the effiaot it 
had in leading to the assembly of the States-General, and 
ultimately to the revolution, belong to another article. 

BEDA, or BEDR, an English monk, one of the brightest 
ornaments of the eighth century, and one of the most emi- 
nent fathers of the English church, whose talents and vir- 
tues procured him the name of the Venerable Bede, was 
Dom, according to some, about the year 672, after Malmes- 
bury 8 calculation in 675, according to Sjrmeon of Durham 
in 677, upon the estates which afterwards belonged to the 
two abbeys of St. Peter and St Paul in the bishoprick of 
Durham, at Wearmouth and J arrow, near the mouth of the 
river Tyne. We have his own authority that at seven years 
of age he was brought to the monastery of St. Peter, and 
committed to the care of Abbot Benedict, under whom and 
his successor Ceolfrid he was carefUUy educated for twelve 
years, a favour which he afterwards repaid by writing their 
lives. In his nineteenth year he took deacon's orders, and in 
his thirtieth year, at the instance of Ceolfrid his abbot, was 
ordained priest, both times by John of Beverley, then bishop 
of Hagustald, or Hexham, who had been one of his early 
preceptors. The fame of Bede now reached even to Rome, 
and Pope Sergius made an earnest application to Abbot 
Ceolfrid that Bede might be sent to assist him in the 
promul«[ation of certain points of ecclesiastical discipline ; 
hut Beae, who was attached to his studies, remained in his 
monastery, improving himself in all the learning of his age, 
and directincr his more particular attention to the compilar 
tion of an Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, 
the materials for which he obtained partly fVom chronicles, 
partly from annals presen'ed in contemporary convents, 
and partly from the information of prelates with whom he 
was acquainted. Making allowance fbr the introduction 
of legendary matter, which was the fault of the age, few 
works have supported their credit so long, or been so 
generally consulted as authentic sources. Bede published 
this history about the year 734, when, as he informs us, 
he was fifty-nine years of age, but before this he had 
written paany other books on various subjects, a cata- 
logue of which he subjoined to his history. 3y these he 
obtained such reputation as to be consulted by the most 
eminent churchmen of his age, and particularly by Egbert, 
Archbishop of York, who was himseff a very learned man. 
To him Bede wrote an epistle which illustrates the state pf 
the church at that time. It was one of the last, and in- 
deed probably the very last of Bede*s writings. In tliis letter 
he expresses himself with much freedom, both in the advice 
he gave to Egbert, and with respect to the inconveniences 
which he foresaw would arise from the multiplication of re- 
ligious houses, to the prejudice both of church and state. 

It appears from this epistle that Bede was much indis- 
posed when he wrote it, antj probably began tq fidl into 
that declining state of health from which he never recoverec). 
William of Malmesbury in his history (De GesHs Begum, 
lib. iii. c. iii.), and Symeon of Durham in his account of the 
church of Durham (lib. i. c. xv.), chiefly from the relation of 
one Cuthbert, a fellow monk, have preserved full accounts 
of the manner in which Bede died : whence we learn that 
tlie last stage of his distemper was an asthma, which he 
supported with great firmness of mind, although in much 
weakness and pain, fbr seven weeks, during which time he 
did not in the least abate his usual employments in the pao- 
nastery, but continued to pray, to instruct the younger 
monks, and to prosecute the literary undertakings which 
were still in his hands. In the nights of his sickness, in 
which, from the nature of his disease, he had little sleep, he 
sung hymns and praises to God ; and though he expressed 
the utmost confidence, and was able, on a review of his own 
conduct, to declare seriously that he had so lived as not 
to be aflraid to die, yet he did not deny his apprehensions 
of death, and that dread which is natural to man at the ap- 

firoacb of his dissolution. He was continually active to the 
ast, and particularly anxious about two works, one his 
translation of St. John's Gosoel into the Saxon language, 
the other some passages whicK he was extracting fi-om the 
works of St. Isidore. From the monks' relation it appears 
that the day before his death he jrrew much worse, and his 
feet began to swell, yet he passed the night as usual, and 
contmued dictating to the person who acted as his amanu- 
ensis, who, observing bis weakness, said. • There remains 
■ only one chapter, but it seems difficult to you to speak.' 
ich he ansirered, • It is easy ; take your pen, dip it in 
I, and write m Att aa you can,' About nine odo<* J 



he sent for aoine of his brethren, pyiests of the uooattert. 

to divide amongst them some incense and other thinp» » ' 
little value, whioh he had poeserved in a eheat. Wh .r 
he was speaking, the young man, Wilberch, who wrote f«>r 
him, said, * Master, there is now but one sentence wuntu^:.'. 
upon which he bid him write quick, and soon aAer t i.t 
scribe said, * Now it is finished.* To which he replied, * TIj •. 
hast said the truth, **consummatum est.** Take up tv} 
head, I wish to sit opposite to the place where I have htn : 
accustomed to pray, and where now sitting I may yet i.* 
voke my Father.* Being thus sealed, aeeording to t-- 
desire, upon the floor of bis cell, he said, * Glory be to ('' .• 
Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Qbost,* and as r • 
pronounced the last word he expired. Me died, accord i c 
to the best opinion. May 26th, 735, though the exact dftT* 
has been contested. His body was interred in the ehu rrjt 
of his own monastery at Jarrow, but long afterwards « &* 
removed to Durham, and placed in th^ same eoi&n or c).t>: 
with that of St. Cuthbert, as appears by a very untwt * 
Saxon poem on the relies preserved in the oathedral ** 
Durham, printed at the end of Symeon of Durham's hisioic. 
(Twysden's Decern Scripiores, eel. 32.) 

Malmesbury says, * With tbjs man was buried almost a? 
knowledge of history down to eur times ; inasmuch m& th«<r> 
has been no Englishman either emulous of his pursuit*. < - 
a follower of his graces, who could continue the threaii • r 
his discourses now broken short.^ ile complains, in an 
tion, of the indolence and want of learning of the moiik^ 
Bede*B monastery, down even to his own time, which v 
exemplifies in the meanness of the lines so (fisgrarc;< 
suffered to remain upon Bede's tomb : — 

' Pretbywr oic Be<U requlescU cvmo fepoltiw : 
Dona, Chritte, animam in ccbIU piu4ere per wnm ; 
Daqve Uli lophUB dcbrian foate, ctii jam 
Siiapiravit ovani, intento aemper aoore.' 

* Here in the flesh rests Bede the priest; O ajp 
His soul with joy eternally to live : 
And let him quaff, O Clinat. of wisdom's stream : 
This was hia wish, his fond, perpetual themo.' 

Warton, in the second dissertation prefixed to hh f * : 
volume of the History of English Poetry, has ju>tly - 
served that Bedes knowledge, if we consider his age" « ^ 
extensive and profound ; and it is amazing in so nx\x 
period, and dunng a life of no considerable length, thjt U 
should have made so successful a progress, and such r?; \ 
improvements in scientific and philological studies, i \ . 
have composed so many elaborate treatises on Aifku ■ ; 
subjects. It is diverting, he adds, to see the FVencfa cr.i-^ 
censuring Bede for credulity ; they might as well ha\e .-^^ 
cused him of superstition. There is much perspicaity a: . 
facility in his Latin style, but it is void of elegance, *. . 
often of purity ; it shows with what grace and propriety u • 
would have written had his taste wen formed on hett.r 
models. Whoever looks for digestion of materials, 5C^> 
Warton, disposition of parts, apd accuracy of narratiur. Ir 
this writcr'9 historical workSt expects what could not ex-: 
at that time. He has recorded but few civil transact! .r- . 
hut besides that his history professedly considers eccie^ >- 
tical affjiirs, we should remember that the building ,. j ; 
church, the preferment of an abbot, the canonizatit»n «ji ^ 
martyr, and the importation into England of the shin-Ur.r 
of an apostle, were necessarily matters of much mon; la- 
portance in Bede*s ponception than victories afid rev^ u- 
tions. He is fond of minute description ; but pariiculant vi 
are the fault, and often the merit <^ early historians. 

The first catalogue of Bede*s works, as we have bcfcrc 
observed, we have from himself, at the end of his EccU*i j- 
tical History, which contains all he had written before \l< 
year 731. This we find copied by Leland, who also men- 
tions some other pieces he had met with of Bede's, a: i 
points out likewise several that passed under Bede's nan*-, 
though, in Inland s judgment, spurious. (Lei. de Srni-: 
Brit. ed. Hall, Oxf. 1709. torn. i. p. 115.) Bale, in the f r^i 
edition of his work on British writers (4 to. Gippesv. l .,v 
fol. 60), mentions 96 treatises written by Bede, and in l. • 
last edition (fol. 1559, p. 94) swells these to 145 tracts : ar : 
declares at the close of both catalogues that tlicre vtTv 
numberless pieces besides of Be4e's which he had not sect. 
Pits has enlarged even this catalogue ; though, to dn \nta 
justice, he appears to have taken great pains in drauing u;-. 
the article on Bede, and mentions many of the hbrario m 
which these treatises are to he found. The c^MklogtiM 
given by Trittenheim, or Trith^mius {OataL Sfinpi. Ec^ i^ 
siast, 4to« Col. 1531, fol, 50 b.), and Dempster (si$i. 



BED 



1S2 



BBD 



' iTpon retiring from Oxford he took tip his abode with a 
friend in Shropfthire, where he wrote a Work, entitled Hif- 
tory qfUaae Jenkins^ intended to check drunkenness ; and 
aeveral medical works, in which he embodied his pecaliar 
views regarding the origin and treatment of several aiseases. 
The few and fc^le attempts which had, for some years pre- 
vious, been made to maintain the soundness of the basis of 
the humoral patholo^ as the universal cause of diseases, 
served rather to convmce the examining and reflecting part 
of the profession of its want of foundation, than to add to 
the number of believers in it The application of chemistry 
to the investigation of the composition of the fluids of the 
human body, and the different condition of these fluids which 
it demonstrated to exist in different states of disease, seemed 
to furnish new ^ts in its favour. Beddoes, with that zeal 
which marked all his actions, stepped forward as its advocate, 
and referred all diseases to the predominance or deficiency 
of some elementary principle. He attributed scurvy to an 
abstraction of oxygen, and consumption to an accumulation 
of oxygen. The remedies which he proposed for the cure 
c^ these diseases were in conformity with these views ; and 
be believed that breathing an atmosphere charged with the 
principle which was deficient would cure the one, and with 
a principle opposed to that which predominated would cure 
the other. Not only did he write m support of these views, 
but he sought an opportunity of testing them by experi- 
ment. At first he thought of London as the place best 
fitted for his purpose, but ultimately fixed on Bristol for the 
aoene of his pneumatic hospital. In 1798 a pneumatic insti- 
tution was established, in efiectinff which object Dr. Beddoes 
was materially assisted by Mr. Richard Lovell Edgeworth, 
one of whose daughters ne married in 1794, and Mr. Gre- 
gory Watt His publications at this time prove his activity, 
as well as the particular direction of his thoughts. They 
almost all refer to peculiar views respecting the possibility of 
curing diseases by breathing a medicated atmosphere. That 
the results did not correspond with the expectations of the 
founder of this new method is well known ; but the under- 
taking was the means of bringing into notice the talents of 
Humphrey Davy, who was recommended to Dr. Beddoes by 
Mr. Gregory Watt as a fit person to superintend the che- 
mical labomtory connected with the Institution. The first 
discoveries of this eminent chemist were given to the world 
in a publication which came fh>m Beddoes*s Institution : 
Experimental Etetu/e on Heat, Lfght, and the Combina- 
tiont of Lights by Humphrey Davy, appeared among the 
Conirioutiona to Medical and Phyeicat Knowledge from 
the Weet of England, Bristol, 1799. 

Many publications of Dr. Beddoes about this time referred 
to the political topics of the day, in which he always em- 
braced the liberal side of the question. 

His principal medical publications after this date were : 
a Popular Eteay on Conefimpiion, 1 779, containing, if we 
except the author's peculiar doctrines, many valuable re- 
marks on the predisposing causes and means of preventing 
that disease ; Hygeia, or K9say» Moral ana Medical, 
Which is a popular treatise on the * Causes of Diseases,* and 
the means of avoiding them, 3 vols. 8vo. 1802. He also 
wrote at an eariier date a work on Demonstrative Evi- 
dence, 1792. An Essay on Fever was written in 180 7, 
with many others of less note, which he continued to pub- 
lish in rapid succession till 1808, when, in consequence of 
an affection of the heart he died in December of that 
year, in the forty-eighth year of his age. 

He is represented by his biographer and friend, Dr. Stock, 

as an extremely amiable man, who had only truth for his „ ^, ^ w-v« 

object and the good of his fel low-creatures as the end of all I ministerial labours ; employTng himself a^ ihesa^eumti". 



tion, ia the taknii bf whkii 
stmcted.* 
(See Stock's Life <^ Beddoee^ one vol. 4tQk Lond. 1S10.> 
BEDB-HOUSB, a term used for an alma-hoiiee« Hence 
bede-man, or beid-man, a peraon who reaidea in a bede^ 
house, or is supported fhom the funds appropriated Ibr tc^ 
purpose. In the Statietieal Aeeomut of S c o U and^ %ol. xi.^ 
p. 412, parish of Rathven in Banffshire, it ia aaad — * Tbcie 
is a bede-house still in being, though in bad repair ; and s*& 
bede-men on the establishment, but none of them 11% e .^ 
the house.* In the Court of Exchequer in Scotland, tli«A 
term is used to denote that daas of paupers who eqjoy iLe 
royal bounty. 

BEDELL. WILUAM, Bishop of Kilmore in Irelabi 
one of the most exemplary prelates of the seventeenth cvu- 
tury; was descended from a good family, and waa born la 
the year 1570, at Black Notley in Essex. He waa inau«r«* 
lated a pensioner of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Mau *.. 
12, 1584, where he was placed under the care of Dr. Cliaii* 
deiton, for many years the head of that house. He futt^u^ 
early into holy oraers, which he received from the suffnmraa 
bishop of Colchester. In 1 593 he waa chosen fellow of l.:s 
college, and in 1599 took the degree of bachelor in divinity. 
He then removed from the University to St. Edmund^bury 
in Suffolk, where he had a chureh, to the duties of «h.cii 
he assiduously attended for a few years, till an opporttiLi:^ 
offered for his going as cha|^ain lo Sir Henry A^ottun, tne 
English ambassador to the state of Venice, about the \ear 
1604. While he resided in that city he became intimate.) 
acquainted with Father Paul Sarpi, who took him into Its 
confidence, and taught him the Italian langua^, of wbi.t 
Bedell becwme so perfect a master, that he translated tiju 
that tongue the Eiig:lish * Common Prayer Book,* which u ^ 
extremely well received by many of the clergy there, c>pe- 
cially by the seven divines who were appointed by tlie iL- 

fubhc to preach against the pope, during the time of tie 
nterdict. and which they intended to have taken for tii? 
model had they broken absolutely with Rome, whirh «^ 
what they sincerely desired. In return for the favours ht 
received from Father Paul, Mr. Bedell drew up an Engh^h 
Grammar for his use, and in many other respects as«:»te^ 
him in his studies. He continued eight years in VeQi.v. 
during which time he not only studied the Hebrew ka- 
guage, but entered deeply into rabbinical learning, uud^r 
Rabbi Leo. He made acquaintance also with the celebradii 
Antonio de Dominis, arohbishop of Spalatro, who vas ^ 
pleased with his conversation as to give him his thorx.^'h 
confidence, and showed him his famous book. Ih ix:- 
publico Eccleeiastica, which was afterwards printed a; 
London. Bedell corrected many misapplications of K:r-^^ 
ture, and quotations from the fathers in that work, and ? z^ 
highly valued bv De Dominis, who even accompanied h;:i 
to England. At Bedell's departure from Venice, Fat.. - 
Paul expressed a deep concern, and said that both he a-. 1 
many others would have come over with him to En^lan I .i 
it had been in their power ; but that he might never tie Tx- 
gotten by him, he gave him his picture, with a Re^: r 
Bible without points, a little Hebrew Psalter, in wh:c!i h« 
wrote some st^ntenccs expressive of his esteem, tlie SiS «f 
his History (f the Council of Trent, and the Listorir^ f 
the Interdict and Inquiiiition ; together with the ori(rr.L'a 
of the Letters which Father Paul had received weekly ir u 
Rome, during the contests between the Jesuits and the 
Dominicans concerning the efficacy of grace. 

On his return to England Mr. Bedell retired imme^liut. \^ 
to his charge at St. Edmundsbury, where he continued h:^ 



bis efforts. He was extremelv enthusiastic in whatever he 
ODdertook : but the ardour of bis imagination, and the ten- 
drricy to hasty generalisation which characterized his mind, 
prt^euUid him from examining carefully his data, or forming 
the n^M correct eonelnsions. A passage in his Essay 
m ypvtr, in which be condemns the hasty views of other 
wrtwr*. afid the unsuocessftd practice ibanded on them, 
gi«e» the troest ebaraeler of his own labours and writings. 
* If thM« ») •terns,' says be,' ba%'e superseded the investiga- 
tion of pbrii^rtuMia such as, when once ascertained, strike 
t™* •*"•*• *•> pvwerfoily lo leave the judgment in suspense; 
if they have potvmiibd tts from analysing the mutual rela- 
tions of theienberMiuMram; if they have tempted ingenuity 
waste itself upon the twtftwk *A eurreriirig imaginary de- 
ns from tlie sUndard sute ciT h^sltli ; we may surely 



translating into Latin the Histories qf the Interdict or* : 

Inquisition, and the two last books of the History f>f :^^ 

Council qf Trent^ Sir Adam Newton having translated th* 

two first. At this time he mixed so little with the x^otA 

that he was almost totally forgotten. So little, indeed, v.«« 

he remembered that some years alter, when Uie oelebratc«l 

Diodati of Geneva came over into England, he oouU j\.<. 

though acquainted with many of the clergy, hear of Mr. 

Bedell. Diodati was greatly amazed that so eztraordinirf 

a man, who was so much admired at Venice bj the l>e»c 

judges of merit, should not be known in his own country . 

and he had given up all hopes of finding him ont, when. *L> 

their no small joy, they accidentally met ouch other in tht? 

streets of London. Upon this occasion Diodati presents* 

»_ , -^_ , / his friend to Morton, the learned bishop of JXtrham. 

Lbem by, aAar giving a sMMeoi gf ragrstful adminp | and told him how highly he had been valued hy Pathee 



BBQ 



BED 



Uifaop mitmSM&M te SMratttrat to thetfL It was re- 
liMR'kEblb tibat nide and barbatmu at the Irish wete, they 
gave them no diiituifaaaoe in the performanee of divine ser- 
vice, and often told the bishop they had no qaanel with 
him* bat that the sole cause of tiieir confining him was his 
being an Englishman. After being kept in this manner 
for three Weeks, the bishop, his two «ms and Mr. Clogy, 
were exohaaged for two of the O lionrke^s; but though it 
was agreed that thby should be safely condufeted to Dublin, 
the rebels weald never suffer them to be carried out of the 
country, but sent them to tiie house of dne Dennii Sheridaui 
an Irish minister and convert to the Protestant religion^ to 
which he steadily adhered and relieved many who tied to 
him for protection. Notwithstanding this the Irish sufibred 
htm to live quietly amongst them on account of the great 
family from whidi he was descended. While Bishop Be* 
dell remained there, and ei^oyed some degree of health, he 
every Sunday read the prayers and lessons, and preached 
himself. The last Sunday he officiated Was the dOth of 
January, and the day following he was taken ill. On the 
second day it appeared his disease was an ague, and on the 
fourth, apprehending a speedy change, he called for his 
sons and his sons* wives, spoke to them a considerable time, 
gave them much spiritual advice, and blessed them. Bishop 
Burnet (pp. 210, 216) has detailed his conversation with 
them. On the 7th of February, 1 64 1-2, he breathed his last, 
in the seventy- first year of his age, his death being chiefly 
occasioned by his late imprisonment and the weight of sor- 
row which lay upon his mind. 

As his body could not be buried as he had desired, with- 
out the new intruding bishop's leave, Mr. Clogy and Mr. 
Sheridan went to ask it. Thev found the bishop in a state of 
gross intoxication » and d sad change in the house ; but after a 
litllc hesitation leave Was granted, and on the 9th Februaryi 
1641-2, Bishop Bedell was buried, agreeably to his own 
direction, in the churchyard of Kilmore close to his wife's 
coffin. The rebels gathered their forces to pay honour to the 
fUneral, and Would hAve suffered Mr. Clogy to bury the bishop 
according to the office prescribed by the church, but it waft 
feared the rabble might be provoked by it, and it was passed 
over ; the Irish, however, discharged a volley of shot at the 
interment, and cried otlt in Latin, ' Requiescat in pace ulti- 
mus Anglorum :* for, says Burnet, (hey had often said that 
as they esteemed him the best of the English bishops, so he 
should be the last who should be left among them. Ed- 
mund Farilly, a popish priest, is said to have exclaimed at 
his interment, * O sit animamea cum Bedello.* His epitaph, 
as ordered by himself, was simply *Depositum Gulielmi 
quondam episcopi Kilmorensis.' 

The public character of Bishop Bedell did honour to his 
hi$;h oflice in the church, and his private life was perfectly 
consistent with the doctrines which he taught. His actions 
were such as rendered him beloved and esteemed while he 
lived, and cannot but secure the highest reverence for his 
memory. The country^ and the times in which he lived, 
required such examples, and the respect paid him by the 
Irish sufficiently showed what might have been done 
among them if all, or the greater part, of the Protestant 
clergy had been such as he was. 

TAe Books qf the Old Testament, translateil by the care 
and diligence of Bishop Bedell into Irish, were first pub- 
lished, 4to. London. 1685, with O'Dornhnuill's translation 
of the New Testament, 4to. London, 1681, appended: both 
were again printed in the Irish character, 12nio. 1690. 
0'IX>mhnuiU, pronounced ODonncll, is the true Irish name 
of William Daniel, archbishop of Tuam, mentioned above : 
his translation of the New Testament was Grst published 
in Dublin in 1602. (See Jonrnal qf Education^ No. XI.) 

Sonie original letters qf Bishop Bedell concerning ine 
steps taken toward a r^orrhation of religion dt J enice 
upon occiuion of the quarrel between that State and the 
Pope Paul V, were printed 12nio. Dublin, 1742. They were 
found among Arohbishop Usher*s manuscripts in the library 
of Trinity CoUeo^e there. « 

(See Bishop Burnets Life of Bedell^ Bvo. London, 1685 ; 
Bioar. Britannica, edit. 1747, vol. i. pp. 658, 664 ; Charac- 
ter of Bishop Bedell at the end of Certain Discourses by 
Nich. Barnard, D.D., 8vo. London, 1659.) 

BEDKSM AN, or BEEDMAN, ttom bede. a prayer, and 
that fn>m the Anglo-Saxon oiT>-aii, to prav, was a common 
niude of signature in the tinie of Henry Vllt. at the end of 
letters; as of a prayer- man, or one who pra\ed for another. 
Sir Thomas More» in writing to Cardinal Wolsey, ordinarily 



styles bimftelf * Your humble mrator ted most boimfleti beed* 
man, Thomas More.* (See BUis's Orig, Letiwn iHisttr. ^^ 
BngUsh Hist, fint set. vol. i. pp. 198, 20<^. tO*2, ^03, eo«, 
206i 210, SI 1.) Margaiiet Bryan, the governess of tbe Ls.'^t 
Elitabetht writing to Lord Cremwell, signs herself tn tne 
same manner, ' Your dayly Imie-mmuau" {iM. second ser. 
v<^. it p. 82.) 

It was not out of use In Shakspearfe's time, who tti ibm 
' Two Gentlemen of Verona,* act i. scene u rtiye*— 

* Fot I wfll be thy besdiman, Valeattttb.' 

Valentine answers — 



* And on a 10Te>book ptay for my •uc4 

BEDFORD, a borough, and the county town of Bedford- 
shire, situated on both sides of the river Ouse, which n 
navigable to the German OceaU. Bedford ii forty-etirbt 
miles N.N.W. from London. Camden states the town 
to be of high antiquity ; but doubts if it was the Lacto- 
dorum of Antoninus, as sotae affirm, for it does not stand 
on a Roman road, nor had Roman coins ever been found 
there. Nevertheless the plough turns up many coins m 
various parts of the county* and the vicini^ of Sheffbnl in 
particular has been remarkably productive in Roman p^^t* 
tery, glass, and bronze. Camden proceeds to state xY jt 
he had read that the British name of the place was Ltf- 
widur, or Lattidur; but he regards the latter ms a tn: «- 
lationofthe English name — *Lettuy, in British, sign;*>- 
ing public inns, and Lettidur, inns on a river, as B* • . 
fora, in English, beds and inns at a ford.* This act\>u:.; 
is not Very s&tisfactoty. (See Gentleman's Magazir*, 
1794, for a quotation bearing on this point from a « rx 
called England Illustrated.) It is generally suppo^» I. 
however, that the town is the Bedicanford of the S-2.t >n 
Chronicle. This signifies • a fortress on a river,' a (^ - 
signation of which the present name seems a corrupt .n. 
Bedford appears to have been the scene of a battle in .:i 
between the Saxon Cuthwulf and the Britons. It afU-rwar .? 
suffered greatly in the wars between the Saxons and t-e 
Danes, and was ultimately burned by the latter iu \vi*. 
Mention id made of a fortress or citadel built on the $oi tn 
side of the river by Edward the Elder; but it would bri-m u 
have been destroyed by the Danes, or was found an tnati • 
quate defence, for Paine de Beauchamp, to whom the bar^ .> 
was given by WiUiam Rufus, thought it necessary to bu ; 
adjoining to the town, a very strong castle, which was •^.r 
rounded by a vast entrenchment of earth, as well as a It • tv 
and thick wall. * While this castle stood,' says Camdi i, 
' there was no storm ot civil war that did not burst upon ;:.' 
In 1137 it sustained a siege against King Stephen and r :-> 
army ; but accounts vary exceedingly both as to who «r:«.> 
the defenders and what was their fate. Camden, wubi.t 
entering into particulars, says that Stephen took the f :*- 
ress, with great slaughter; but Dugdale, who gives det.vi<» 
and quotes an tient authorities, says that tile king obtainci :i 
by surren<ler, and granted honourable terms to the garn- r . 
In 1216, William de Beauchamp, being then posses^ci .. 
tho barony of Bedford, took part with the rebellious ban 'tv 
and received them as frienas into the castle, which ti. .* 
were advancing to besiege. When, however, Kini; J»...n 
sent his favourite, Faukes de Brent, to summon the cattle, 
it was surrendered to him within a few days, and tho k\i^ 
fr«ive it to him, with the barony, for his services. Faukv-, 
haring repaired and greatly strengthened his casile, i r 
whicli purpose he is said to have pulled down the oolle^i i*? 
chui-ch of St. Paul's, presumed so far upon its impregna: ..' 
character as to set all law and authority at defiance. II. 4 
outrages and depredations on his less powerful ueii;hboLir> 
were such, that in the year 1224, Martin Patershul. Th->iua> 
de Moulton, and Henry Braybrooke, the king's justices lUix- 
rant, then sitting at Dunstaple, felt it their duty i^j take 
cognizance of his proceedings, and fined him in the sun. uf 
three thousand pounds. Faukes, being greatly pfovokcii »*. 
this, sent his brother at the head of a party of soldiers t.^ 
seize the judges and bring them prisoners to Bedford. Th. v 
had timely notice of his intention, and two of them escap«.'-i ; 
but Braybrooke was taken and carried to the castle, xtln n: 
he was shamefully treated. The king (Henry III.K bens;: 
highly incensed at tliis and the other outrageous conduct o{ 
De Brent, determined to bring him to punishment* He 
therefore marched to Bedford in person, attended by Stept^cu 
Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, and the principal poen^ 
of the realm. On this occasion the Church was so piit>voLtfd 
by Faukes's sacrilege, that the prelates and abboU grantei 



B B O 



iSg 



fiED 



WhobeqiUtttlMd tiMm a ihiUinff eaek weekly, pajable out of 
tfie great tithes of St. PauFs. Tfae ooanty poueaeef a spaeiotts 
lunatic aeylum in St, Maiy*s parieb. capable of acoommo- 
di^ing sixty-eix patients. It was opened in 1 812, being the 
first county institution of the kind erected under the act of 
parliament to that eifeet. Private patients pay from one to 
three guineas per week ; and paupers from nme to twelve 
shilUngs, the oeficiency being made up from the funds of 
the county treasury. An unusual degree of liberty is al- 
lowed to the unfortunate inmates through the good manage- 
ment of the superintendent 

The general infirmary is also a noble building, situated, 
like the former, at a convenient distance from the town. It 
was erected in 1803, chiefly from funds bequeathed by Sa- 
muel Whitbread, Esq. It was originally intended for fifty 
patients, but has since been enlarged, and continues to be 
supported by subscription. The Marquess of Tavistock, 
after a contested election Hot the countv, in which he reftised 
to expend a sbilline, gave towards enlarging the infirmary, 
the sum (2000/.) which would probably have been expended 
in treating the electors. In cases of need, the surrounding 
counties are allowed to participate in the benefits of this in- 
stitution. A charity school for twenty children of the 
parishes of St. Paul and St. Cuthbert, was founded before 
1737, b^ the Rev. Mr. Leith and others. Bedford is, how- 
ever, chiefly indebted for its charities to Sir William Harpur, 
alderman of London, who, in the reign of Edward VL, 
founded a firee-school for the instruction of the children 
of the town, in grammar and good manners. The donor 
conveyed, to the corporation thirteen acres of land in the 
parish of St Andrew, Holbom (London), for the support 
of this school, and for portioning poor maidens of the town ; 
the overplus, if any, to be given m alms to the poor. The 
land having been let on building leases. Lamb's Conduit 
Street, Harpur Street, Theobald's Road, Bedford Street, 
Bedford Row, New North Street, East Street, Green Street, 
and some smaller streets, were built upon it; and thus 
the property has gradually risen in value from below 1 50/. 
a year to upwards of 13,500/. which was its amount in 1833. 
A property thus greatly increased in value has several 
times required the interposition of Parliament to regulate 
its distribution. It at present supports a grammar-school, 
containing about eighty boys on the foundation, and as 
many private boarders; a commercial school, containing 
100 to 150 boys ; and a national-school, containing 350 boys : 
in the latter 1 70 girls are received on half-holidays ; a re- 

Silar girls* school, and an infant school are about to be added, 
e&ides which, the girls in the hospital for poor children, 
another branch of the charity, are taught household duties, 
needle-work, reading and writing, by the mistress. In these 
schools provision is made for the gratuitous instruction of the 
children of all resident parishioners of the five parishes of 
the town of Bedford. Books, &c., are gratuitouslv sup- 
plied. About twenty -five boys in the national-school are 
clothed from a fund left by Alderman Newton, of Leicester. 
A new buildine, for the English and national schools, con- 
taining large school-rooms, a blue-coat hospital, for the Iraard 
and education of boys and girls, and a commitlee-room, 
clerk's house, &c., have lately been erected in the Tudor style 
of architecture, by the trustees of Sir W. Harpur's charity. 

Part of the income from Sir W. Harpur's charity is also 
appropriated to the support of alms-houses, to the portioning 
young women in marriage, and to other benevolent objects. 
The proportions in which the income is distributed will be 
better understood by reference to the following extract from 
the a<!count given of the expenditure for the year, from 
October 1833, to October 1834 :— 

By Schools, vis. £ ,, rf. 

Grammar . . . 1581 15 5 

English . . . 673 7 1 

Preparatory, commercial . 105 14 11 

NaUonal . . , 269 9 10 



»9 



ft 



Exhibitions • • , , 

Marriage portions . . , 
Hospital for children . 
Apprentices at binding 

•V ft at half time . • 
Donations on going out to service . 
„ to apprentices after service 

Carried forward • 



263'> 


7 


3 


640 








500 








670 


16 





712 


10 





623 








84 








290 









Brought forward . • £6,150 13 


3 


Almshouses . • • • 


2208 18 


6 


Distributed to the poor • 


500 


• 


Salaries • • • • • 


580 





Repairs, flttmgs, and furniture for 






new hospital 


555 19 


8 


New schools and other buildings 


4156 2 


6 


Books, stationery, printing, & stamps 


47 3 


6 


Taxes, insurance, and miscellaneous 


630 9 


10 


Law expenses . , • • 


869 17 


6 


lietting estates, &»• • 


664 8 


2 



6,150 13 3 



16.363 12 11 

The grammar-school now contains 76 town bojra, mnd bi9 
been brought to a high degree of excellence, throu|^ the 
exertions of the present head-master, the Rev. Dr. Brereton. 
whose salary is 250/. per annum, with a house tax free, 
coals and candles, together with five guineas from each 
town boy (paid out of the school fund), and the privilege of 
taking boarders, at present (1835) amounting to 70. The 
second master has a salary of 140/., and four guineas with 
every town boy on the foundation, with a house, &e., as 
above. A third master has this year been added, with s 
salary of 150/. per annum. The mathematica] master has 
a salary of 100/., and three guineas with every town bov 
learning mathematics. The salary of the writing master u 
80/. per annum. The warden and fellows of New 0)]le£rp. 
Oxford, are visitors of the school, and appoint the master 
and second master. The exhibitions are eight in number, 
of the value of 80/. per annum each ; and are designed for 
boys educated in the school to assist them in oompletin? 
their education at Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin. Six of 
the exhibitions are holden exclusively by town boys ; but 
the examiners from New College are at liberty, as tbrr 
see fit, to bestow the other two on the most deserving of 
boarders. 

(Gough's Camden 9 Britannia ; Lysons's Ma^a Britan- 
nia ; Grose's Antiquities ; Bray ley and Britton's Beaut t^ 
of England and Wales; Rickman*s Essay on Gothtc 
Architecture; Boundary Reports; Accounts of ike B-U 
ford Charitujor 1834 ; Reports on Charities; Cammumica- 
tions/rom Bedford^ ^c.) 

BEDFORD, DUKE OF. Regent of France. Jchn 
Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, was the third son of Hen i 
IV. and Mary Bohun, dauj^hter of the Earl of Herefunl. 
He was knighted at the coronation of his father, Ortobor 
1399, 'by bathing and other sacred ceremonies,* beiiif; it 
the time not quite ten years old. He was created Duke of 
Bedford in the second year of the reign of his brochrr, 
Henry V., ' at the request of the Lords and Common^.' 
{Rolls of Parliament^ quoted in Hallam's 3ftcti/tf ^^^,v.»l. 
iii. p. 193.) During the lifetime of his father he vas 
governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and warden of the Scot- 
tish Marshes ; and during his brother's absence in Franc«, 
he was governor and commander-in-chief of the forces in 
England. 

Henry V. died after a short illness, in 1422, at the earif 
age of thirty-six years, leaving an infant successor onlr 
nine months old, with the disputed honour of kinsr 'f 
France as a portion of his inheritance. On his death-bed 
he expressed his earnest desire, that Bedford should ' fake up 
the administration of the affairs of France * during the mi- 
nority of the young king,~leaving the less difficult admi- 
nistration of affairs at home to the conduct of his youn^ivr 
brother Gloucester, under the title of Protector, 'in \o\^ 
of martial glory, and in military talents, the Duke of Boil- 
ford was little, if at all, inferior to the deceased hero. He 
was, after the death of Henry, considered, says Rapin. in ^ 
portrait, which though highly coloured, has been implicit! v 
adopted by Hume, to be the ' most accomplished priurt: ;n 
Europe. Wise, judicious, of great valour, solidity, and pe- 
netration, master of his passions, and of a genius aupen.^ 
to all employed by him; he seemed born for a thron^. 
though Providence had ranked him among subjects. To ili 
these equalities he added a majestic stateliness, which ho- 
came his birth and high rank in Franco and England. But 
this he never carried beyond what was necessar}* to c*».i.- 
mand a due respect and regard for his person and autbufit>. 
To sum up his character in a word, he was perfocllv l.^c 
the late king his brother, and in all his actions took hiiu 
for his pattern.* No greater proof, indeed, of the high esti- 
mation in which he was held by his contemporaries need 
be given, than tlie circumstance that the Lonls and Com 



BED 



13S 



BE IT 



Deace, who, were lie alive, would make the boldest of ti9 
tremble. I rather wish a more stately monument were 

raised to his honour." * - t i. * 

Like most of the immediate descendants of John of 

Gaunt, the Duke of Bedford was a patron of literature. He 

furchased and transported to London the Royal Librair of 
»aris, which Charles V. had increased to • nine hundred 
volumes;* and his brother Gloucester presented 600 books 
to the University of Oxford, 120 of which cost £1000. 
(Hallam's Middle Ages, iii.. p. 582.) Gloucester indeed was 
the English Maecenas of his time, a circumstance which, 
no doubt, influenced Shakapeare in painting him as the 
• Good Duke Humphrey,' and in blackening the character 

of his rival BeaufDrt. .,»,.. • . v . 

(Monstrelet's Chronicler, and Rapm s Historf, which li 
particularly ftiU and accurate with regard to the transac- 
tions in the reigns of the Lancasterian princes, may be con- 
sulted with advantage for the public life of the Duke of 
Bedford. Dugdale's Baronage also points tto several events 

in his career.) 

BEDFORD LEVEL. This district comprehends nearly 
the whole of a large tract of flat land, extending into the 
six counties of Northampton, Hnnttfegdon, Cambridge, 
Lincoln, Norfolk, and Suffolk. It is bounded on the north- 
east by the German Ocean, and bn all other sides by high 
lands, which encompass it in the form of a horse-shoe. Its 
length from Toynton in Lincolnshire, to Milton in Cam- 
bridgeshire, is sixty miles, and its breadth flnom Peter- 
borough in Northamptonshire, to Brandon tn Suflblk, is 
nearly fortv miles. The tract thus described, includes that 
part of the south-east division of Lincolnshire called Hoi* 
land, which consists of flat, low, marshy land, and is sup- 
posed to have been reclaimed from the sea by embankments 
made during the Roman occupation of Britain. 

The Bedford Level extends to the north only as fkr as 
Tydd-St-Giles ; its length thence to Milton, on the south, is 
about thirty-three miles. The boundary line is irregular; 
its course on the south, from Brandon to Peterborough, 
may be traced by Mildenhall to a short distance north of 
Newmarket, then by Milton In Cambridgeshire, to Barith, 
on the borders of Huntingdonshire, Ramsey, Woodwalton, 
and Yaxley, in the latter county. Retnrning from Peteiv 
borough to Brandon, on the north, the boundary line runs 
by Peakirk, six miles north of Peterborough, Crowland, 
Whaplode Drove Chapeh7, Parson Drove, Guy him, Salter's 
Lode on the Ouso, about ten miles south of Lynn, and 
thence by Methwold to Brandon. 

The Level is divided into three parts, which are distin- 
guished as the North, the Middle, and the South Levels. 
The North Level lies between the rivers Welland and 
Nene ; the Middle Level between the Nene and the Old 
Bedford Rivers; and the South Level extends firom the 
Old Bedford River to Stoke, Feltwell, and Mildenhall. 
The area of these marshes has been variously stated. 
Among the authors who originally wrote on the subject, 
Sir Jonas Moore calls it 300,000 acres. Colonel Dodson and 
others estimate it at 400,000; an actual survey made in 
16 ('5, and given in to Government upon oath, states it to be 
307,442 acres ; but according to the Lysons, subsequent sur- 
veys have shown it to be 400,000 acres. 

Peterborough Fen, which is the part of the Level that 
runs into Northamptonshire, extends between Peterborough 
and Crowland, and contains between 8000 and 9000 acres. 
One-seventh part of the Level is in Huntingdonshire. The 
whole of the Isle of Ely, which forms the north division of 
Cambridgeshire, and a few parishes in the same county, 
which lie south-east of the isle, are included in the Level. 
Norfolk contains 63,000, and Suffolk 30,000 acres of the 
Level ; the remainder is in the south-east division of Lin- 
colnshire. 

This tract of land has, in the course of some centuries, 
undergone remarkable changes. There is abundant evi- 
dence to prove that it was once a forest, and that it then 
became a stagnant morass. It is now, through human 
industry, converted into rich pastures and fertile corn-fields. 
From facts which will be stated further on, it does not admit 
of doubt that this country was once dry land, at a level much 
below the present surface; and there is reason for supposing 
that, at the time of the inva-^ion of Britain by the Romans, it 
consisted of one of those great forests to which the Britons 
fled for shelter against their invaders. It was the policy of 
the Romans to cut down and destroy these strong holds of 
*he natives, who were oompeUed by their conquerors to dear 



the woodsy and omliaiik Ifae fens. (Tacit 4frle^ 31 •> The 
Emperor 8everua» in tbe beginniBg of the Siiid eentuty oi 
our era, eauaed roadi to be made throiig:h these marabea. 
One di these roads, S5 milee in length, extended from F«r- 
terborough to Denver in Norfolk; it was 60 feet wide, ai.d 
composed of gravel tinee feet deep« This caniewaj is n*jw 
covered with soil from three to five feet in thiekneae. H enry 
of Huntingdon, who wrote in the middle of the tweln^ 
century, deaeribei tins fenny eonntry as being *Tvrr 
pleasant and agreeable to the eye, watered by many ri vert 
which run thrcragh, diversiBed with many large and smo.; 
lakes, and adorned witii many woods and ialsnda.* Wilir&rj 
of Malmesbttry, who lived about the same period, deecnU*ti 
the Lordship of Thomey as abounding in lofty txees, fru.t- 
M vines, and productive ortfaards, and having no W8»'^ 
land in any part He also expreased great admiration .f 
the works of art found in the same place. * What shall 1 
say,* he writes, ' of the beautifol buildings which it ts to 
wonderfiil to see the ground amidst those teia te hear ?* 

Up to the thirteenth oentary, the waters usaaUy flowed 
in their natural ehannels, and the sunounding eountry vu 
either under tillage or in pasturage. 

Accosding to Dugdale, historians who were eontmnporarr 
with the event, have recorded, that in 1S36, on the nkorrt'W 
after Martinmas day, and for the apaoe of eight days sfttT. 
the wind raged so violenUt, that the sea mse moch hieh^r 
than usual, broke in at Wisbeaeh, and other places of ihe 
district, so that many people and cattle, together s.t.h 
numerous small eraft, were destroyed, and the survinnc 
inhabitants reduced to great distress. After an inteml . f 
seventeen years, a similar accident c ee uf itwi, and an this 
occasion an order was issued by the king, requiring tbe 
inhabitants to repair the banks. This Work appMtm t.> 
have been ineHictently performed, for within a fow y^tn 
the sea>banks wete again destroyed. Subseqnent emUahik- 
ments were improperly made, either through ignorance, i«r 
for the benefit of one part to the injury of all the rest. An 
instance of this kind occurred in the reign of JEDdward I., 
when Walter de Langton, bishop of Lichfield, diverted t!v* 
course of the Nene, and obstructed the navigattoti, in or\l«r 
that he might drain his own manor of ColdteLni. Mat > 
years afterwards the bishop's representatites were compel- <{ 
10 destroy the dams which he had eonstructed to the in«'jr> 
of others. From this, and other causes, the waters trrta 
the uplands were prevented from discharging them^rhc-^ 
into the sea, and this extent of land was at length r«ityrt>i 
to the state of a morass. For a }tmg period the grrat'^ 
|>art of the district was composed of an unhealthy stapr \- 
tion of putrid and muddy waters, which ia some pl^.^^-t 
stood fVom ten to twenty fbet deep. In tiiose few pir;*. 
where the earth was hot eoveied With water, it was sp«>r..t 
and boggy. The inhabitant^ of the F^ns, and the t<mr< 
in their neighbourhood, eould only have oomtnuiucat: ;• 
by means of boats, and this with some diffienlty at n 
times, in consequence of the sedge and slime with wfai< :i 
the ground was covered. In the winter, when thef« «a> 
ice, yet not sufficiently hard to admit of traffic on iu $iir> 
face, the inhabitants were completely isolated, and * couA 
hardly get help of fhod for soul or body.' 

Evidenoe has everywhere been found below the act*jii 
surfhce not only of the presence of former vegetation, hot to 
show that these places had previously been inhabited. ar:.l 
that they were suddenly overwhelmed by some violent cau-^. 
In digering near Thomey, Lynn, and many other plwv«, 
trees of large site were found buried in the moss, and U^rz 
near their roots, which still remained as they grew, in Lr^ 
earth beneath the moss. In the year 17S4, while d^nrine a 
little north of Boston (not in the Level, but in a continust* ^n 
of the fenny district), roots of trees were ftmnd in the fins 
earth, eighteen feet betow the then pastuiage svrfire 
About a mile west of Magdalen Bridge, over the Ouse, m 
Marshhind, Norfolk, fiirze bushes and nut trees were f^.u! i 
pressed flat down seventeen feet below the snr&ee. wl:^ 
nuts still sound lying by them. In the prooeas of ei ri- 
veting a pool at the edge of Cenington Down, H«ntingd.in- 
shire, in the beginning of ^e seventeenth eentarT. liw 
skeleton of a large sea fish was found at a greet depth l«>- 
low the surface. When in pursuance ef the first pirrvjert f «r 
dnitning these fons, the channel of the Wisbeaeh river »ic 
deepened in 1685 eight feet below the then bOMon, m hi.-^ 
stony bottom was discovered* on which were several K^tji 
covered with silt While dicging a dndn at Whilti«r«« 
Moor, a perfeiA mQ %«i Aand ct Iha deplli oTaigfot fM^ 



B&D 



140 



BED 



Id OQtw«1I, end oonnsU of two cats ibmutig an obtiue angle 
with one another. 

The original navigation firom Lynn Regis to Standgnmnd 
Sluiee, near Peterborough, was carried teem Salter's Lode 
Sluice, through Well Creek and the Nene, to Flood's Ferry, 
and thence through Ramsay, Ugg, and Whittlesea Meres, 
a passage at all times tedious, and often difficult and dan- 
gerous. In 1 754 an act was passed ibr improviug this navi- 
gation, and a new line was made from Salter's Lmo through 
Well Cieek to the town of Outwell, thence through the Old 
Nene or Wisbeach River by Upwell and March to Flood*s 
Ferry, and thence to Ramsav High Lode. A cut was also 
then made from Outwell to Wisbeach, and the navigation 
of the Nene from Wisbeach to Peterborough was improved, 
by which means a safe navigation was provided from Lynn 
Regis to Peterborough by Outwell, Wisbeach, and Ghiy- 
him. 

By ftur the greatest and most effectual modem improve- 
ment in the draining and navigation of these fens has been 
eompleted under acts passed in 1827 and 1829 for improving 
the outfall of the river Nene, for the drainage of the lands 
discharging their waters into the Wisbeach River, for im- 
proving tiM navigation of the Wisbeach River from the 
upper end of Kinderley's Gut to the sea, and for embanking 
the salt marshes lying between Kinderley*sCut and the sea. 
The act of 1829 amended and enlarged the powers granted 
in 1 827. Under these acts a new tidal channel has been cut 
Ibr the discharge of the waters of the Nene into the sea. 
This channel begins at Kinderiey*8 Cut, near Buckworth 
Sluice, about six miles below Wisbeach, and extends to Crab- 
hole in Lincolnshiva, a distance of six miles and a half; thence 
the river has shaped for itself a natural channel, about 
a mile and a half long, into the Wash. The ex<^vation 
of this channel was begun in 1827, and finished in June, 
1830, when the old channel was closed, and the water rush- 
ing into the new one carried away the earth at the bottom 
with so much force as to giw to the channel ten or twelve 
Ibet greater depth than had already been given by manual 
labour. The ndea of the diannel wero then secured by a 
thii^ lining of stones. The whole course of this new cut is 
through quicksands of the lightest and least cohesive na- 
tare St any on tlm part of the coast. The width of Uie 
ehannel at bottom is 140 fret at Kinderley's Cut, and at 
about half ito length, at Seates Comer, 200 feet The sur- 
hee width varies from 200 to 800 feet. The depth, mea^ 
mrio^ from the turfaee of the adjacent land to the bed of 
the nver, is about 24 feet throughout. The spring*tide 
rises about 22 feet at the end nearest to the sea, and 18 feet 
at the junction with Kinderley's Cut. A bridge has been 
thrown over this channel at Sutton Wash, about eight miles 
below Wisbeach, and an embuikment has been made a mile 
and a half in length across the sands, forming a new line of 
nad between Norfolk and Lincolnshire, in place of the 
former dangerous ford through a tidaJ nstuary, or the very 
eireuitoiis route through Wisbeaoh. 

Nearly 1500 acres of marsh lands have been reclaimed 
from the sea, by embankments made under the acts of 
1827 and 1829, and are now (1835) nearly all under cul. 
ttvatam : about 6000 acres more are rapidly coming to a fit 
■tate for ineksuiw. 

The old channel aflbrded only a tedious and dangerous 
passage, and that too at spring tides, and with a favourable 
wind to vessels of about sixty tons burden, drawing about 
six feet water. The new channel affords a safe and unio- 
terrupted communication between Wisbeaoh and the sea at 
all variations of the tide, and in all weathers, for vessels of 
the above burden, and at spring tides for ships of much 
laiver dimensions. 

Wisbeach is the emporium for a large part of the counties 
of Cambridge, Norfolk, Lincoln, and Northampton, and the 
advantages of this improved communication are conse- 
quently very great; but by for the most important effects 
which are expected to follow from this extensive under- 
taking will result from the judicious system of draining the 
north level, which there is no doubt wiU be imitated with 
aqually good dfocts in the other levels. 

In eonseqnence of the more rapid diseharge through this 
new channel— the Nene Outfall— the danger of inundation 
fxom a breach of embankment is greatly diminished, as 
regards the fens on each side of the Nene, between Peter- 
* "ough and Wisbeach, and the value of the adjacent 
is much increased. lu efficiency for draining the 
may be appreciated by the fact, that the tide in this 



new ehannel ^bba out nearly Im foei. lower thai U 4id ia 
the old channel, immediately opposite to the Seulk HoQanl 
and North Level Sluioea, (both below Wisbeach,) vhi«h an 
the outlets for the waters of about 1 00,000 acres of flm land. 
Means are thus afforded for obtaining a perfoet draiiiaei 
for the whole tract of marsh and fon land lying betMaa the 
Nene and Welland, which hitherto has been only imper- 
feotly drained. 

A new sluice hat been oonstmeled for tbaoudat of the 
waters of the North Level into die Nene OatfalL and hU 
eight feet deeper than the sluice by which it IbraMriy 
drained into the Old Rmr Channel. The width of tbo 
water-way of the old sluice was seventeen foet; tlie widU 
of the new sluice is thirty-six feet, and a new nuia drain ba^ 
been formed, leading to this duioe from Clow a Croaa. il 
which point all the waters of the North Level are oolleeta^ 
This diradn commences and terminates nearty at the suae 
points as the Old Shire Drain* for which it is anbaiiluted : 
It is only eight miles and a (quarter long, about tw«-thirdA 
of the length of the former dram, but it is eight feet deeper, 
and its capacity, taken in corresponding sectiona, is more thsa 
six times as great: it has a descent from Cknr'a Cn^ol 
four inches per mile. From Clows Crass two new drains 
diverge in mffnent lines ; one of them, called Oie Jicw 
South-eau, is much straighter and wider than the Old 
South-eau, which it is intended to replace ; the New Wryife 
proceeds first in a curve, and then in a straight line to tl^e 
counter drain. These outs possess a auperiority over the 
old ones, fully equal to that stated in the eonpariaon madt 
between Old Shire Drain and the New Main Drain. Ail 
these drains may be navigated, and will affimd a mndi 
readier means of transit & gooda, than any hitherto p«- 
sessed by the districts through whidi they pass. 

The works just described as having been eseeated undw 
the acts of 1827 and 1 829, were begun in 1828, and are war 
(1835) completed. The Nene Outfoll was made at the can 
of 200,000/., and the drainage of the North LeveU for whsk 
the Act was obtained in 1830, oceasioned a fuither outlay (tf 
150,000iL The great supporter of both these uaefril under 
takings was the present Duke of Bedford, who carried then 
through with much patience and perseverance, under cir- 
cumstances that would have discouraged a peracn of km 
staadv purpose, and one who could not look fiwward with 
confidence to future advantage rather than praaent gim. 
In this conduct he was ably supported by the axertioMfll 
hia confidential friend W. 6. Aoam, Esq., the aeoouataat- 
general. But even they could not have earned tKi»in mta 
effect without the scientific knowledge, great seal and sc* 
tivity, and incessant labour which were displayed by Mr. 
Tycho Wing, his Grace's intelligent and able loal agent* 
the third of his name who in succession have managed tkat 

Sroperty of the Rusadl family, and have enabled them to 
irect their influence to the continual improvement of tbis 
district. 

Various auxiliary means have been used for the oosapkte 
drainage of the Level In many parts windinilla have beca 
erected for raising and carrying oflf the water through a 
safe channel, and more recently steam-engines have beea 
employed for the same purpose. But the late improvwmenu 
have rendered windmills and steam-engines imneeeaaaiy ta 
the North Level, and if equal skill and enterprise were em- 
ployed in draining the other levels, all the waters of these 
marshes might find an outfall with equal focility. 

(Sir Jonas Moore's History qf the Bedford Lnxi. 
Colonel Dodson's DeHgn /or the perfect Draining of tU 
Great Level qf the Fens called iie^ord Level i Bum--* 
Brief Relation as to the Practicability, <ft;. qf draining th* 
Level of the Fens; Dugdale's History qf Embanktn^ oni 
DraininM, ^. ; Carter's History of the County if Cam- 
bridge ; Lysonss Magna Britannia ; Priestlev's Hi*tur%c4i 
Account qf navigable Rivers, Canals^ ^, ; Afetnotr <if tke 
Nene Outfall and the North Level Drainage, printed t«r 
(private) distribution on the occasion of the public kiiipectMA 
of those works, 2drd May, 1834.) 

BEDFORDSHIRE, an inland county of EnKlatid. cl 
very irregular shape. It lies between 51° 49' and 6i l\ 
N. lat, and 0° 8' and 0° 41' W. long. It is bounded on the 
N.B. by Huntinsdonshiie, and on the N.W.hv Northump- 
tonshire; on theE. by Cambridgeshire, on the \V.an<i S,\V. 
by Buckinghamshire, and on the S.E. and S. li> Ilcrtf«»rtl- 
shire. lu greatest length is 36^ miles, mc^asureU nearli 
N. and S., and its greatest breadth is 22^ uides, n&ea&un j 
nearly £. and W. Bedford, the county town, is actuated 



fi BO 



149 



89 



flIioM m teanely of any use but u rabUt wanens, al- 
though lome of them have been hroaght into cultivation. 
Along the river Ivel* in the iwrishes of Tingrith, Fletwick. 
Westoning, Hitton, Maulden, &c, a considerable quantity 
•of ferruginous peat is found. 

From this brief sketch it will be seen that there is scarcely 
any county of which the soil is so diversified, and where ex- 
periments on the best mode of cultivatinff various soils 
could be made with more advantage. With uie well-known 

Kitronage of the Dukes of Bedford, especially ef the late 
uke Francis, and other large proprietors, and the example 
of their stewards and immediate tenants, one would expect 
a greater progress in the science and practice of agriculture 
■than will be found in the county in general on careful 
jexomination. Many improvements have, no doubt, been 
introduced since the county has been more generally in- 
closed, which eottld not be expected while the system of 
common fields precluded any deviation from the esta- 
blished rotations of crops; but much yet remains to be 
done before the eounty of Bedford can vie with the eastern 
maritime counties, from the Thames to the Humber, in 
the cultivation of the land, or in the management of 
Qtoek. The poor, cold clays, which form a considerable 
portion of the soil of this county, a9 they are cultivated 
at presenti give no great return to the farmer. The chief 
.produce is com, and it requires much labour and expense 
to obtain a very moderate crop. This, together with the 
gradual depreciation in the value of com when compared 
with stock, makes the rents very low. Most of the land 
north of Bedford does not let for above 10#. an acre, and 
•some as low as 6f ., in spite of considerable expense incurred 
by proprietors in fencing and making ditches, an essential 
improvement on this kind of soil. That a better system 
could be adopted there can be no doubt, but old prejudices 
interfere with the better management of cold, wet clays ; 
and while poor light soils, formerly considered as nearly 
liarron, have been greatly improved by the introduction of 
turnips and the profit on sheep, the poor days are still 
managed nearly in the same manner as they were a century 
ago ; and many practical and intelligent men imagine, that 
no new method can be adopted with any chance of success. 
The chief cause of this Is, perhaps, the difficidty of convert- 
ing such soils into good pasture after having been once 
broken up ; but this difficulty, however real, is not insur- 
mountable. 

On this subject we must refer the reader to the article 
Ora.s8*i,and, in which the principles of this important part 
•of agriculture will be discussed. In the account of the agri- 
culture of Bbrwickshirs, also, some useful practical ex- 
amples are given. 

It must ^ acknowledged by all those who are interested 
in the letting of land, that there is a great difficulty at pre- 
sent in finding responsible tenants, with sufficient capital, 
who are inclined to take a fiirm consisting chiefly of heavy 
and cold arable land, however low the rent may be ; and 
that, when a tenant is tempted by a very reduced rent to 
lake such a farm, he is soon discouraged and repents of his 
bargain: wheieas light lands, however poor, upon which 
turnips can be made to grow, and sheep can be kept, soon 
find nspeotable tenants. 

In the light lands the system is well established, and nothing 
is required but to follow the regular course of crops, and pay 
some attention to the sheep ; the crops are less precarious, 
and the weather does not so often interfere with the oommon 
operations of husbandry. Hence it is that the chief im- 
provements have been made in the sandy soils ; and it will 
require some new impulise to agricultural speculations to en- 
gage either proprietors or tenants to adopt an improved sys- 
tem on the wet clays. But, even according to the old system 
of fallowing and cropping, the clay soils in Bedfordshire are 
not cultivated in the most approved manner, as will be seen 
by comparing the usual operations with those on similar 
soils in Essex and Suflblk. The old method in Bedfordshire, 
which is still continued by many farmera, was to fallow the 
Ivid every third year, and as by this system there was no 
means of raising a sufficient quantity of manure to dress 
tho land (allowed, recourse was had to the folding of sheep. 
This system was well adapted to situations where ample 
commons gave the means of keeping the sheep at a small 
expense; but where such commons have been inclosed, 
and the sheep must neccasarilv be maintained on the farm, 
It IS evident that, unltis food tor the sheep be raised on the 
field OD which they are folded, one part of the farm is 



't » 



robbed to oniicb tb9 other; and tl)e duu89 daii» to t". 
sheep by folding them on cold, wet clays in xunj wea.chi 
is probably not oompenftated bv the good which their xnar. . : 
does to the following crop. The manner, also, in which t: 
fallows are treated is not perfect. The old custom vi .i^ : 
give only three plougbings, which had distinct oanicb : i 
first was called the fallow, the second ^/trr}»^>and the th ; 
laying up. There seems to have been a prejudice a^u.. 
frequent ploughing of stiff ^oil, and the drag or hair < * 
were not much \x»ei. This is very different &m the (t. 
tice on stiff soils in the county of Essex, where they Dt.% 
think they can plough enough. (See Bachelor^s Survt-y 
Baffordihire, p. 329.) 

The usual rotation was, fir^t a fallow, of wbicb as tn*. 
as could be folded over with sheep was sown with whc .: 
the remainder was slightly manured, and sown with bar! . \ 
The seoond crop was beans or oats ; and ^n the lax\d t _• 
•0 foul and exhausted as to require another summer f4iJ.. . 
Better rotations have been introduced since the comu. : 
fields have been divided and inclosed ; but the old u.. . 
faulty system, under which the ancestors of the present r-. . 
Uved comfortably, ^nd. at low rents, is looked back tu I \ 
many as superior to those which have been introdu 
since. The great fault lies in the want of balance ik 
tween the land tilled for com, and that which is devoid ' 
press or green crops for cattle. Some farms are mauuj - 
w a scientific manner, but the example has not been vi: . 
generally followed. 

There are a few meadows along the course of the ri^ ^ % 
Ivel and Ouse which are occasionally flooded. Where i.a 
subsoil is gravelly and porous, the herbase is goyd ^i : 
abundant ; where it is composed of clay, and there is wa i 
very ready channel for the water to run off, the hcrbe^*. ^ 
coarse and full of rushes. These meadows might be m. . 
improved by banks and sluices judiciously placed. In i^ 
Other part of the county is there much good grass-land, a \ . 
spots near the larger towns excepted. It has been urge*:. .• 
a reproach to the soil of the county, that there was no p >- 
ture in it that would fotten a bullock. Whether this be - 
reot or not> it is certain that no such riidi grass is to be fo ^. i, 
as may be seen in some of the richer grasing districts. 

There is nothing remarkable in the cattle and sheep .i 
this county, there being no indigenous breeds of e.:l.-.:. 
The oows are of every imaginable nreed; and as there: :,-. 
few extensive dairies, except some about Ampthill, no p- :- 
ticular breed is kept so pure as to deserve a name. S . . t 
few individuals have taken pains to introduce choice cat' : 
but these are exceptions ; and, in general, the few o ^ . 
that are fatted are lx)ught of drovers at the different u -- 
and are chietly Soots, Welsh, and short-horns. The s.i"* ; 
are mostly Leicesters and South-downs, which have ne-' 
superseded the old horned breed formerly kent; for alt ho. _! 
these were mpre hardy, and suffered less n:om folding ' 
cold wot land, the improved breeds are much more pr....- 
able, especially in inclosed fields. 

Formerly there were many rabbit- wanena on the p. r 
light, grey sandSf as this was considered the only mc. ^ 
of deriving any prp^t from so poor a soil. Most of tii>> 
have been converted into farms, whether with much a • 
vantage in general we will not say, but in some a.- ^ 
with a decided improvement; and rabbits are now co\- 
sidered more as a nuisance to the adjoining lands, t.i.* 
as a source of profit. An attemot was made latel\ ' 
breed tame rabbits, and to fat them tor the London marCi i> 
with food raised purposelv for them. Many thousands vit : 
kept on this plan by Mr. Fisher, in buildings raised -^'i 
purpose near Ampthill, but the speculation did not an>» r. 
and the establishment was broken up. Whether t'..> 
species of industry might not be profitable to oottasers c : 
small scale, is a subject worthy of experiment, rhe ch. ' 
thing to be attended to in feeding rabbits fs clMuUtne&s 4- . 
air; and from their prolific nature, and the value of ::•: 
skin and flesh of the best sorts, it is highly probable ti.tu 
with good management, a considerable profit mi^ht be m .<. 
from them. The pigs reared and fatted in Bedfordshire ^ - 
mostly of the Berkshire and Suffolk breeds, but no ^a^ 
pains are taken to keep up their distinguishing Qualities, r : 
they are often crossed very ii^judiciou^y. No animal «ar. ■« 
more in iu quahties than the pig, and the different br<» .^ 
have only one point in common, £at of bein^ proUfio. 1 : 
qualities of fattening early, and on a small Quantity of f ^ *. 
belong only to very improved breeds, whioa are not kti: 
sufficiently distinct in tois county. 



BED 



144 



B B D 



till Castle, which stood in the park of Ampthill House, was 
the residence of Catherine of Aragon, queen of Henry VIII. 
while the business of her divorce was pending. The site of 
the castle is marked by a cross erected in 1 773 by the Earl 
of Upper Ossory, who then possessed the domain. AVith 
Ampthill Park is united Houghton Park, in which are the 
remains of Houghton House, built hy the Countess of Pem- 
broke, sister of Sir Philip Sidney. There is an alms-house 
for a reader, twelve poor men, and four poor women, about a 
mile from Ampthill. Divisional or petty sessions are held 
at Ampthill every alternate Thursday. 

Harrold, antiently Horwolde or Harwood (Tanner's Not, 
Mon.), or Harles-wood. (Fuller's Worthies of England.) 
This small town is not upon any main road, its distance 
from London cannot, thereforeybe accurately given, but it is 
about 9 miles N.W. of Bedford. (Jeffery*s Map of Bed' 
fordshire,) Its market, which is on Thursday, is little 
more than nominal, and the only branch of manufacture 
carried on in the place is that of lace. There is a bridge 
over the Ouse with a long causeway. The parish church is 
adorned with a handsome Gothic spire. The hving is a 
vicarage in the gift of the Earl de Grey. Harrold had once 
a small priory, built in the reign of Stephen, first both for 
canons and nuns of the order of St. Nicholas of Arrouasia, 
hut afterwords it consisted only of a prioress, and three or 
four nuns of the order of St. Augustin. At the Dissolution 
ts total income was 47/. 3s. 2(L, its clear income 40/. 18«. 2d. 
The site was granted in 1644 to William Lord Parr. (Tan- 
ner's Not. Mon.) The priory is now a farm-house, the pro- 
perty of Earl de Grey. The only part of the conventual 
buildings which remains is the refectory, now a barn called 
the Hall Bam. 

Shefford is 41 miles from London, and 9 from Bedford. 
It is on the road between these two, and on the river Ivel. 
Besides a market on Friday, it has four fairs, the two first 
(on the 23rd of January and Easter Monday) are con- 
siderable marts for sheep and cows. It is a parochial cha- 
pelry ; the chapel has been lately much enlarged. There is 
also an endowed Catholic chapel. The navigation of the 
Ivel commences here. Robert Bloomfield the poet died 
here in 1823. At Chicksands near Shefibrd was a priory of 
Gilbertines, founded about a.d. 1150, by Pain de Beau- 
champ and Roais his wife. Its gross yearly value at the 
Dissolution was 230/. Zs. 4e/., the clear yearly value, 
SI 2/. 3<. bd. (Tanner's Not. Mon,) The site was granted 
to IL Snow, from whom it came to die Osbom family. The 
present residence of the Osboms retains much of the mo- 
nastic appearance, and indeed consists in part of the remains 
of the conventual buildings ; this house contains some valu- 
able portraits. 

Toddington is between Dunstable and Ampthill, about 
5 miles from Dunstable, and 38 or 39 from London, nearly 
7 miles from Ampthill, and nearly IS from Bedford. The 
market, which a century and a half ago was one of the most 
considerable in the county, has been discontinued, and the 
market-house pulled down : it has five fairs. The (^thic 
church contains some antient monuments in its north and 
south transepts : but these transepts, as well as the monu- 
ments in them, are in a very dilapidated state. A curious 
ftiezo of grotesque animals runs under the eaves of the 
ehurch roof There was an hospital at Toddington, founded, 
in the time of Henry VI., in honour of John the Baptist, by 
John Broughton. It was for a warden, being chaplain, and 
three poor men. (Tanners iVo/. Afoii.) There is a Wesleyan 
meeting-house at Toddington. 

Divisions for Ecclesiastical and Legal Punoses.'-The 
number of parishes in this county has been already given 
as 1 24, but this will not represent the number of benefices, 
for several of these have been consolidated. Some of these 
eonsolidations are of recent date. Messrs. Lysons {Magna 
Britannia) stote, that of 121 parishes (they probably omit 
the three that are partly in other counties) 63 are vicarages, 
the great tithes of which were formerly, with few excep- 
tions, appropriated to religious houses, and are now in lay 
hands. 

l*he county is in the diocese of Lincoln, and is under the 
jurisdiction of the archdeacon of Bedford. It is divided into 
•ix rural deaneries, viz., Bedford, Clapham, DuusUble, 
Baton, Fleete, and Shefibrd. 

It is in the Norfolk circuit The assizes and sessions are 

held at Bedford, which is also the chief place for the election 

of the two mamben for the county. The other polling places 

county m, Shunhrook in the north, Biggleswade in 



the east, Leighton Busiatd in the south-west, Lnton in the 
south, and Ampthill. Besides the two oounty memhertt. tvu 
are returned for the borough of Bedford. 

Civil History and Antiquities. — At the time of the 
Roman invasion, Bedfordshire appears to have formed port 
of the territory of the Cattieuchlani ; a people conjeeturfsd 
by Camden to he the same as the Cassii. mentioned br 
CfsDsar among the tribes who submitted to him during hi^ 
second invasion of the island. In common with the other 
inhabitants of South Britain they fell under the Roman do- 
mination. Three roads, which may he referred to thin peric<l 
or a still more antient one, crossed this county, mnd se^erd 
camps or earth works still remain. Of the roads, the Wat- 
ling Street runs in a north-west direction, and coincides in this 
county with the high road from London through Dunstable 
and Fenny Stratfo^ (Bucks) to Coventry. It was, probablT. 
of British origin, though used and improved by the Romans 
who had on it their station of Durooobrivs (Antoninus), or 
Forum DianoD (Richard of Cirencester), now Dunetahle. The 
Ikening or Ikeneld Street, also of British origin, runs ini 
south-west direction through Dunstable. The third road, a 
Roman military road, coincides with the present high noitk 
road from near Baldock to the vicinity of Big^leswa&, where 
the modern road makes a bend, while the antient one pursset 
a more direct course through Tempsfbrd Marsh or Cow Com- 
mon into Cambridgeshire. It is supposed that s Romaa 
road from the Isle of Ely to Cambridge led from the 
latter place through Bedforashire towards Fenny StrmtforL 
On the edge of a low range of the Chiltems at liaidea 
Bower, near Dunstable, are the remains of a British station 
or town. These remains consist of a vallum, nearly cir- 
cular, thrown up on a level plain, and inclosing a space of 
about nine acres. The banks are firom eight to fourteen 
feet high. There is no ditcb on the south side, and on the 
south-west and west only a very small one ; on the north- 
west is a descent to the meadows. Some have assigned lo 
this work a Saxon or Danish origin. About a mile west- 
ward of this is another remarkable earth-work, called To- 
ternhoe Castle. It consists of a lofty circular nxmnt, with a 
slight vallum round its base, and a larger one of an inegubr 
form at some distance from it On the south-east side of 
this is a camp, in the form of a parallelogram, about 500 feet 
long, and 250 feet wide (the length extending ftuna north- 
west to south-east), secured on three sides by a vallum anj 
ditch (very entire on the south-east side), and piotected oo 
the fourth (the south-west) side hy a precipitous desceoL 
The irregular work is supposed to have been of British, sod 
the parallelogram of Roman origin. At or near the villace 
of Sandy, or Salndy, about three miles north of Biggleswade, 
is supposed to have been the British or Roman town called 
XaXiivM by Ptolemy, and Salinas in the Choragraphy of 
the anonymous geographer of Ravenna. A hme Roman 
camp (once perhaps a British post), called populany Cssar'ft 
Camp, may be traced in the immediate vicinity of this 
place. It is of irregular form, being adapted to the summit 
of the hill, and incloses about thirty acres. There are cir- 
cular inclosures of earth on the heath near Leighton Buuanl 
and at about four miles east of Bedford near the toad to 
Great Barford and Eaton-Socon. The last is small, but o( 
considerable height, with openings on the north and south 
sides, resembling an amphitheatre. 

In the contest maintained hy the Britons against thesr 
Saxon invaders, and again by the Saxons against the en- 
croachments of the Danes, Bedfordshire appears to hare 
been the scene of violent contest At Bedford a haule wt> 
fought in 571, 572, or 580, between Cutha, or Cnthwulf. 
brother of Ceaulin, or Cealwin, King of the West 6axMi&. 
and the Britons : in which the latter were routed, «nd lost, 
in consequence of their defeat, four principal towns, one of 
which was Lygeanburgh, supposed to be Leighton in this 
county. Yet although this success was gained by Uie West 
Saxons, the county was comprehended in the subaeouentlj 
formed kingdom of Mercia, founded by a body of AngW$. 
Offa, King of the Mercians, is said to have been buried at 
Bedford ; but his sepulchre was carried away by an inunda- 
tion of the Onse. In the Danish wars Bedford suffered 
severely, having indeed been ruined hy those fierce invaders ; 
but it was repaired by Edward the Elder, son and successor 
of Alfred the Great The same prince afterwards hesieevd 
and took Temesford, now Tempafotd, which the Danes had 
fortified. In 1009 and 1010, during the war between 
Ethehed II. and Swevn, King of Denmark, the Danes in- 
vaded this oounliy. In the latter of these yeaa thew bunt 



An B 



oi'ilcla BaoroBo. 

It U Hippooed that all the other bBroniul castles in tlie 
county of any uole had been destroyed in iha reign of John 
and it ii pernara owing to this that we read of so few occur 
leiicca in Bed&nlshirs during tba civil war of the Roses. 
This county was the scene of few conspicoous events during 
the civil war between Charles I. and his parliament. 

Bedfordshire possbssed several monastic establishments. 
There were ais 'greater monasteries,' i. e. monasteries pos- 
F««i»ing above 200/. clear yearly revenue at the time of the 
Di->suIution : viz., Elatow Abbey, near Bedford, for Bene- 
diciiiie nuns, founded in the time of WilUam the Conqueror 
bv his niere Judith; gross yearly income 325/. 3». Iff., clear 
nicoma 2Bii. iiX-Wd. Dunstable Priory, for Black Canons, 
was founded by King Henry I. in the latter part of his 
reiun ; at the Dissolution the gross revenuawas iOZl.Ms. 7d., 
and the clear revenue Mil. I3a. 3d. per annum. Wardon, 
or Warden, otherwise De Sartia Abbey (Warden, once a 
m.-irket Utvn, is to the right of the road to Bedford, between 
Sheflord and that town), was founded b^ Walter Espec, 
ill 1135, for Cistercian monks ; at the Dissolution it had 
A-lil. lit. lid. gross, or 3S9^ 16>. 6d. clear yearly revenue. 
Wobum Abtiey and Chickaands Priory, near Sheflbrd, have 
been already noticed. Newenham Priory, near Bedfbrd, 
%vas founded in the time of Henry II. by Simon Beauchamp, 
»lio removed bitber a priory of Black Canons from St. 
I'iiul's, Bedford ; the gross yearly revenue of Newenham 
Pi'iury at the Dissolution was 3i3l. ISf. Sd., the clear re- 
venue 293/. 5(. Ud. There were many minor establish' 
incnia, priories, nunneries, hospitals, &c 

or these monastic establishments there are no consider- 
able remains, except of Dunstable Priory, Elstow Abbey, 
Newenham and Cnicksand'a Priory, the last of which has 
been already noticed. The parish churches of Dunstable 
and Elstow were the conventual churches ; indeed Dun- 
stable church is only the nave of the original structure. 
These exhibit the Norman intermingled with the early 
Enjjlish style of a rchi lecture. 

Among the parochial chnrches of this county ara Mnw 
relics of early architecture. The naveofPudington church, 
in the north-west extremity of the county, has the semi- 
circular arch and ligiag moulding characteristic of the 
Norman, or, as some call it, the Saxon style : the same 
stylo is also conspicuous in the south door of St. Peter's at 
Bedford, and in the doors of the churches at Elstow, Flit- 
wiek, and a chapel at Meppenhall. The early English 
is to be traced in the churches of Felmersham. on the 
Ousc, not far below Harrold; Eaton Bray and Studham, 
lyith in the southern extremity of the county ; Barton in 
the Clay, between Luton and Bedfbrd; Leighton Buz- 
zard ; and, though in a small degree, Luton. The deco- 
rated English style, which prevailed in the fourteenth century 
and succeeded the early English, is to bo traced in Low 
SundonandAmptbill churches; in St. Paul's. Bedford; in 
StUoc Chape), and in some ehurolios already mentioned. 
Diirntable, Leighton Buzzard and Luton churcboi are por- 
haiH the best deserving of examination of any in the county. 

it does not appear that there are any remains of baronial 
c'lL^iIcs in Bedfordshire, except the ewth works which mark 
their sites, and which may be observed at Bedford, Eaton- 
Sncnn, and other places. 

Kdaeation, Sehoolt, ^. — The parliamentary papers of 
1820 ewbibit a return of the state of education in this 
county. The return was ordered by the House of Com- 
mons to be printed, April 1, 1819. Tbet« were then forty- 
two endowed schools, exclusive of the Harpur free-sebools at 
Bedl'unl, giving instruction to 2066 children, and possessing 
a revenue of ia*25^. per annum: ofthesetohools four were on 
tlie plan of Bell or Lanoailer, and had in them GSS children. 
or unendowed day-xhoali the letuin wsa as fcdlows : 

Hcluislk Ecliolin. 

National and Lancaiterlan kAiooU ■ 6 319 

Coimnan day- school . . 43 II49 

Dames' schools , . 46 849 



An account of the Harpui charity will be fbund in tbe 
article Bbcforo, 

The free-school at Wobum ig not endowed, but hat 
been supported since 1583, by the niccessive earls and 
dukes of Bedford. The sebool is now on tbe Lancoaterian 
system, and contains ISO boys. The master's stipend (50/. 
per annum) is paid by the Duke of Bedford, who also luepa 
tbe school premises in repair. (Reportt qf th» Commit- 
tioners appointed to inquire info Charitiet.) 

The report of the National Soeiely for promoting 
the Bducation of the Poor, for 1832, gives an account 7f 
the state of education in the county of Bedford, hut the 
account includes only schools connected witii the Church 
of England ; and it is ftirther incomplete from the circum- 
stance, that fh>m thirty-nine parishes or parochial chapel- 
lies no return bad been made. The account states, Uiat 
there were forty-three Sunday and daily schoola, and flftj- 
two schools held on Sunday only. In schoola of the former 
kind 1287 boys and 12S4 girls were instructed; and in 
those of tbe latter kind 1771 boys and 1957 girls ; making 
a total of 3038 boys and 3211 girls, or 6269 children. The 
population of the county in 1831 was 95,383. 

Popidation. — Bedfordshire b the most purely agricultural 
county in England, having the smallest proportional number 
of inhabitants engaged in manufax^ures and trade. Indeed, 
it can hardly be said that the county contains any persona 
engaged in manubctures. At the census of 1B3I it was 
found that thirty-eight males above twenty yean of age 
were so employed, but these few persons might with equal 
propriety have been included among the class engaged in 
trade or handicraft, their employment being for the most 

£art that of straw-platting. Bedfordshire is one of the vei7 
9W counties which has maintained, relatively to other 
eountiea, the same position as regards the employment of 
the people at each of the enumerations of 1811, 1831, and 
1831. The proportions in which the inhabitants were em- 
ployed at e"cn of those dates were as follows : 

1811. lesi. 1831. 



Ag»ul,„« . 'S«} 


(3-1 


61-9 


56-8 


Trade, manufacturer Sw. „ 


27-9 


87-8 


25-7 


Other classes . „ 


9* 


10-3 


17-5 



The proportions for all England were : — 

Agriculture . „ 34-7 33- 27-7 

Trade, manufactures, &C. „ 45'9 47'S 43'1 

Other classes . „ 19-4 19-4 29-2 



Tbe diminution in the proportion of hmilies in Bedtbrd- 
shire engaged in agriculture in 1831 was not sufficiently 
great to place the county in this respect after any other. 

The population of Bedfordshire at each of tbe four enu- 
merations made in tbe present century was as foUows : 
63,393 

70,213 inemw 10-75 percenL 
83,716 „ 19-23 » 

95,483 „ 13-93 „ 

increase in the eouiw of thirty years of 32,090 
souls, or 50^ per cent. 
The oget of the population were ascertained in 1831, at 
hich time there were in Bedfordihire> 





Milu. 


PtBudo. 


ToUI. 


Under 20 y